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Startseite - Facility Management Forum - Lexikon wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
 

Lexikon wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexikon wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Hallo,
im Anhang im Aufbau mein Privates FM Lexikon.Wer kann mich Ergänzungen UNTERSTüTZEN(Links,Tips,etc.)event. auch in Englisch,Französisch.
Vielen Dank im voraus
Thomas Lüscher

Begriff Definition
Abschlussbuchung
Die für den kassenmäßigen Abschluss und die Haushaltsrechnung sowie die Vermögensrechnung des abgelaufenen Haushaltsjahres noch erforderlichen Buchungen einschließlich der Übertragungen in das folgende Haushaltsjahr, ausgenommen die Buchungen von Einzahlungen und Auszahlungen von Dritten oder an Dritte und der Sondervermögen mit Sonderrechnung.

Abschreibung
Wertmäßige Erfassung der tatsächlichen Abnutzung von betriebsnotwendigen Anlagen und Aufteilung auf die einzelnen Jahre entsprechend der Nutzung. Abschreibungen sind kalkulatorische Kosten in der Kostenrechnung.

Aktiva
Vermögen eines Unternehmens, bestehend aus Anlagevermögen und Umlaufvermögen.

ALB
Abkürzung für "Automatisiertes Liegenschaftsbuch" Enthält die beschreibenden Angaben zu jedem Flurstück: Flurstücksnummer und Eigentümer in Übereinstimmung mit dem Grundbuch, Flächengrößen, Straßennamen sowie Hausnummern, öffentlich-rechtliche Festlegungen wie z.B. Natur- und Wasserschutzgebiete, Altlasten und vieles mehr.

ALK
Abkürzung für "Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte" Enthält grundsätzlich alle Informationen der analogen Liegenschafts-(Kataster-)Karte mit wesentlich mehr Komfort und höherer Genauigkeit. Die Informationen sind in Objekte strukturiert und in verschiedene Ebenen abgelegt; so kann z.B. auf Flurstücke, Gebäude und Nutzungsarten gezielt zugegriffen werden.

Allgemeinfläche
Alle Raumflächen innerhalb eines Flächenbereiches, die keinem speziellen Nutzerbereich zugeordnet sind. Diese Fläche wird den einzelnen Nutzerbereichen bzw. Mietflächen nach einem bestimmten Schlüssel zugeordnet.

AMEV
Abk. für "Arbeitskreis Maschinen- und Elektrotechnik staatlicher und kommunaler Verwaltungen"

Der Arbeitskreis Maschinen- und Elektrotechnik staatlicher und kommunaler Verwaltungen (AMEV) ist ein Fachgremium auf dem Gebiet der Maschinen- und Elektrotechnik. Er hat die Aufgabe, die Bauämter der Länder und Kommunen, und damit das gesamte Bauwesen der öffentlichen Hand, bei Planung, Bau und Betrieb der Technischen Gebäudeausrüstung (TGA) (technisches Facility Management) zu unterstützen. Er veröffentlicht hierzu regelmäßig Empfehlungen, die auf den Anerkannten Regeln der Technik basieren, beispielsweise zu Planung, Bau und Betrieb von Brandmelde- oder Kälteanlagen.
Die Empfehlungen des AMEV sind im Bereich der öffentlichen Verwaltung in der Regel verbindlich, soweit nicht verwaltunginterne Regelungen wie Erlasse oder Verwaltungsvorschriften Gegenteiliges vorsehen.

Amortisation
Wiedergewinnung einer Investition: Die Anschaffungsausgaben werden durch finanzielle Vorteile (Erlöse oder im Verwaltungsbereich auch Einsparungen) in der Folgezeit mindestens ausgeglichen.

Analyse
Untersuchung und Ordnung von Informationen. Oft verbunden mit einer Handlungsempfehlung für die Zukunft.

Anlagekapital
Das für das Anlagevermögen von kostenrechnenden Einrichtungen gebundene Kapital (Anschaffungs- oder Herstellungskosten abzüglich der Abschreibungen).

Anlagenbuchhaltung
In der Anlagenbuchhaltung sind sämtliche Bestandsinformationen über die inventarisierten Anlagengegenstände enthalten. Das Verzeichnis dient der Berechnung des jährlichen Werteverzehrs und der damit verbundenen Abschreibung, der Berechnung von Zinsen auf das in diesem Anlagevermögen gebundene Kapital und der vollständigen Erfassung der im Eigentum der Behörde befindlichen Grundstücke und Gebäude, um hierfür auch ein entsprechendes Nutzungsentgelt zu berechnen.

Arbeitsmittel
Arbeitsmittel sind der zentrale Begriff der neuen Betriebssicherheitsverordnung. Alle Arbeitsmittel, die von einem Arbeitgeber bereitgestellt oder von seinen Beschäftigten benutzt werden, fallen unter die grundlegend veränderte Verordnung, die seit dem 3. Oktober 2002 in Kraft ist. § Arbeitsmittel sind Werkzeuge, Geräte, Maschinen oder überwachsbedürftige Anlagen. Sie reichen von Handbohrmaschinen, Gabelstaplern, Aufzügen, Gerüsten, Baukränen, Silos bis zu prozessgesteuerten Anlagen.

ASP
Abk. für Application Service Providing: Unter ASP versteht man die Bereitstellung eines professionell gemanageten Softwarepaketes via Internet. Ermöglicht interessante Alternativen zum Aufbau einer eigenen, kostspieligen Infrastruktur und bietet Zugang zu einer IT-Landschaft, über die hinsichtlich Leistung und Sicherheit sonst nur grosse Konzerne verfügen. Als ASP-Modell wird oft der Ansatz "Software-zur-Miete" via Internet bezeichnet.

Auftragsmanagement
Im Bereich Auftragsmanagement werden Bestellanforderungen angenommen und bearbeitet. Es wird dafür gesorgt, dass die benötigten Waren bzw. Dienstleistungen zum richtigen Zeitpunkt am richtigen Ort (und zur richtigen Zeit) zur Verfügung stehen. Aufträge sind zumeist intern und können in Bestellungen (und damit externe Aufträge) überführt werden.

AVA
Abk. für
Ausschreibung - Vergabe - Abrechnung

BACnet
Ank. für Building Automation and Control Networks
Die Norm definiert eine Reihe von Diensten (Services), die zur Kommunikation zwischen Geräten der Gebäudeautomation verwendet werden. Diese Dienste gliedern sich in verschiedene Gruppen: Gemeinsame Datennutzung, Alarm- und Ereignisverarbeitung, Verarbeitung von Wertänderungen, Geräte- und Netzwerk-Management usw.

Balanced Scorecard
Die 1992 von Robert S. Kaplan und David P. Norton eingeführte Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Konzept zur Messung der Aktivitäten eines Unternehmens im Hinblick auf seine Vision und Strategien, um den Führungskräften einen umfassenden Überblick über die Leistungsfähigkeit und Effektivität der Organisation zu bieten. Das neue Element besteht darin, dass die BSC nicht nur auf die Finanzperspektive fokussiert, sondern auch die menschlichen Aspekte beinhaltet, die die Treiber für die Ergebnisse sind, so dass sich die Organisation auf ihre Zukunft und langfristigen Interessen konzentriert. Aufgrund ihrer flexiblen und damit umfassenden Gestaltungsmöglichkeit ist die Balanced Scorecard ein Instrument zur Einrichtung eines integrierten Managementsystems.
Die Dimensionen der BSC werden sinnvollerweise für jede Organisation individuell festgelegt. Sie umfassen aber praktisch immer die Finanzperspektive und die Kundenperspektive, meist auch die Prozessperspektive und die Potential-, oder Mitarbeiterperspektive.
Über die Kennziffern in der BSC wird es möglich, die Entwicklung dieser Geschäftsvision zu verfolgen. Auf diese Weise ermöglicht die BSC dem Management, nicht nur die finanziellen Aspekte zu betrachten, sondern auch strukturelle Frühindikatoren für den Geschäftserfolg zu steuern. Der Begriff BSC wird irrtümlich für verschiedene Arten von kennzahlenbasierten Systemen verwendet. Die BSC, die eine Ursache-Wirkungs-Analyse verlangt, ist aber eine originär andere Managementmethode als die deskriptive Prozesskostenrechnung oder das klassische monetäre Kennzahlensystem.


Baulast
Zu einer Baulast unterwirft sich ein Grundstückseigentümer freiwillig zugunsten eines Nachbarn. Baulasten werden in das Grundbuch, Abteilung II eingetragen.

Baumaßnahmen
Neu-, Erweiterungs- und Umbauten, aber auch deren Instandsetzung, soweit sie nicht der Unterhaltung baulicher Anlagen dienen.

Bauteilaktivierung
Nutzung von Gebäudeteilen z.B. zur Kühlung oder Heizung mittels Grundwasser oder Solaranlage.

Befähigte Person
Eine befähigte Person ist jemand, der durch seine Berufsausbildung, Berufserfahrung und zeitnahe berufliche Tätigkeit über die erforderlichen Fachkenntnisse für die vorgesehene Sicherheitsprüfung von Arbeitsmitteln verfügt. Der Arbeitsgeber ist verantwortlich für die richtige Auswahl der befähigten Person. Er hat ihr die zur Prüfung erforderlichen Mittel zur Verfügung zu stellen und sie bei der Durchführung der Prüfung zu unterstützen. In bestimmten Fällen dürfen befähigte Personen auch überwachungsbedürftige Anlagen prüfen.

Benchmarking
Vergleich von z.B. Kosten, Leistungen, Prozessen oder Strukturen mit anderen (verwaltungs-) Einheiten oder Kommunen anhand von definierten Kennzahlen oder Standards, um Möglichkeiten der Verbesserung und die dafür erforderlichen Bedingungen zu ermitteln und von anderen zu lernen. Oft verbunden mit einer Art Bestenliste.

Besitz
Der Besitz stellt die tatsächliche Gewalt über eine Sache (z.B. Grundstück) dar, z.B. Nutzer, Pächter, Inhaber. In der Regel fällt Besitz und Eigentum in einer Person zusammen.

Bestandsverzeichnis
Vermögensverzeichnis über bewegliche und unbewegliche Sachen sowie über grundstücksgleiche Rechte, soweit sich die Bestände nicht aus den Anlagenachweisen ergeben.

Betriebskostenmanagement
Verwaltung und Verrechnung aller auf Gebäude, Miet- oder Wirtschaftseinheiten anfallender Kosten.

Betriebssicherheitsverordnung
Die Betriebssicherheitsverordnung (BetrSichV) regelt in Deutschland die Bereitstellung von Arbeitsmitteln durch den Arbeitgeber, die Benutzung von Arbeitsmitteln durch die Beschäftigten bei der Arbeit sowie den Betrieb von überwachungsbedürftigen Anlagen im Sinne des Arbeitsschutzes. Das in ihr enthaltene Schutzkonzept ist auf alle von Arbeitsmitteln ausgehenden Gefährdungen anwendbar. Verordnung über Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Bereitstellung von Arbeitsmitteln und deren Benutzung bei der Arbeit, über Sicherheit beim Betrieb überwachungsbedürftiger Anlagen und über die Organisation des betrieblichen Arbeitsschutzes.

BGF
Die Brutto-Grundfläche ist die Summe der Grundflächen aller Grundrißebenen eines Bauwerkes.

BRI
Der Brutto-Rauminhalt (BRI) ist der Rauminhalt des Baukörpers, der nach unten von der Unterfläche der konstruktiven Bauwerkssohle und im übrigen von den äußeren Begrenzungsflächen des Bauwerkes umschlossen wird.

Browser
Browser, Web-Browser, Webbrowser (z.B. die Software Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox oder Netscape Navigator): Client-Software für den Zugriff auf HTML-Dokumente und andere Internet / Intranet-Ressourcen.

Bruttoprinzip
Wichtiger Haushaltsgrundsatz: Die Einnahmen und Ausgaben sind im Haushaltsplan in voller Höhe und getrennt voneinander zu veranschlagen.

BSC
Abk. für Balanced Scorecard

Budgetierung
Die Budgetierung ist ein Instrument der Planung und beginnt am Ende des Planungsprozesses. Ein Budget beschreibt und enthält die wertmäßigen Größen, mit denen ein bestimmtes Ziel in einer bestimmten Zeit zu erfüllen ist. Wertmäßige Größen können sich dabei auf Kosten oder Ausgaben, Deckungsbeiträge oder ähnliche kostenrechnerischen Steuerungsgrößen, Umsätze oder Leistungen beziehen. Auch hinsichtlich der Verbindlichkeitsgrade kann ein Budget variieren zwischen bloßer Vorgabe, starren Ober- oder Untergrenzen (entsprechend einem Etat) oder der flexiblen Anpassung in Abhängigkeit z. B. der Ausbringungs- bzw. Leistungsmenge.

Budgetmanagement
Verwaltung von Budgetkosten inkl. Kostencontrolling; Frei definierbare Budgets; Überwachung von Schwellwerten; Offenlegung der Finanzströme; Verfügungsermächtigungen; Anbindung an SAP, KIRP, MPS, INFOMA, KIRP, MACH, HÜL,...

CAD
engl., Abk. für
Computer Aided Design

CAFM
engl., Abk. für
Computer Aided Facility Management

Client
Begriff aus dem Netzwerkbereich: ein Client nimmt Dienste in Anspruch, deshalb wird eine an den Server angeschlossene Arbeitsstation als Client bezeichnet. Der Client schickt Anfragen des Benutzers in einem speziellen Protokoll an den Server und stellt dessen Antworten in lesbarer Weise auf dem Bildschirm dar.

Computer Aided Facility Management
Unterstützung des Facility Managements durch die Informationstechnik. Dabei steht die Bereitstellung von Informationen über die Facilities im Vordergrund. Die Werkzeuge des CAFM werden als CAFM-Software, CAFM-Anwendungen oder CAFM-Systeme bezeichnet. Es gibt so genannte integrierte Systeme, die mehrere Funktionen in sich vereinen. Diese Anwendungen werden auch als multifunktionale Systeme bezeichnet. Anwendungen mit nur einer speziellen Funktion werden als monofunktionale Anwendungen bezeichnet.

Concierge
Pförtnerdienst und Anlagenüberwachung

Contracting
Contracting im Facility Management beschreibt die Fremdvergabe von Immobilien-Leistungen an externe Dienstleister durch entsprechende vertragliche Gestaltungen. Es handelt sich dabei in der Regel um die Zusammenfassung verschiedener Verträge mit dem Ziel, eine wirtschaftliche und arbeitstechnische Optimierung der verschiedenen Leistungen im Facility Management zu gewährleisten.

Controlling
Controlling ist ein Instrument zur Unterstützung der politischen und administrativen Führung. Allgemeines Ziel ist die ständige, nicht situative Unterstützung der jeweiligen Führung bei der Vorbereitung und Findung von Entscheidungen. Controlling schließt die drei Teilschritte Planung, Steuerung und Kontrolle ein und ist als ein informatives Rückkopplungssystem zu verstehen, das rechtzeitige Interventionen bei Zielabweichungen erlauben soll.

Corporate Real Estate Management
engl.
Corporate Real Estate Management beschreibt das aktive, ergebnisorientierte strategische wie operative Management von Immobilien - und zwar unabhängig davon, ob sie betriebsnotwendig sind oder nicht.

CREM
engl., Abk. für
Corporate Real Estate Management

CTI
engl., Abk. für
Computer Telephony Integration: Über den Monitor und die Maus des PCs kann das Telefon bequem und schnell bedient werden: z.B. übernimmt der Computer das Wählen, hilft beim Planen von Telefonaten und zeigt beim Klingeln die Daten des Anrufers gleich auf dem Bildschirm an.

Dienstbarkeit
Das deutsche Sachenrecht unterscheidet verschiedene Dienstbarkeiten an Grundstücken: 1. den Nießbrauch als umfassendes Nutzungsrecht 2. die dem jeweiligen Eigentümer eines anderen Grundstücks zustehende Grunddienstbarkeit 3. die einer bestimmten Person zustehende beschränkte persönliche Dienstbarkeit 4. das Dauerwohnrecht und das Dauernutzungsrecht nach § 31 Wohnungseigentumsgesetz.

DIN 276
Kosten im Hochbau sind Aufwendungen für Güter, Leistungen und Abgaben, die für die Planung und Ausführung von Baumaßnahmen erforderlich sind. Die Baukosten setzen sich aus den Kosten für das Bauwerk (reine Baukosten genannt), den Kosten für die Außenanlagen und aus sonstigen Kosten (Baunebenkosten genannt) zusammen. In Bezug auf die Höhe der Baukosten ist deren Ermittlung, in Abhängigkeit von Planungsstand und Baufortschritt, ein wesentlicher Faktor. Die Definitionen sind in der DIN 276 Kosten von Hochbauten festgelegt.

DIN 277
Die DIN-Norm DIN 277 dient zur Ermittlung von Grundflächen und Rauminhalten von Bauwerken oder Teilen von Bauwerken im Hochbau. Die Norm ist insbesondere bei der Flächenermittlung von Gebäuden mit mehreren Nutzungen anzuwenden.
Der Teil 1 der DIN 277 legt die Regeln für die Berechnung von Flächen- und Rauminhalten von Bauwerken fest. Diese Flächen- und Rauminhalte dienen sowohl der Ermittlung der Herstellungskosten von Gebäuden als auch der Ermittlung von Miet- und Kaufpreisen. Sie werden ferner dazu verwendet, die Nutzungsfähigkeit und die Wirtschaftlichkeit verschiedener Gebäude miteinander zu vergleichen. Teil 2 gliedert die in Teil 1 definierte Nutzfläche von Gebäuden nach Gruppen unterschiedlicher Nutzungsarten und gibt Beispiele für die Zuordnung von Räumen und Flächen zu den einzelnen Nutzungsarten. Teil 3 legt die Messgrößen und Bezugseinheiten für Baukostengruppen auf der Grundlage der DIN 276 Kosten im Hochbau fest.

DIN 32736
VDMA 24196 überführt in DIN 32736 Mit der VDMA 24196 \"Gebäudemanagement - Begriffe und Leistungen\" hat die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Instandhaltung Gebäudetechnik (AIG) im VDMA bereits 1996 eine Richtlinie zum Gebäudemanagement erarbeitet und herausgegeben. Das Ziel, die bis dahin mit unterschiedlichen Inhalten verwendeten Begriffe zu vereinheitlichen und die dazugehörenden Leistungen zu beschreiben, wurde erreicht. VDMA 24196 hat sich am Markt erfolgreich durchgesetzt und ist ein anerkannter Standard in der Branche. Im August 2000 ist DIN 32736 unter gleichem Namen erschienen. Basis der neuen DIN-Norm ist die bekannte VDMA 24196, welche sich in ihren wesentlichen Teilen wiederfindet. Das Gebäudemanagement gliedert sich weiterhin in die drei Leistungsbereiche Technisches Gebäudemanagement (TGM), Infrastrukturelles Gebäudemanagement (IGM) und Kaufmännisches Gebäudemanagement (KGM). Da in allen drei Leistungsbereichen flächenbezogene Leistungen enthalten sein können, wurde das \"Flächenmanagement (FLM)\" ergänzend berücksichtigt. Mit der Herausgabe der DIN 32736 wird die VDMA 24196 zurückgezogen. Parallel zur DIN 32736 ist das erläuternde Beiblatt 1 \"Gebäudemanagement - Begriffe und Leistungen - Gegenüberstellung von Leistungen\" erschienen. Es stellt u. a. einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Gebäudemanagement, der Zweiten Berechnungsverordnung (II. BV) und DIN 18960 (Nutzungskosten im Hochbau) her. Das Beiblatt hilft, die unterschiedlichen Leistungen und daraus resultierenden Kosten richtig zuzuordnen und sorgt dadurch bei Vermietern und Mietern für mehr Transparenz bei der Betriebskostenabrechnung.

Doppik
Kaufmännisches Rechnungswesen, bei dem Leistungen und Zahlungen auf getrennten Konten verbucht werden, in Gegensatz zur Kameralistik der öffentlichen Verwaltung.

EBF
Energiebezugsfläche (EBF): Die EBF ist die Summe aller ober- und unterirdischen Geschossflächen, für deren Nutzung ein Beheizen oder Klimatisieren notwendig ist. Die EBF wird brutto, das heisst aus den äusseren Abmessungen einschliesslich begrenzender Wände und Brüstungen berechnet. Bei reinen Wohnbauten entspricht die EBF im Normalfall der für die Ausnützungsziffer verwendeten Bruttogeschossfläche BGF.

Effektivität
Untersucht das Verwaltungshandeln im Hinblick auf seine Wirksamkeit. Im Vordergrund steht, was getan wird, ohne dabei ausdrücklich auf die Art und Weise einzugehen, wie die angestrebten Ziele erreicht werden. Damit verfolgt die Effektivitätsbeurteilung eine auf das grundsätzliche Handeln ausgerichtete und damit eher langfristige Perspektive. Oder anders formuliert: Effektivität heißt, die richtigen Dinge tun.
Effizienz
Untersucht das Amtshandeln im Hinblick auf seine Leistung. Im Vordergrund steht, wie bestimmte Ziele erreicht werden, ohne die Ziele dabei ausdrücklich in Frage zu stellen. Damit verfolgt die Effizienzbeurteilung eine eher kurzfristige, auf direkte Tätigkeiten ausgerichtete Perspektive. Oder anders formuliert: Effizienz heißt, die Dinge richtig tun.

Eigenbetrieb
Wirtschaftliches Unternehmen der Gemeinde ohne eigene Rechtspersönlichkeit, das nach dem Eigenbetriebsrecht geführt wird.

Eigentum
Das Eigentum stellt die allseitige rechtliche Gewalt über eine Sache (z.B. Grundstück) dar, und zwar durch den Eigentümer. In der Regel fällt Eigentum und Besitz in einer Person zusammen.

Eigentümer-Modell
Der Nutzer ist gleichzeitig Eigentümer einer Immobilie. Siehe in Abgrenzung: Mieter-Vermieter-Modell

Einzelkosten
Einzelkosten lassen sich direkt, also verursachungsgerecht, den einzelnen Produkten oder Kostenträgern zurechnen. Das Gegenstück zu den Einzelkosten sind Gemeinkosten, also solche Kosten, die nicht einem Produkt direkt zurechenbar sind.

Energiebezugsfläche
Energiebezugsfläche (EBF): Die EBF ist die Summe aller ober- und unterirdischen Geschossflächen, für deren Nutzung ein Beheizen oder Klimatisieren notwendig ist. Die EBF wird brutto, das heisst aus den äusseren Abmessungen einschliesslich begrenzender Wände und Brüstungen berechnet. Bei reinen Wohnbauten entspricht die EBF im Normalfall der für die Ausnützungsziffer verwendeten Bruttogeschossfläche BGF.

Energieeinsparverordnung - EnEV
Die Regelung faßt die bisherigen Verordnungen über Wärmeschutz und zu den Heizungsanlagen zusammen. Die in der EnEV festgelegten Richtwerte für den Energiebedarf basieren auf der integrierten Betrachtung der Anlagentechnik einerseits und dem Wärmeschutz des Gebäudes andererseits. Damit ist die Verordnung auf eine ganzheitliche Optimierung der Einsparmöglichkeiten auf der Technik- und der Gebäudeseite ausgerichtet. Die Verordnung führt vor allem zu einer Verschärfung der Anforderungen im Neubau. Mit Hilfe neuer Standards soll der zulässige Energiebedarf gegenüber dem früheren Anforderungsniveau um rund 30 Prozent gesenkt werden. Bei bestehenden Gebäuden müssen - ähnlich wie bei der Wärmeschutzverordnung '95 - für bestimmte Baumaßnahmen an der Gebäudehülle vorgegebene und mit der EnEV noch einmal verschärfte Mindest-Dämmwerte erreicht werden. In Einzelfällen (oberste Geschoßdecke, alte Heizungsanlagen) werden Nachrüstverpflichtungen ausgesprochen. Außerdem wird durch "Energiebedarfsausweise" die Energietransparenz von Gebäuden für Eigentümer, Mieter und den Immobilienmarkt erhöht.

Energiemanagement
Übernahme und Auswertung beliebiger Verbrauchsdaten; Nulldurchgang, Zählertausch; Kostenstellenzuordnung prozentual und per Umlageschlüssel; Anbindung an das Mietmanagement ...

Erbbaurecht
Veräußerliches und vererbliches Recht, auf oder unter fremdem Grund und Boden ein Bauwerk zu haben. Bestimmte Zeit, oft 99 Jahre. Nach Ablauf der bestimmtenZeit erlischt das Erbbuarecht. Für das Bauwerk hat der Grundeigentümer dem Berechtigten eine Entschädigung zu zahlen (nur erste Rangstelle im Grundbuch ).

Eröffnungsbilanz
Vermögenserfassung und –bewertung mit dem Ziel, ein den tatsächlichen Verhältnissen entsprechendes Bild der Vermögens- und Schuldenlage einer Kommune zu ermitteln. Wesentlicher Bestandteil ist hierbei das Immobilienvermögen.

Ersatzdeckungsmittel
Wenn die Zuführung an den Vermögenshaushalt geringer ist als die Kreditbeschaffungskosten und die ordentlichen Tilgungen, ist die Gesetzmäßigkeit der Haushaltssatzung trotzdem gewahrt, wenn Ersatzdeckungsmittel zur Verfügung stehen. Darunter versteht man die Einnahmen aus der Veränderung des Anlagevermögens, Entnahmen aus Rücklagen, Zuweisungen, Beiträge und ähnliche Entgelte.

Facility
Facilities (engl.: Anlage, Einrichtung) sind Objekte, die neben Services für die Durchführung von Facility Prozessen benötigt werden. Das sind zum Beispiel alle technischen Anlagen und Einrichtungen, Geräte, Gebäude, technische Anlagen aber auch Infrastruktur, Arbeitsmittel und Energie. Die Verwaltung dieser Objekte erfolgt in einem Facility Management.

Facility Management
Facility Management ist die Betrachtung, Analyse und Optimierung aller kostenrelevanten Vorgänge rund um ein Gebäude, ein anderes bauliches Objekt oder eine im Unternehmen erbrachte (Dienst-) Leistung, die nicht zum Kerngeschäft gehört.

Fixkosten
Fixkosten sind Kosten, die in konstanter Höhe anfallen, unabhängig davon, welche Menge von einem Produkt erbracht wird. Die Kosten der Liegenschaft sind beispielsweise Fixkosten, die in gleichbleibender Höhe anfallen, unabhängig davon, wie viele Mitarbeiter in einer Behörde tätig sind. Das Gegenstück zu den Fixkosten sind die variablen Kosten.

Flächen- und Raummanagement
Grafische Darstellung sämtlicher Flächen- und Raumdaten; Automatische Flächenermittlung; Richtlinienüberprüfung nach DIN 277; Elektronisches Raumbuch; Übernahme von CAD-Plänen ...

Flächennutzungsoptimierung
Verfahren, um die Auslastung von Flächen (z.B. Büros) zu optimieren. Im Optimalfall ermittelt aufgrund der Unternahmens-Strategie und unter Einbeziehung von Daten aus dem CAFM.

Flur
Katastertechnische Bezeichnung für ein abgegrenztes Gebiet. Mehrere Fluren bilden eine Gemarkung.

FM
engl., Abk. für
Facility Management, meist im Sinne Gebäudemanagement verwendet

GAEB
Abk. für Gemeinsamer Ausschuss Elektronik im Bauwesen:
Der GAEB fördert den Einsatz der Datenverarbeitung im Bauwesen unter Berücksichtigung der gemeinsamen Sprache aller am Bau Beteiligten.
Über den GAEB-Datenaustausch können Software-Produkte unterschiedlicher Hersteller miteinander kommunizieren.
Die Arbeit des GAEB dient dem allgemeinen Nutzen und orientiert sich an folgenden Grundlagen: Text- und Produktneutralität, Praxisnähe, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Anerkannte Regeln der Technik.


Gebäudeautomatisierung
Als Gebäudeautomation (GA) bezeichnet man die Gesamtheit von Überwachungs-, Steuer-, Regel- und Optimierungseinrichtungen in Gebäuden. Sie ist damit ein wichtiger Bestandsteil des technischen Facility Managements. Ziel ist es Funktionsabläufe gewerkeübergreifend selbständig (automatisch), nach vorgegebenen Einstellwerten (Parametern) durchzuführen oder deren Bedienung bzw. Überwachung zu vereinfachen.

Gefahr
Nicht orientierte oder bestimmte Gefährdung.

Gefahrenanalyse
Umfassende Identifizierung und Bewertung aller möglichen Gefährdungen für die Risikobewertung von Geräten, Anlagen oder auch Mitarbeitern.

GEFMA
Abkürzung für "German Facility Management Association" (Deutscher Verband für Facility Management) GEFMA setzt sich für die professionelle Bewirtschaftung von Gebäuden und Liegenschaften ein. Ziel der GEFMA ist es, bei Eigentümern, Betreibern und Nutzern von Immobilien das Interesse am Facility Management zu wecken und von seinen Vorteilen zu überzeugen. GEFMA definiert FM-Qualitätsstandards in den GEFMA-Richtlinien. Zahlreiche Hochschulen und private Bildungsträger bilden nach von GEFMA entwickelten und zertifizierten Lehrinhalten aus. Bundesweit bietet GEFMA in Regionalkreisen Mitgliedern und Nicht-Mitgliedern Fachinformationen und persönlichen Erfahrungsaustausch.

Gemarkung
Die Gemarkung (auch: Grundbuchbezirk) umfaßt mehrere Fluren.

Gemeinkosten
Gemeinkosten werden gleichzeitig von mehreren Produkten oder Kostenstellen verursacht. Bspw. die Kosten des Abteilungsleiters entstehen gemeinsam für alle Produkte der betreffenden Abteilung. Gemeinkosten werden über Verteilungsschlüssel, sog. Kostentreiber oder Bezugsgrößen, den einzelnen Produkten zugerechnet. Das Gegenstück zu den Gemeinkosten sind die Einzelkosten. In öffentlichen Verwaltungen wie auch in anderen Dienstleistungsbetrieben dominieren typischerweise die Gemeinkosten gegenüber den Einzelkosten.

Gesamtdeckungsprinzip
Im Verwaltungshaushalt und im Vermögenshaushalt dienen alle Einnahmen insgesamt zur Deckung aller Ausgaben.

Geschäftsprozessoptimierung
Eine Abfolge von Tätigkeiten, die zur Schaffung eines Produktes dienen und in einem direkten Zusammenhang stehen.

Gewährleistungsmanagement
Überwachung und Kontrolle alle Gewährleitungsfristen z.B. an Anlagen, Bauteilen und oder Lieferungen.

GLT
Abk. für
Gebäudeleittechnik

Grundbuch
Ein vom Grundbuchamt geführtes Register, aus dem die Rechtsverhältnisse an Grundstücken ersichtlich sind. Das Grundbuch ist in die Abteilungen I, II und III aufgeteilt.

Grundbuch Abteilung I
In dieser Abteilung wird der Eigentümer und die Grundlage seiner Eintragung vermerkt. Grundlage der Eintragung können z. B. Auflassung, Erbfolge, oder Zuschlagsbeschluss im Versteigerungsverfahren sein.

Grundbuch Abteilung II
In Abteilung II werden Lasten und Beschränkungen des Grundstücks vermerkt, mit Ausnahme der Grundpfandrechte, die in Abteilung III eingetragen werden.

Grundbuch Abteilung III
Diese Abteilung dient der Aufnahme von Hypotheken, Grundschulden und Rentenschulden einschließlich der sich auf diese Rechte beziehenden Vormerkungen, Widersprüche und Veränderungen.

Grundstücksbewertung
Wertmaßstab für die Grundstückswertermittlung ist der Verkehrswert (§194 BauGB). Dieser wird durch den Preis bestimmt, der in dem Zeitpunkt, auf dem sich die Ermittlung bezieht, im gewöhnlichen Geschäftsverkehr ohne Rücksicht auf ungewöhnliche oder persönliche Verhältnisse zu erzielen wäre. Wesentlich ist, daß der Verkehrswert immer zeitpunktbezogen ist. Zur Wertermittlung stehen grundsätzlich drei Verfahren zur Verfügung (WertV). Diese sind das Sachwertverfahren (substanzorientierter Wert), das Ertragswertverfahren (finanzmathematische Methode) und das Vergleichswertverfahren (Ermittlung aus üblichen Verkaufspreisen).

Handwerkerkopplung
Integration von externen Lieferanten und Auftragnehmern, die mit dem Auftraggeber über ein Online Auftragstool zusammenarbeiten. Der Lieferant kann via Web-Browser Aufträge selektieren, entgegennehmen und deren Fertigstellung melden. Diese Daten werden in das zentrale CAFM übernommen.

Haushaltsdefizit
Ein Haushaltsdefizit (auch Budgetdefizit) entsteht, wenn die Summe der Ausgaben in einem Haushaltsjahr die Summe der Einnahmen überschreitet.

Haushaltsplan
Mit ihren Haushaltsplänen steuern die Parlamente, Stadt-, Kreis- und Gemeinderäte der Gebietskörperschaften (Bund, Länder, Gemeinden, Gemeindeverbände) sowie die Sondervermögen die Finanzen ihrer Körperschaft.

Haushaltsüberschuss
Ein Haushaltsüberschuss (oder Budgetüberschuss) liegt dann vor, wenn die Einnahmen in einem Haushaltsjahr die Ausgaben überschreiten.

HOAI
Abk. für "Honorarordnung für Architekten und Ingenieure"

Die Honorarordnung für Architekten und Ingenieure (HOAI) ist eine Verordnung des Bundes zur Regelung der Vergütung (das Honorar) der Leistungen von Architekten und Ingenieuren in Deutschland. Der Begriff Ingenieur bezieht sich hierbei auf die im Bauwesen tätigen Fachrichtungen (Bauingenieure, Bauphysiker, Versorgungstechnikingenieure, Elektroingenieure, Vermessungsingenieure, Gartenbauingenieur, Landschaftplaner etc.).
Die HOAI ist in 15 Teile gegliedert, die allgemeine oder vorhabenspezifische Regelungen enthalten.
Teil I Allgemeine Vorschriften
Teil II Leistungen bei Gebäuden, Freianlagen und raumbildenden Ausbauten
Teil III Zusätzliche Leistungen
Teil IV Gutachten und Wertermittlungen
Teil V Städtebauliche Leistungen
Teil VI Landschaftsplanerische Leistungen
Teil VII Leistungen bei Ingenieurbauwerken und Verkehrsanlagen
Teil VII Verkehrsplanerische Leistungen
Teil VIII Leistungen bei Tragwerksplanungen
Teil IX Leistungen bei der Technischen Ausrüstung
Teil X Leistungen für Thermische Bauphysik
Teil XI Leistungen für Schallschutz und Raumakustik
Teil XII Leistungen für Bodenmechanik, Erd- und Grundbau
Teil XIII Vermessungstechnische Leistungen
Teil XIV Schluss- und Überleitungsvorschriften

II. BV
Abk. für
Zweite Berechnungsverordnung

Immobilien- und Liegenschaftsmanagement
Gesamtüberblick über alle Immobilien und Liegenschaften; Portfolio-Bildung; Benchmarking; Grundbuch / -steuerdaten; Wertentwicklung und Abschreibung

Instandaltung
Die Instandhaltung von technischen Systemen, Bauelementen, Geräten und Betriebsmittel soll sicherstellen, dass der funktionsfähige Zustand erhalten bleibt oder bei Ausfall wieder hergestellt wird. Die DIN 31051 strukturiert die Instandhaltung in die vier Grundmaßnahmen
Wartung / Inspektion / Instandsetzung / Verbesserung

Instandhaltungsmanagement
Grafische Darstellung von Maschinen und Anlagen im Gebäudeplan; Zeit- oder zustandsgesteuerte Wartungspläne; Automatische Generierung von Arbeitsaufträgen; Zeit- und Materialverbrauch; Schnittstelle zur GLT...

Inventarmanagement
Verwaltung beliebiger Inventargegenstände / Anlagen; Zustandsbewertung und Statistik; Automatische Bewertung der Restbuchwerte; Budget- und Kostenstellenverwaltung; Verknüpfung mit technischen Dokumentationen...

Kabelmanagement
Unter Kabelmanagement versteht man die Verwaltung, Betriebstechnik und Überwachung von kabelgebundenen Netzen. Tätigkeiten u.a.

• Grafische und alphanumerische Darstellung
• Grafikgenerator mit Visio-Kopplung
• Verwaltung beliebiger Stammdaten
• Beliebige Netzarten und -topologien
• Beliebige Klassifizierung von Netzen und Diensten
• Autorouting nach verschiedensten Kriterien
• Planungs-, Reservierungs- und Umzugsfunktionen
• Erstellung von Patch- und Rangierlisten
• Logische Struktur von Übertragungssystemen
• Flexible Schnittstellen (TKA, NMS, GLT ...)
• Umfangreiche Reports / Auswertungen

Kalkulatorische Miete
Kalkulatorische Mieten sind der kostenrechnerische Ansatz für die Nutzung der Räumlichkeiten, unabhängig davon, ob die Räumlichkeiten angemietet sind oder sich im Bundeseigentum befinden. Als Miethöhe wird ein ortsüblicher Satz veranschlagt. Durch einen behördenintern gleichen Mietsatz, zwischen Behörden aber unterschiedlich hohen Mietsatz, wird der Wirtschaftlichkeitsvergleich erleichtert. Wichtig beim Ansatz von Vergleichsmieten ist, daß etwaige auszahlungswirksame Kosten nicht zusätzlich berechnet werden.

Kameralistik
Rechnungssystem der öffentlichen Verwaltung und der ihr angeschlossenen Anstalten, Einrichtungen und Betriebe. Während in der kaufmännischen doppelten Buchführung Leistungen und Zahlungen auf getrennte Konten verbucht werden, erfaßt das kameralistische Rechnungswesen in einem einzigen, in Spalten gegliederten Konto die empfangenen und abgegebenen Leistungen (laufendes Soll) und die Zahlungsabwicklung des Leistungsverkehrs (Ist bzw. Rest).

Kasse
Die Organisationseinheit, die als Teil der Gemeinde Zahlungen annimmt und leistet, Buchungen vornimmt und Rechnung legt.

Kassenwirksamkeit
Einnahmen und Ausgaben dürfen nur in Höhe der im Haushaltsjahr voraussichtlich eingehenden und zu leistenden Beträge im Haushaltsplan veranschlagt werden.

Kennzahlen
Kennzahlen geben komplexe Sachverhalte (z. B. Kostendeckung eines Produktes) in einfacher und verdichteter Form wieder. Mit Hilfe von Kennzahlen wird vorhandenes Zahlenmaterial geordnet und in sinnvolle und aussagekräftige Kenngrößen verdichtet, damit die relevanten und quantifizierbaren Sachverhalte der jeweiligen Verwaltung in konzentrierter Form zum Ausdruck kommen.

Kernprozess
Der Kernprozess in der Betriebswirtschaftslehre ist ein Prozess, der sich aus der Kernkompetenz einer Organisation ableitet. Diese Prozesse sind nach Sohl im Idealfall: strategisch vorteilhaft, wettbewerbswirksam, schwer imitierbar und erfolgskritisch.

keyword
Bitte geben Sie in der Suchmaske oben Ihr "keyword" (= Ihren Suchbegriff) ein.

KGF
Konstruktions-Grundfläche (KGF) Die Konstruktions-Grundfläche ist die Summe der Grundflächen der aufgehenden Bauteile aller Grundrißebenen eines Bauwerkes.

KLR
Abk. für
Kosten-/Leistungsrechnung

Kommunikations- und Netzwerkmanagement
Visualisierung der gesamten IT-/TK-Infrastruktur; Beliebige Klassifizierung von Netzen und Diensten; Erzeugung von Patch- und Rangierlisten; Flexibles Autorouting; Software- und Versionsverwaltung...

Unter Netzwerkmanagement versteht man die Verwaltung, Betriebstechnik und Überwachung von IT-Netzwerken und Telekommunikationsnetzen. Der englische Fachbegriff für diese Tätigkeiten lautet OAM, Operation, Administration and Maintenance.

• Grafische und alphanumerische Darstellung
• Grafikgenerator mit Visio-Kopplung
• Verwaltung beliebiger Stammdaten
• Beliebige Netzarten und -topologien
• Beliebige Klassifizierung von Netzen und Diensten
• Autorouting nach verschiedensten Kriterien
• Planungs-, Reservierungs- und Umzugsfunktionen
• Erstellung von Patch- und Rangierlisten
• Logische Struktur von Übertragungssystemen
• Flexible Schnittstellen (TKA, NMS, GLT ...)
• Umfangreiche Reports / Auswertungen

Kosten-/Leistungsrechnung
Aufgabe der Kosten-/Leistungsrechnung (KLR) ist die Erfassung und Zurechnung der Kosten und Erlöse, die durch die betriebliche Tätigkeit anfallen. Dabei werden Die Analyse der Kosten- und der Erlösstruktur ermöglicht eine Wirtschaftlichkeitskontrolle, die die Aufgabenerfüllung transparenter gestalten soll und damit eine wesentliche Informationsgrundlage des Controllings darstellt. Um der Besonderheit administrativer Arbeit und damit auch der öffentlichen Verwaltung Rechnung zu tragen, ist das Gegenstück zu den Kosten nicht nur der vereinnahmte Geldfluss, die Erlöse. Gegenbegriff zu den Kosten sind die Leistungen, definiert als der Wert an Gütern und Dienstleistungen, die durch den Leistungserstellungsprozess erbracht wurden.

Kostenarten
Alle Kosten werden in Kostenkategorien, den Kostenarten, systematisch geordnet, z.B. Materialkosten (Einsatzstoffe/Teile, Betriebsstoffe), Personalkosten (Löhne/Gehälter, Einstellungs-/Entlassungskosten, Gehaltsnebenkosten, Pensionsrückstellungen), Abschreibungen (Gebäude, Fertigungsstraßen, Umwelttechnik), Sonstige Kosten (Instandhaltung, Umweltabgabe, Nacharbeit/Ausschuß, Lagerkosten, Werbung/Marktforschung, Sonstige Kosten F&E, Transportkosten).

Kostenstelle
Kosten lassen sich nach drei Perspektiven klassifizieren: Kostenarten, Kostenstellen und Kostenträger. Die Kostenstelle bestimmt, von welcher Organisationseinheit die Kosten verursacht wurden, bspw. Sachgebiete wie die Pressestelle etc. Anders ausgedrückt ist die Kostenstelle der Ort der Kostenentstehung innerhalb einer Organisation. Um alle Kosten zu erfassen, sind folglich alle Organisationsbereiche in einer Kostenstellenzuordnung, dem Kostenstellenplan zu erfassen.

Kostenträger
Kosten lassen sich nach drei Perspektiven klassifizieren: Kostenarten, Kostenstellen und Kostenträger. Der Kostenträger gibt an, für welchen Zweck, also für welches Produkt bzw. Teilprodukt die Kosten angefallen sind. Als Kostenträger sind einzelne Ausprägung spezifischer Produkte definiert. Damit kann ein Produkt durch ein oder mehrere Kostenträger definiert werden. Eine vollständige Übersicht aller Kostenträger mit einer meist numerischen Systematik findet sich im Kostenträgerplan wieder, der Bestandteil des Kontenplanes ist. Die Summe aller Produkte mit ihren möglichen Ausprägungen und Kennzahlen sowie etwaigen Qualitätsmerkmalen wird in einem Produktkatalog meist auf Ebene eines Ressorts dargestellt.

Mieter-Vermieter-Modell
Beim Mieter-Vermieter-Modell nimmt eine Verwaltungseinheit oder ein eigenständiges Unternehmen (z.B. eine ausgegründete kommunale GmbH) die Eigentümerfunktion wahr. Diese ist verantwortlicher Ansprechpartner für das gesamte Management der übertragenen Immobilien (also für Gebäude und Liegenschaften). Der Vermieter schließt mit den Nutzern, den Ämtern und Behörden, entsprechende Mietverträge ab.

Mietmanagement
Mieter- und Vermietersicht; Betriebskostenaufstellung und kalkulatorische Miete; Mieterhöhung nach Index, Staffelmiete, Zeitablauf, pauschal; Mietkataster; Überwachung von Fristen mit automatischem Mahnverfahren ...

Modul
Ein Modul ist eine abgeschlossene Komponente einer Software, bestehend aus einer Folge von Verarbeitungsschritten und Datenstrukturen. Module werden genutzt, um im Rahmen des Gesamtsystems das Arbeits- oder Programmziel geordnet zu erreichen.

Netzwerk Management
Unter Netzwerkmanagement versteht man die Verwaltung, Betriebstechnik und Überwachung von IT-Netzwerken und Telekommunikationsnetzen. Der englische Fachbegriff für diese Tätigkeiten lautet OAM, Operation, Administration and Maintenance.

• Grafische und alphanumerische Darstellung
• Grafikgenerator mit Visio-Kopplung
• Verwaltung beliebiger Stammdaten
• Beliebige Netzarten und -topologien
• Beliebige Klassifizierung von Netzen und Diensten
• Autorouting nach verschiedensten Kriterien
• Planungs-, Reservierungs- und Umzugsfunktionen
• Erstellung von Patch- und Rangierlisten
• Logische Struktur von Übertragungssystemen
• Flexible Schnittstellen (TKA, NMS, GLT ...)
• Umfangreiche Reports / Auswertungen

Netzwerkmanagement
Unter Netzwerkmanagement versteht man die Verwaltung, Betriebstechnik und Überwachung von IT-Netzwerken und Telekommunikationsnetzen. Der englische Fachbegriff für diese Tätigkeiten lautet OAM, Operation, Administration and Maintenance.

• Grafische und alphanumerische Darstellung
• Grafikgenerator mit Visio-Kopplung
• Verwaltung beliebiger Stammdaten
• Beliebige Netzarten und -topologien
• Beliebige Klassifizierung von Netzen und Diensten
• Autorouting nach verschiedensten Kriterien
• Planungs-, Reservierungs- und Umzugsfunktionen
• Erstellung von Patch- und Rangierlisten
• Logische Struktur von Übertragungssystemen
• Flexible Schnittstellen (TKA, NMS, GLT ...)
• Umfangreiche Reports / Auswertungen

Neues Kommunales Finanzmanagement
Neues, doppisch orientiertes Rechnungswesen, das die bisherige kamerale Buchführung in Kommunen ablösen soll.

Neues Steuerungsmodell
Neues, doppisch orientiertes Rechnungswesen, das die bisherige kamerale Buchführung in Kommunen ablösen soll.

Nießbrauch
Der Nießbrauch ist im deutschen Sachenrecht (§ 1030 BGB) das unveräußerliche und unvererbliche Recht, die Nutzungen einer Sache oder eines Rechts zu ziehen. Anders als die Grunddienstbarkeit und die beschränkte persönliche Dienstbarkeit gewährt der Nießbrauch nicht nur einzelne Nutzungsrechte, sondern das Recht zur umfassenden Nutzung des belasteten Gegenstands.

NKF
Abk. für
Neues Kommunales Finanzmanagement

NKHR
Abk. für
Neues Kommunales Haushalts- und Rechnungswesen

NSM
Abk. für
Neues Steuerungsmodell

OHSAS 18001
Das Dokument OHSAS 18001 \"Arbeitsschutzmanagementsysteme-Spezifikation\" wurde unter der Schirmherrschaft des Britischen, Normungsinstitutes (BSI) durch ein Konsortium aus europäischen Zertifizierungsorganisationen und einigen Normungsinstituten erarbeitet. OHSAS 18001 ist keine Norm, kann jedoch auf freiwilliger Basis zur Beurteilung und Zertifizierung herangezogen werden.

Outsourcing
Beschaffung von Vorleistungen durch Dritte (Gütern oder Dienstleistungen) statt eigener Herstellung und damit Reduzierung der Leistungstiefe und Konzentration auf das Kerngeschäft. Möglich vor allem bei der Erstellung interner Produkte, z.B. Druck, Transport, IT-Ausstattung, Wartung und Anwenderunterstützung oder auch Immobilienmanagement.

Passiva
Sammelbegriff für alle auf der rechten Seite der Bilanz ausgewiesenen Posten.

PDA
engl., Abk. für
Personal Digital Assistant: Ein PDA ist ein tragbarer Rechner im Notizblockformat. PDAs bieten meist eine Anzeige, die den Großteil der Oberfläche des Geräts einnimmt, sowie im Regelfall zusätzliche Bedienelemente (Knöpfe, Schieber, Drehräder) zur schnellen Nutzung ausgewählter Funktionen. Bei den meisten PDA werden die Eingaben mittels eines Stiftes direkt auf der druckempfindlichen Anzeige gemacht. Einige PDAs verfügen über kleine Tastaturen, andere sind z.B. für die Datenaufnahme per Barcode-Scanner verwendbar.

Produkt
Das Ergebnis einer bestimmten Abfolge von vorher definierten Aktivitäten mit einem definierbaren Wert oder Nutzen für den Empfänger. Zusätzlich soll ein Produkt für die Steuerung der Wirtschaftlichkeit der jeweiligen Behörde sinnvoll und geeignet sein. Im Verwaltungsbereich oft als nach außen abgegebene Leistung (z.B. Ware, Dienstleistung oder Information) bezeichnet.

R/3
Vor einigen Jahren gab es mit SAP R/3, das 1992 aus dem Großrechner-orientierten Vorgänger SAP R/2 in weiten Teilen neu entwickelt wurde, nur eine einzige monolithische ERP-Software des Herstellers. Sie besteht aus Modulen, die funktionell, aber nicht architektonisch getrennt sind. Dies sind im Wesentlichen: FI (Finance), CO (Controlling), MM (Materials Management), SD (Sales and Distribution), PP (Production Planning) und HR (Human Resources). Diese Module bilden auch weiterhin den Kern der Funktionalität, die SAP-Anwender einsetzen.

Raumbuch
Detaillierte Informationen über Räume eines Gebäudes. Raumbücher stellen die Ausstattung von Räumen, deren Detail-Informationen wie z.B. Bodenbelad oder Größe, sowie mit ihnen verbundenen Bauteilen oder Technikelementen dar. Ein Raumbuch kann nur in der Datenbank (alfanumersich) oder auch auf Zeichnungsebene (grafisch) geführt werden.

Raummanagement
Grafische Darstellung sämtlicher Raumdaten; Automatische Flächenermittlung; Richtlinienüberprüfung nach DIN 277; Elektronisches Raumbuch; Übernahme von CAD-Plänen ...

REACH
engl., Abk. für: Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals

Die Verordnung zur Registrierung, Bewertung, Zulassung und Beschränkung chemischer Stoffe ist eine Verordnung der Europäischen Gemeinschaft zur Reform des europäischen Chemikalienrechts. Die Verordnung ist seit dem 1. Januar 2007 als unmittelbares Recht in jedem Mitgliedstaat gültig.

Reinigungsmanagement
Verwaltung beliebiger Reinigungskomplexe; Automatischer Abzug überstellter Flächen; Reinigungsintervalle mit Richtzeit und Servicelevel; Planbeispiele und Losbildung; Ausschreibung, Vergabe und Abrechnung...

Rendite
Gesamtergebnis einer Kapitalanlage, gemessen als tatsächliche Verzinsung des angelegten Kapitals.

Ressource
Mittel zur Aufgabenwahrnehmung: Geld, Haushaltsmittel, Personal oder Sachmittel. Darüber hinaus wird auch alles, was knapp ist, als "Ressource" bezeichnet, also auch z.B. "Zeit" oder "Aufmerksamkeit im Leitungsbereich" sind in diesem Sinne Ressourcen.

SAP
Die SAP AG ist der größte europäische und weltweit viertgrößte Softwarehersteller. Der Hauptsitz befindet sich im badischen Walldorf. Tätigkeitsschwerpunkt ist die Entwicklung von Software für kleine, mittelgroße und große Unternehmen, die einen zentralen Zugriff auf wichtige Geschäftsdaten bezweckt, wie beispielsweise Kundenbestellungen, Rechnungen, Produktionsauslastung, aber auch den Krankenstand. Primäres Produkt: SAP R/3


Schließmanagement und Zugangskontrolle
Verwaltung sämtlicher Schließ- und Sicherheitssysteme; Schließpläne und -hierarchien; Aus-/Rückgabe, Quittierung und Verlustmeldung; Laufende Buch- und Bestandsführung; Schlüsselreports und Verluststatistiken...

Server
engl. "dienen, jemanden versorgen": zentraler Rechner in einem Netzwerk, der den Arbeitsstationen / Clients Daten, Speicher und Ressourcen zur Verfügung stellt.

Serviceorientierte Architektur
Serviceorientierte Architektur (SOA), engl. service oriented architecture, auch dienstorientierte Architektur, ist ein Ansatz der Informationstechnik, Dienste von Mitarbeitern und Organisationen zu strukturieren und zu nutzen. Diese Strukturierung und Nutzung kann auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen erfolgen.


Sicherheitsmanagement
Verwaltung sämtlicher Sicherheiteinrichtungen sowie gesetzlicher Vorschriften; Wiedervorlage von Prüf- und Wartungszyklen; Automatisierte Erstellung von Flucht- und Rettungsplänen; Risikoermittlung...

SOAP
SOAP (ursprünglich für Simple Object Access Protocol) ist ein Netzwerkprotokoll, mit dessen Hilfe Daten zwischen Systemen ausgetauscht und Remote Procedure Calls durchgeführt werden können. SOAP stützt sich auf die Dienste anderer Standards: XML zur Repräsentation der Daten und Internet-Protokolle der Transport- und Anwendungsschicht (vgl. TCP/IP-Referenzmodell) zur Übertragung der Nachrichten. Die gängigste Kombination ist SOAP über HTTP und TCP.

Sollstellung
Die Buchung des einzunehmenden oder auszuzahlenden Betrags in der Soll-Spalte des Sachbuchs.

Sondervermögen
Geld oder Sachwerte der Gemeinde, die der Erfüllung bestimmter Zwecke dienen (z. B. Eigenbetrieb). Sondervermögen ist nicht in die Haushaltswirtschaft integriert.

SSL
engl., Abk. für Secure Socket Layer. Ein verbreiteter Internet-Sicherheitsstandard.

Standardsoftware
Software für Standard-Anwendungen, die auf dem Markt angeboten werden, z.B. für das Immobilienmanagement, im Gegensatz zu Software für individuelle Anforderungen des Benutzers (Individualsoftware) nicht marktgängige Software.

Supportprozess
Als Supportprozesse werden Vorgänge in einem Betrieb bezeichnet, die keine Kernprozesse sind. Sie unterstützen die Kernprozesse im Betrieb, erzeugen selbst aber keinen direkten Kundennutzen. Ein typischer Supportprozess ist beispielsweise die Instandhaltung. Ein wichtiges Merkmal von Supportprozessen ist, dass sie vom Betrieb ausgelagert werden können. Da sie im Gegensatz zum Kernprozess keinen Wettbewerbsvorteil sichern und auch nur indirekt zur Wertschöpfung beitragen, können sie oft von externen Anbietern preiswerter und qualititv hochwertiger erbracht werden.

SWU-Kunden
SWU: Abk. für Software-Unterstützung. Bestandteile einer SWU sind neben Bugfixes und Updates i.d.R. Hotline und Internet-Support, sowie Hilfe bei der Fehlersuche bzw. Konfiguration.

Trennungsgrundsatz
Der im kommunalen Wirtschaftsrecht verankerte Grundsatz der Trennung von Anordnung und Vollzug besagt, dass die Befugnis der Erteilung von Kassenanordnungen und die Befugnis der Ausführung streng voneinander zu trennen sind.

Überwachungsbedürftige Anlagen
Zu den überwachungsbedürftigen Anlagen zählen: 1. Dampfkesselanlagen, 2. Druckbehälteranlagen, 3. Füllanlagen, 4. Leitungen unter innerem Überdruck, 5. Aufzüge, 6. Anlagen in explosionsgefährdeten Bereichen, inklusive Bereiche mit explosiven Gasen und Stäuben, 7. Anlagen für entzündliche, leichtentzündliche oder hochentzündliche Flüssigkeiten 1. Lageranlagen > 10.000 Liter 2. Füllstellen > 1.000 l/h 3. Tankstellen und Flugfeldbetankungsanlagen 4. Entleerstellen für leicht- oder hoch entzündliche Flüssigkeiten.

Umzugsmanagement
Planung und Simulation beliebiger Umzugsvarianten; Arbeitsplatz- und Ausstattungsanforderungen (IT, TK); Anzeige freier Kapazitäten mit Reservierungsfunktion; Erstellung von Umzugsetiketten, Inventarlisten...

variable Kosten
Variable Kosten steigen oder sinken proportional zur Anzahl der erstellten Produkte bzw. Leistungen. Für die verschiedenen Spiegel stellen beispielsweise die Papierkosten variable Kosten dar. Das Gegenstück zu den variablen Kosten sind Fixkosten, die unabhängig von der Produktionsmenge konstant bleiben.

VDMA
Abk. für "Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau"

Die "VDMA-Einheitsblätter" geben dabei Hinweise für die korrekte Wartung und Instandhaltung technischer Anlagen. Hier spricht man oft von "Wartung nach VDMA".


Die Neuausgabe von VDMA 24176 „Inspektion von technischen Anlagen und Ausrüstungen in Gebäuden“ beschreibt die wesentlichen Merkmale der Inspektion von technischen Anlagen und Ausrüstungen in Gebäuden als eine überwiegend ingenieurmäßige Leistung. Aufgabe der Inspektion ist die Feststellung und Beurteilung des Istzustandes. Ihr Ziel ist die Erfassung und Beurteilung von Daten über den momentanen Zustand der jeweiligen gebäudetechnischen Anlage und Ausrüstung. Die Beurteilung schließt ab mit Empfehlungen, welche Maßnahmen zur Änderung und Optimierung ergriffen werden sollten. Die ermittelten Kennwerte geben Hinweise darüber, inwieweit eine modifizierte Betriebsweise das Anlagenverhalten verändert. Das Einheitsblatt richtet sich insbesondere an Betreiber von technischen Anlagen und Ausrüstungen in Gebäuden sowie an Fachunternehmen der Instandhaltung und des Anlagenbaus.

Die Überarbeitung und Neuausgabe von VDMA 24186-0 „Leistungsprogramm für die Wartung von technischen Anlagen und Ausrüstungen in Gebäuden - Teil 0: Übersicht und Gliederung, Nummernsystem, Allgemeine Anwendungshinweise“ erfolgte auf Grund der im Juni 2003 neu erschienenen DIN 31051 "Grundlagen der Instandhaltung" und mit dem Ziel einer besseren Abgrenzung zwischen Wartung und Inspektion. VDMA 24186-0 enthält grundsätzliche Hinweise zum Aufbau und zur Anwendung der aus insgesamt 9 Teilen bestehenden Einheitsblattreihe mit den detaillierten Leistungsprogrammen für die Wartung von Geräte und Anlagen der Technischen Gebäudesausrüstung (TGA).

VDMA 24196
VDMA 24196 überführt in DIN 32736 Mit der VDMA 24196 \"Gebäudemanagement - Begriffe und Leistungen\" hat die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Instandhaltung Gebäudetechnik (AIG) im VDMA bereits 1996 eine Richtlinie zum Gebäudemanagement erarbeitet und herausgegeben. Das Ziel, die bis dahin mit unterschiedlichen Inhalten verwendeten Begriffe zu vereinheitlichen und die dazugehörenden Leistungen zu beschreiben, wurde erreicht. VDMA 24196 hat sich am Markt erfolgreich durchgesetzt und ist ein anerkannter Standard in der Branche. Im August 2000 ist DIN 32736 unter gleichem Namen erschienen. Basis der neuen DIN-Norm ist die bekannte VDMA 24196, welche sich in ihren wesentlichen Teilen wiederfindet. Das Gebäudemanagement gliedert sich weiterhin in die drei Leistungsbereiche Technisches Gebäudemanagement (TGM), Infrastrukturelles Gebäudemanagement (IGM) und Kaufmännisches Gebäudemanagement (KGM). Da in allen drei Leistungsbereichen flächenbezogene Leistungen enthalten sein können, wurde das \"Flächenmanagement (FLM)\" ergänzend berücksichtigt. Mit der Herausgabe der DIN 32736 wird die VDMA 24196 zurückgezogen. Parallel zur DIN 32736 ist das erläuternde Beiblatt 1 \"Gebäudemanagement - Begriffe und Leistungen - Gegenüberstellung von Leistungen\" erschienen. Es stellt u. a. einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Gebäudemanagement, der Zweiten Berechnungsverordnung (II. BV) und DIN 18960 (Nutzungskosten im Hochbau) her. Das Beiblatt hilft, die unterschiedlichen Leistungen und daraus resultierenden Kosten richtig zuzuordnen und sorgt dadurch bei Vermietern und Mietern für mehr Transparenz bei der Betriebskostenabrechnung.






Vektorisierung
Umwandlung einer Pixelgrafik (z.B. im Format JPG, BMP oder GIF) in eine Vektorgrafik (z.B. in das Format DWG, DGN oder DXF). Häufig gebraucht, um alte Pläne nach einem Scan in ein CAD-kompatibles FOrmat zu überführen.

Vermögenserwerb
Übereignung eines Vermögensgegenstands durch Kauf, Tausch, Erbschaft oder Schenkung.

Vermögenshaushalt
Der Vermögenshaushalt enthält alle Einnahmen und Ausgaben, welche das Vermögen oder die Schulden einer Stadt verändern. Hierunter fallen zum Beispiel Ausgaben für den Straßenbau oder Einnahmen aus dem Verkauf von städtischen Grundstücken.

Vertrags- und Dokumentenmanagement
Verwaltung jeglicher Verträge und Dokumente; Aufruf aus der Gebäudeebene heraus möglich; Übersicht über Laufzeiten, Fristen und Zahlungsweisen; Aufbewahrungs- und Revisionspflichten; Überwachungs- und Mahnfunktion...

Verwaltungshaushalt
Der Verwaltungshaushalt umfasst nach der Gemeindehaushaltsverordnung (GemHVO) alle Einnahmen und Ausgaben, die nicht dem Vermögenshaushalt zuzuordnen sind. Dies sind Einnahmen und Ausgaben, die das Vermögen nicht erhöhen oder vermindern. Dazu zählen unter anderem laufende wiederkehrende Kosten für Energieversorgung, Versicherungsbeiträge, Personalausgaben.

Webservice
Ein Webservice bzw. Webdienst ist eine Software-Anwendung, die mit einem Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) eindeutig identifizierbar ist und deren Schnittstellen als XML-Artefakte definiert, beschrieben und gefunden werden können. Ein Webservice unterstützt die direkte Interaktion mit anderen Software-Agenten unter Verwendung XML-basierter Nachrichten durch den Austausch über internetbasierte Protokolle.

Wildcard
(engl.) Auch Platzhalter genannt. Erlaubt z.B. das Suchen in einem Datenbestand unter Auslassung von Kriterien (z.B. Suche nach "Flur*" findet "Flur" und "Flurstück")

WoFlV
Abk. für: Wohnflächenverordnung: Seit dem 1. Januar 2004 gilt die Wohnflächenverordnung (WoFlV). Die Verordnung basiert auf den §§ 42 44 der II. Berechnungsverordnung und löst diese ab. Sie beinhaltet die gesetzliche Definition der Wohnfläche.

Wohnflächenverordnung
Seit dem 1. Januar 2004 gilt die Wohnflächenverordnung (WoFlV). Die Verordnung basiert auf den §§ 42 44 der II. Berechnungsverordnung und löst diese ab. Sie beinhaltet die gesetzliche Definition der Wohnfläche.

Workflow
Auch Arbeitsablauf oder Geschäftsprozess: Vor allem als Bezeichnung für IT-unterstützte Abläufe, insbesondere die IT-gestützte integrierte Vorgangsbearbeitung in der Verwaltung verwendet. Als Workflow-System wird das IT-System zur Ablaufunterstützung bezeichnet.

Workflow-Management
Auch Arbeitsablauf oder Geschäftsprozess: Vor allem als Bezeichnung für IT-unterstützte Abläufe, insbesondere die IT-gestützte integrierte Vorgangsbearbeitung in der Verwaltung verwendet. Als Workflow-System wird das IT-System zur Ablaufunterstützung bezeichnet.

Zugelassene Überwachungsstelle
Zugelassene Überwachungsstellen sind Stellen, die nach den Anforderungen des Gerätesicherheitsgesetzes (GSG) und der Betriebssicherheitsverordnung akkreditiert sind. Für diese Akkreditierung überprüft die Behörde, ob die beantragende Überwachungsstelle unabhängig ist, über die erforderlichen Mittel verfügt, technische Ausrüstungen und das fachkompetente Personal zur Durchführung der Prüfung bereitstellen kann und einen internen Erfahrungsaustausch garantiert. Darüber hinaus muss die Stelle nachweisen: - dass sie ein gesamtes Prüfgebiet abdecken kann (Druck, Heben von Personen, Explosionsschutz), - dass sie einen Leiter eingesetzt hat, der die Prüftätigkeit seines Personals beurteilen kann, - dass sie über ein Qualitätsmanagementsystem verfügt, - dass sie eine unparteiliche Prüfung gewährleistet und das Personal leistungsunabhängig bezahlt.

ZÜS
Abk. für: Zugelassene Überwachungsstelle

06 Dec 2009
21:23:14
Lutz Thomas
Lexikon wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag,
im Anhang meinen BEITRAG zu LEKIKON AUFBAU.
Viel Erfolg
Lichty

LEXIKON

2D-Computergrafik
Teilgebiet der Computergrafik, das sich mit der Beschreibung, Manipulation und grafischen Darstellung zweidimensionaler Objekte (z-Koordinate identisch Null) in der x-y-Ebene befaßt.

Die grafische Darstellung dreidimensionaler Objekte auf der Basis von 2D-C., also mit Hilfe von 2D-Systemen, ist zwar möglich, aber häufig nicht angemessen, da die 2D-C. keine Koordinatentransformation im dreidimensionalen Raum und keine Projektion von Objekten dieses Raumes auf eine Ebene einschließt. Daher können mit 2D-Systemen nur Abbilder von Objekten für sich, d. h. ohne Bezug zum Objekt selbst, manipuliert werden. Dagegen kann mittels 3D-Modellierung und 3D-Computergrafik eine automatische Ableitung von Abbildern geometrisch vollständiger Modelle erreicht werden. Die 2D-C. ist jedoch in solchen Anwendungsbereichen das adäquate Mittel, in denen es um die Darstellung von Objekten geht, die im wesentlichen zweidimensional sind, oder in denen komplexere Systeme, Projekte oder Prozesse auf einem hohen Abstraktionsniveau z. B. in Form von Schemata repräsentiert werden sollen.

Im Computer-Aided Facility Management sind 2D-C. heute noch weit verbreitet. Dabei handelt es sich z.B. um digitale Karten, Grundrisse und Geschoßpläne.

3D-Computergrafik

1. Mit einem 3D-System durch Visualisierung von 3D-Modellen erzeugte Computergrafik.
2. Teil des Fachgebietes Computergrafik, der die grafische Darstellung bzw. interaktive, grafisch unterstützte Erzeugung und Manipulation von 3D-Modellen betrifft.
3. Sammelbegriff für Hilfsmittel zur Ableitung von Computergrafiken aus 3D-Modellen sowie zur interaktiven, grafisch unterstützten Erzeugung und Manipulation solcher Modelle.

Die 3D-C. steht in enger Beziehung zur 3D-Modellierung. Das Primäre ist das 3D-Modell, die grafische Darstellung wird lediglich automatisch daraus abgeleitet. Ein einmal erzeugtes 3D-Modell kann dementsprechend aufwandsarm unter verschiedenen Bedingungen, insbesondere bei verschiedenen Blickrichtungen grafisch dargestellt werden. Während die 3D-C. bzw. 3D-Systeme also auf vollständigen (dreidimensionalen) geometrischen Modellen basieren, arbeiten 2D-Systeme nur mit grafischen Abbildern (2D-Computergrafik).


3D-Modell
Rechnerinterne Darstellung eines dreidimensionalen Objektes, die die Geometrie dieses Objektes vollständig und widerspruchsfrei beschreibt und für Computer gut interpretierbar und weiterverarbeitbar ist.

Natürlich sind auch vollständige und widerspruchsfreie Ansichten und Schnitte dreidimensionaler Objekte, also z. B. viele technische Zeichnungen, Modelle solcher Objekte. Jedoch haben intensive Bemühungen um die Schaffung von Systemen zur automatischen Interpretation solcher 2D-Darstellungen als dreidimensionale Objekte (3D-Rekonstruktion) bisher nicht zu problemlos routinemäßig einsetzbaren Lösungen geführt. Vollständige und widerspruchsfreie Mengen rechnerinterner 2D-Darstellungen dreidimensionaler Objekte werden nicht als 3D-M. bezeichnet. Vielmehr sind 3D-M. nach heutigem Sprachgebrauch solche rechnerinternen Modelle, bei denen Punkte, Kurven, Flächen und Volumina direkt im dreidimensionalen Raum beschrieben werden.

Sowohl unterschiedliche Bedürfnisse von Nutzern rechnerunterstützter Systeme zur 3D-Modellierung als auch verschiedenartige Anforderungen an die Weiterverarbeitung von 3D-M. haben zu einer großen Vielfalt von Methoden der 3D-Modellierung und entsprechender Klassen von 3D-M. geführt (Drahtmodell, Sweep-Modell, CSG-Modell, Begrenzungsflächen-Repräsentation, Freiformflächen-Modellierung, Facettenmodell, Modelle auf der Basis von Voxeln und Octrees).


3D-Modellierung
Prozeß der Beschreibung, Erzeugung und Modifikation von 3D-Modellen.

CAD wurde erstmals mit der rechnerunterstützten Zeichnungserstellung (Computer Aided Drafting) breitenwirksam. Die Effekte der Produktivitätssteigerung blieben dabei aber sehr begrenzt. Eine Erhöhung der Durchgängigkeit verschiedener betrieblicher Prozesse und über reine Zeichnungserstellung hinausgehende Produktivitätssteigerungen und Qualitätsverbesserungen lassen sich nur auf der Basis einer möglichst vollständigen Modellierung von Objekten, Projekten bzw. Prozessen erreichen, deren Ergebnisse durch den Computer einfach weiterverarbeitet werden können. In vielen praktischen Anwendungen erfordert dies den Übergang von einer zeichnungsorientierten Arbeitsweise zur 3D-M.. Letztere wird meist in interaktiver Arbeitsweise durchgeführt. Dazu kommen 3D-Systeme (CAD-System) zum Einsatz. Für die interaktive Arbeit ist 3D-Computergrafik von grundlegender Bedeutung. Entsprechende Systemkomponenten ermöglichen die schnelle Visualisierung von 3D-Modellen sowie die automatische Ableitung von Ansichten und Schnitten im Rahmen der rechnerunterstützten Zeichnungserstellung.

Adjacency-Graph
Bei der Gebäudeplanung nutzbares grafisches Hilfsmittel zur Darstellung von Nachbarschaftsbeziehungen zwischen Räumen.

Ein Graph besteht aus Knoten und Kanten zwischen diesen. Für die Gebäudeplanung und andere Aufgaben des Facility Management (wie z. B. Change Management, Umzugsplanung) werden solche A. G. genutzt, bei denen Knoten Räume und Kanten direkte Verbindungen zwischen diesen (z. B. durch Türen) repräsentieren. Eine Erweiterung des A. G. ist das Bubble Diagramm. Für die grafische Darstellung von Verkehrsflüssen bzw. Transportströmen zwischen verschiedenen Räumen, Hallen oder ganzen Gebäuden eignen sich Sencke-Diagramme.


Asset Management
Der Begriff Asset aus der Finanzwelt bezeichnet die Aktiv-Seite einer Bilanz, also das von einer Firma angelegte Vermögen: 'asset' (engl.) = Vermögenswert, Aktivposten. Allerdings geht der Begriff noch weiter. 'Asset Manager' ist z.B. ein hauptberuflicher Anlageberater und Vermögensverwalter.

Ferner wird der Begriff auch im Sinne von 'Vorteil' gebraucht. Wenn es in einer Stellenbewerbung z.B. heisst 'professional experience would be an asset', dann bedeutet das: 'Berufserfahrung wäre von Vorteil'. Im Sinne des Facility Managements verwaltet das Asset Management Facilities sowohl im physikalischen als auch im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne. Akquisitionskosten und laufender Support werden für zukünftigen Gebrauch festgehalten. Informationen zu den verschiedenen Garantiezeiten werden erfragt und erlauben deren Einsatz zur Kostenreduzierung. Zusätzlich werden Lizenzen dokumentiert und mit der tatsächlichen Nutzung verglichen. Dienstleistungs- und Wartungsverträge mit Drittunternehmen werden zusammen mit den entsprechenden Aktivposten festgehalten.


Attribut
Bestandteilen rechnerinterner Modelle (insbesondere rechnerintern vorliegender Computergrafiken) zugeordnete Charakteristik.


Brutto-Grundflaeche
Summe der Grundflächen aller Grundrißebenen eines Bauwerkes.

Die Grenzen der BGF sind jeweils die Außenkanten. Die BGF gliedert sich in
• Konstruktionsgrundfläche (KGF)
• Netto-Grundfläche (NGF).
Die KGF ist die Summe der Grundflächen der aufgehenden Bauteile aller Grundrißebenen eines Bauwerkes, z. B. von Wänden, Stützen und Pfeilern, sowie der Grundflächen von Schornsteinen, nicht begehbaren Schächten, Türöffnungen u. a..

Zur BGF gehören nicht die Grundflächen von nicht nutzbaren Dachbereichen und von konstruktiv bedingten Hohlräumen (z. B. über abgehängten Decken). Die BGF wird häufig auch Bruttogeschoßfläche genannt.

Bruttogeschossflaeche
Brutto-Grundfläche (BGF)


Bubble-Diagramm
Aus Kreisen und Verbindungslinien zwischen diesen bestehende grafische Darstellung zur Verdeutlichung von Flächenbedarf für Räume in Gebäuden und von Nachbarschaftsbeziehungen zwischen diesen Räumen.

Das B. D. ist eine Erweiterung des Adjacency Graphen. Die Knoten dieses Graphen werden zu Kreisen aufgebläht (das englische Wort bubble heißt Blase), deren Größen jeweils den (ungefähren) Flächenbedarf für einen Raum in einem Gebäude repräsentieren. Diejenigen Kreise, die Räume mit einer direkten Verbindung untereinander (z. B. durch eine Tür) darstellen, werden im B. D. durch eine Kante verbunden


Bus
In der Informationsverarbeitung Informationstransportmittel mit vielen angeschlossenen Benutzern.

Es handelt sich in der Praxis meist um serielle Busse mit elektrischen oder optischen Kabeln (Koaxialkabel, verdrillte Zweidrahtleitung, Lichtwellenleiter), an die alle Geräte/ Komponenten angeschlossen werden.
Viele bekannte Kommunikationsnetzwerke basieren auf Bussystemen wie z.B. Computer- Netzwerke oft auf dem Ethernet-Bus.

Man unterscheidet Busse hinsichtlich ihrer Struktur nach Linien-, Stern-, Baum- und Ring- Topologie. Es gibt auch freie Topologien, die sich aus diesen Grundstrukturen zusammensetzen.

Die verschiedenen Bussysteme definieren jeweils bestimmte Übertragungsgeschwindigkeiten oder auch Datenraten. Die maximale Übertragungsgeschwindigkeit ist unter anderem von physikalischen Parametern des Busses wie Länge, Medium (Kabeltyp), Topologie und Anzahl der Teinehmer abhängig.
Jeder Busteilnehmer besitzt eine eindeutige Adresse. Die Datenpakete enthalten jeweils ihren Absender und den Empfänger. Da oft auch Nachrichten an mehrere oder alle Teilnehmer gerichtet werden müssen, sind meist auch Gruppenbildungen möglich. Dafür erhalten alle Teilnehmer, die zu einer Gruppe gehören, zusätzlich die entsprechende Gruppenadresse.
Da ein Bus ein gemeinsamer Kommunikationskanal für viele Teilnehmer ist, wird der Datenverkehr durch Protokolle, insbesondere durch Zugriffsmechanismen, geregelt. Man unterscheidet Zugriffsmechanismen, bei denen
• jeder Teilnehmer in einem festen Zeitraster sendet bzw. empfängt (time division),
• jeder Teilnehmer die Sendeberechtigung vom Vorgänger erhält und nach festgelegter Zeit an seinen Nachfolger weitergibt (token passing),
• eine zentrale Instanz (z.B. ein Teilnehmer als 'Master') die Zuteilung des Busses übernimmt oder
• jeder Teinehmer kommunizieren darf, sobald der Bus frei ist (carrier sense). Hierbei können Kollisionen entstehen, wenn z.B. zwei Teilnehmer zur selben Zeit zu senden beginnen. Darum existieren hierfür Verfahren, welche diese Kollisionen auflösen (collision detection) oder generell verhindern (collision avoidance).
Jedes der oben genannten Prinzipien ist für bestimmte Anwendungsgebiete besser geeignet als für andere. So bevorzugt man z.B. bei echtzeitkritischen Fahrzeug- oder Prozeßsteuerungen solche Bussysteme, die eine fest definierte bzw. maximale Antwortzeit von wenigen Millisekunden auch bei höchster Buslast garantieren.

Der Begriff Feldbus stammt aus der Automatisierungstechnik. Als Feldbusse werden solche Busse bezeichnet, die Sensoren, Aktoren und Steuerungen im Automatisierungs-'Feld' direkt miteinander verbinden.
In der Vergangenheit wurden auch in Anlagen der Gebäudeautomatisierung fast ausschließlich Steuerungen verwendet, bei denen jedem Sensor und jedem Aktor eine eigene Leitung zugeführt wurde (strenge Sterntopologie). In komplexeren Anlagen sind damit sehr dicke, unhandliche Kabelbäume notwendig, die nur schwer erweiterbar sind. Außerdem können herkömmliche Steuerungen, die in großen Gebäuden verteilt sind, nur schwer für eine zentrale Administration vernetzt werden.
Seit einigen Jahren etablieren sich nun verschiedene Feldbussysteme auch in der Gebäudeautomatisierung (building automation). Dort ermöglichen sie eine durchgängige, gewerkeübergreifende Vernetzung aller Komponenten der Automatisierungsanlagen. Die Hauptaufgabe eines Bussystems in der Gebäudeautomatisierung (Gebäudebus) ist die Übertragung von Zähl- und Meßwerten, Meldungen sowie Schalt- und Stellbefehlen.
Die Vorteile des Einsatzes von Bussystemen in der Gebäudeautomatisierung sind
• erhebliche Kabeleinsparung, weil im Falle des häufig verwendeten Linienbusses eine einzige Busleitung sämtliche Einzelverbindungen zwischen jedem Sensor/ Aktor an die zugehörige Steuerung ersetzt,
• damit geringere Kabel- und Verlegekosten sowie leichtere Erweiterbarkeit,
• einheitliche Kommunikation durch die Verwendung standardisierter Protokolle des ISO- OSI- Schichtenmodells,
• leichtere Änderung der Automatisierungsfunktion bei Nutzungsänderung durch Umprogrammierung und
• Möglichkeit der Integration von Systemen unterschiedlicher Gewerke.
Hauptanwendungsbereiche der Feldbussysteme im Gebäude sind Beleuchtung, Jalousie/ Rolläden, Heizung, Klima, Lastmanagement, Überwachung, Störungsmeldung und Zugangssicherung.
Hier eine Auswahl von Bussystemen, deren Protokolle offengelegt sind:
• Local Operating Network (LON), Bussystem mit 'verteilter Intelligenz' für die Gebäudeautomatisierung, offengelegt im LonMark-Standard.
• European Installation Bus (EIB), ebenfalls ein Bussystem für die gewerkeübergreifende Gebäudeleittechnik.
• European Home System (EHS), das vorrangig auf den Heimbereich (home automation) ausgerichtet ist.
• BatiBus.
• Process Field Bus (Profibus) für die industrielle Automatisierung, mit dem Profil GA auch für Gebäudeautomation einsetzbar, (DIN 19245 und in EN 50170 Teil 2).
• Interbus S, hauptsächlicher Einsatz in der industriellen Automatisierung, Anwendungen für Gebäudeautomation sind möglich (DIN E 19258).

CAD
Engl. Abk. für Computer-Aided Design. Im deutschen Sprachgebrauch sind dafür auch die Termini rechnerunterstützter Entwurf bzw. rechnerunterstützte Konstruktion üblich (CAD-System).


CAD-System
Computerbasiertes System zur Unterstützung von Entwurfsprozessen (CAD).

Einsatzgebiete von C-S. sind:
• der rechnerunterstützte Entwurf,
• die rechnerunterstützte Projektierung,
• die rechnerunterstützte Konstruktion,
• die rechnerunterstützte Dokumentation und
• die rechnerunterstützte Zeichnungserstellung.
Zwar ist rechnerunterstützter Entwurf (CAD) schon in der Anfangsphase der Entwicklung elektronischer Computer durchgeführt worden, Breitenwirksamkeit erzielte CAD jedoch erst mit der Entwicklung der Mikroelektronik, insbesondere von Mikrorechnern. Erst diese ermöglichte die Verfügbarkeit von Rechentechnik in Arbeitsplatznähe sowie den Übergang zur interaktiven Arbeitsweise auf der Basis einer grafisch orientierten Mensch-Rechner-Kommunikation. Heute ist Computergrafik integraler Bestandteil von C. Dem entspricht auch der gerätetechnische Aufbau von C. Neben Rechnern kommen u. a. vielfältige grafische Geräte zur Eingabe und Ausgabe zum Einsatz.


CANFM
Engl. Abk. für Computer Aided Network Facilities Management.

CANFM-System
Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management

Change Management
Aus dem Englischen auch in den deutschen Sprachgebrauch übernommener Oberbegriff für alle Prozesse des Facility Management, die die Planung, Durchführung und Kontrolle von wesentlichen Veränderungen in Unternehmen/Institutionen bezüglich ihrer Facilities (Objekte) betreffen.

Typische Beispiele für häufig vorkommende innerbetriebliche Veränderungen sind:
• Umzüge (Umzusplanung)
• Rekonstruktionen
• Renovierungen
• Modernisierung von Ausrüstungen
• Betriebswerweiterungen
• Betriebsverkleinerungen
• Anpassung von Infrastruktursystemen
• Stillegung, Verkauf, Abbau, Abriß
Diese Veränderungen können sich auf einzelne Arbeitsplätze, ganze Abteilungen, Gebäude, Werkshallen oder Infrastruktursysteme wie Kommunikationsnetzwerke beziehen. Die jeweiligen Planungs-, Management- und Kontrollaufgaben sind entsprechend vielfältig und haben sehr unterschiedliche Komplexität. Ein Maß für die Häufigkeit bestimmter Veränderungen ist die sogenannte Churn Rate.

Da die Durchführung von Veränderungen i. allg. empfindliche Beeinträchtigungen der normalen betrieblichen Abläufe bis hin zum Ausfall von Produktion bzw. Dienstleistung zur Folge haben kann, ist eine genaue Planung der Veränderungen mit dem Ziel der Reduzierung der Beeinträchtigungen auf ein Mindestmaß eine sehr wichtige Aufgabe, die in komplexen Situationen mit Hilfe von Computertechnik durchgeführt werden sollte. Dafür bietet sich Computer-Aided Facility Management (CAFM) an. Unter der Voraussetzung, daß die betriebliche CAFM-Lösung den aktuellen Stand hinreichend genau repräsentiert, bietet CAFM zunächst einmal die Grundlage dafür, den Ausgangszustand für Veränderungen in kompakter, übersichtlicher und anschaulicher Form zur Verfügung zu haben. In interaktiver Arbeitsweise können dann entsprechende Veränderungen (z. B. Umzüge) am Bildschirm in verschiedenen Varianten simuliert werden, bevor man einen bestimmten Prozeßablauf festlegt und dann mit Rechnerunterstützung begleitet, kontrolliert und abrechnet. Über diese interaktive Arbeitsweise hinaus lassen sich natürlich auch viele Teilprozesse automatisiert planen, beauftragen, kontrollieren und abrechnen. Einige Beispiele dafür sind:
• die automatisiert erstellte Zuordnung von Facilities zu einzelnen Räumen (zunächst ohne Planung der Anordnung dieser Objekte in den Räumen),
• die automatisierte Planung der Anordnung von Mobiliar in einem Büroraum, dem es im Rahmen einer Umzugsplanung zugeordnet wurde (Facility Layout, Layout-Entwurf),
• die automatisierte Planung der Anordnung von Maschinen und anderen Ausrüstungen in einer Fabrikhalle (Fabrik Layout),
• das automatische Planen aller Folgemaßnahmen, die mit dem Umzug eines Arbeitsplatzes verbunden sind (z. B. Generierung von Umzugsaufträgen für alle mit dem Arbeitsplatz verbundenen Möbel und anderen Objekte, sowie von Aufträgen für die Durchführung notwendiger Veränderungen im Kommunikationsnetz),
• die automatische Planung des Ersetzens aller Facilities eines Typs durch die eines anderen Typs im Rahmen von Modernisierungsmaßnahmen (z. B. Austausch veralteter PCs gegen neue),
• die automatische Nachführung von Dokumentationen im Zuge der eingetretenen Veränderungen (Dokumentationspflege, Dokumenten-Management).
Bedingt einerseits durch die rasante Entwicklung der Kommunikationstechnik und andererseits durch Auswirkungen von Veränderungen in anderen Bereichen auf die betrieblichen Kommunikationsnetze unterliegen letztere relativ häufig mehr oder weniger umfangreichen Änderungsanforderungen. Zur Bewältigung der entsprechenden Aufgaben des C. M. wird zunehmend Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management (CANFM) genutzt (siehe auch Kabelmanagementsystem, Netzwerkdokumentationssystem). Um nicht bei jeder Veränderung, insbesondere Erweiterung, eines Unternehmens bzw. einer Institution neue Kommunikationsleitungen verlegen zu müssen, wird zumindest für den Bürobereich die Einführung einer strukturierten Verkabelung empfohlen. Die Nutzung der VLAN-Technik (Virtual Local Area Network) ist eine weitere Möglichkeit zur Erhöhung der Flexibilität von Kommunikationsnetzen im Sinne einer leichten Anpaßbarkeit dieser Infrastruktur an die dynamische Bildung von Arbeits- bzw. Projektgruppen in Unternehmen/Institutionen.


Churn Rate
Prozentualer Anteil von genutzter Fläche (oder der Arbeitsplätze) eines Unternehmens bzw. einer Institution, der jährlich einem Wechsel durch Umzüge unterliegt.

In der Literatur wird über C. R. zwischen 20 % und 50 % berichtet. Beispiele sind 30 % für die nationale C. R. der USA, 20 % als C. R. von US-amerikanischen Regierungsinstitutionen und Universitäten sowie etwa 50 % für den Dienstleistungssektor der USA. Auf Grund derartig hoher Werte der C. R. und der damit verbundenen Kosten kommt der Umzugsplanung eine große Bedeutung zu (siehe auch Change Management).


Computer-Aided Facility Management
Anwendung der Computertechnik auf das Facility Management, Abk.: CAFM.

In Computer-Aided Facility Management Systemen (CAFM-Systemen) werden sowohl die Orte (Standorte, Einbauorte) als auch die spezifischen Eigenschaften (z.B. technische, funktionale, organisatorische und betriebswirtschaftliche Parameter) von Objekten (Facilities) wie Grundstücke, Gebäude, Räume in Gebäuden, Netzwerke, Maschinen, Anlagen, EDV, Inventar abgebildet. CAFM-Systeme stellen bezüglich ihrer Softwarearchitektur oft eine Kombination von CAD-Systemen und DBMS (Database Management System) dar. Die Facilities werden dann in ihrem geographischen bzw. geometrischen Kontext auf der Basis von digitalen Karten oder Grundrißzeichnungen visualisiert. Rein alphanumerisch arbeitende CAFM-Systeme verwalten den Ort in Form von attributiven Ortsbezeichnungen (z.B. Gebäudename, Raum-Nr.) im DBMS. Die speziellen Eigenschaften und Parameter der Facilities werden generell in der Datenbank (DBS) verwaltet.

Die Funktionalität von CAFM-Systemen umfaßt u. a. Hilfsmittel
• zur Gebäudemodellierung (grafisch oder alphanumerisch) für die möglichst effiziente Ortsverwaltung der Facilities,
• für die effektive Erfassung von Facilities bei der Einführung von CAFM,
• für die Unterstützung der kompletten Neuplanung von Infrastruktursystemen, wie Klima-, Lüftungssysteme, Sanitäranlagen und Kommunikationsnetze,
• für Raumplanung und Flächenmanagement,
• zur Planung von Umstrukturierungen, Erweiterungen und Abbaumaßnahmen (z.B. Umzug, Wartung, Neubau, Verschrottung), d.h. zum Change Management,
• zum Auffinden von Facilities nach verschiedenen Suchkriterien,
• zum Verwalten der Eigenschaften von Facilities, ihrer Beziehungen untereinander und ihrer Lebensstadien,
• zum Überwachen von zyklischen Managementaufgaben (z.B. Wartungs-, Überprüfungs- und Abrechnungszyklen),
• zum Generieren und Verwalten von Arbeitsaufträgen sowie
• für die Auswertung der in CAFM-System abgebildeten Facilities nach verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten (z.B. Flächen- und Kostenberechnungen, Inventar- und Gerätelisten, Ausfallzeiten).
Im Anwendungsbereich Netzwerke spricht man auch von Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management

Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management
Den Anwendungsbereich Netzwerke betreffender Spezialfall von Computer-Aided Facility Management, Abk.: CANFM.

CANFM-Systeme dienen zur rechnergestützten Planung, Dokumentation und Verwaltung von Netzwerken wie Daten-, Telekommunikations- und Überwachungsnetzen oder Netzen der Gebäudeleittechnik, Rohrleitungs- und Energieversorgungsnetzen. CANFM-Systeme im Bereich der Kommunikationsnetze bilden alle aktiven und passiven Netzwerkkomponenten (z.B. Computer, periphere Geräte, Telekommunikations-Endeinrichtungen, Verteiler, Router, Switches) und deren Verbindungen (über Kabel bzw. Adernpaare oder Infrarot- und Funkstrecken) untereinander im Kontext der Netzumgebung (Gelände, Gebäude, Etage, Raum) ab. Kennzeichnend sind
• der besondere Aufbau der Facilities, nämlich
o die Unterscheidung von Knoten- und Verbindungskomponenten (aktive und passive Netzwerkkomponenten einerseits, Trassen und Kabel andererseits),
o der hierarchische Aufbau von Knoten- und Verbindungskomponenten (z.B. Netzwerkschrank-Concentrator-Hubmodul und Kabel-Bündel-Ader),
o besondere Facilities, die spezielle funktionelle Eigenschaften haben und Knoten- oder Verbindungskomponenten zuzuordnen sind (z.B. Ports, Slots, Höheneinheiten),
• die Abbildung der speziellen Beziehungen unter den Facilities (die Verschaltungen)
• die Bereitstellung diverser Plausibiliätstests (z.B. Port-zu-Port-Kompatibilität, Einhaltung von Längenrestriktionen),
• das Vorhandensein spezieller Planungsfunktionen (z.B. Komponentenaustausch, Benennungsalgorithmen) unda
• die Verfügbarkeit von Schnittstellen zu dynamischen Management- und Controllingsystemen (z.B. Netzwerk Management Systemen (NMS) und TK-Anlagen-Managementsystemen).

Computergrafik
1. Mit Hilfe von Computern und grafischen Geräten erzeugtes Bild.

2. Fachgebiet, das sich mit der Erzeugung, Beschreibung und Manipulation von Bildern mittels Rechner und grafischer Geräte beschäftigt. Die angewendeten Methoden und Hilfsmittel werden häufig ebenfalls unter dem Begriff C. zusammengefaßt.

Im Unterschied zur Bildverarbeitung, bei der aus Bildern von natürlichen Objekten rechnerinterne Modelle abgeleitet werden, geht es bei der C. um die Generierung von Bildern entweder unmittelbar durch den Menschen in interaktiver Arbeitsweise oder aus rechnerinternen Modellen. Um dies zu betonen, wird manchmal auch der Begriff generative Computergrafik verwendet.

Für die Anwendung der C. benötigt man mindestens
• ein Hilfsmittel zur Eingabe von Informationen (Befehle, grafische Primitive, komplette Modelle oder Teile davon) in ein Computergrafiksystem,
• ein System zur Verwaltung und Verarbeitung dieser Informationen und
• ein Gerät zur Ausgabe von Grafiken bzw. Bildern.
Typische Eingabe-Hilfsmittel sind: Tastaturen, Digitalisierer, Menütableaus, Bildschirmgeräte mit auf dem Schirm dargestellten Menüs sowie für die Positionierung und Identifikation von grafischen Objekten die Maus, die Rollkugel, der Steuerknüppel und der elektronische Stift jeweils in Verbindung mit einem Bildschirm.

Zur Ausgabe von Grafiken dienen vorrangig Plotter, Grafikdrucker und Bildschirmgeräte.

Zur Informationsverarbeitung wird meist ein vom Nutzer frei programmierbarer Computer verwendet, der auch für über die C. hinausgehende Zwecke eingesetzt werden kann. Immer häufiger kommt zusätzlich leistungsfähige Rechentechnik zur effektiven Ausführung spezieller grafischer Funktionen zum Einsatz (Grafikkarten). Mit der zunehmenden Rechnerunterstützung vielfältiger gesellschaftlicher Prozesse (Computer-Aided Facility Management, rechnerunterstützte Konstruktion, rechnerunterstützter Entwurf (CAD), rechnerunterstützte Fertigung (CAM), rechnerunterstützte Projektierung, rechnerunterstützte Zeichnungserstellung, rechnerunterstützte Tomographie) gewinnt die C. als entscheidendes Mittel zur Gestaltung einer effektiven Mensch-Rechner-Schnittstelle wachsende Bedeutung.

DBMS
Engl. Abk. für Database Management System


Database Management System
Eine Menge von Programmen, die einen großen strukturierten und persistenten Datenbestand verwalten. Gleichzeitig werden einfache Zugriffs- und Abfragemöglichkeiten geboten. Abk.: DBMS

Ein D.M.S. ist eine extrem komplexe Sammlung von Programmen, die die Organisation, Speicherung und Rekonstruktion von Daten einer Datenbank kontrolliert. Gleichzeitig werden Sicherheit und Integrität der Datenbank überwacht. Das DBMS akzeptiert Anfragen von Anwendungsprogrammen und weist das Betriebssystem an, die angeforderten Daten zu überstellen.

Durch die Nutzung eines DBMS können Informationssysteme wesentlich einfacher an die jeweiligen Erfordernisse angepaßt werden. Neue Kategorien von Daten können hinzugefügt werden, ohne das bestehende System zu gefährden.


Datenbank
Eine oder mehrere stärker strukturierte Mengen persistenter Daten, die gewöhnlich von einer Software verwaltet werden, die Veränderungen und Abfragen zuläßt.

Eine Datenbank ist eine Komponente eines Database Management System (DBMS).
Digitalisierung
1. Erzeugung rechnerinterner (digitaler) Repräsentationen von Photos, Grafiken, Gemälden, technischen Zeichnungen, Bauplänen, Karten, ganzen Büchern u. a., die auf Papier, Folie oder Mikrofiche vorliegen, bzw. von analogen Video- oder Audio-Aufzeichnungen.
2. Automatisierte Erzeugung rechnerinterner (digitaler) Modelle realer Objekte.

Im Bereich des Computer-Aided Facility Management (CAFM) ist die D. von Altdokumenten (z. B. Bauzeichnungen) von großer Bedeutung. Diese Altdokumente repräsentieren häufig einen umfangreichen Teil der Ausgangsinformationen für den Aufbau einer CAFM-Lösung. Sie müssen deshalb zunächst einmal im Computer in digitaler Form abgebildet werden. Die D. von Altdokumenten kann in verschiedenen Arbeitsweisen erfolgen. Eine nun schon klassische und heute nicht mehr so verbreitete Technik besteht im interaktiven 'Nachzeichnen' der Vorlage am Digitalisiergerät. Das Altdokument wird dabei auf ein planeres Digitalisiertablett aufgespannt. Anschließend werden z. B. mit Hilfe eines in x- und y-Richtung verschiebbaren Fadenkreuzes relevante Punkte in der Zeichnung angefahren und deren Koordinaten automatisch übernommen. Ein Nachteil dieser Form der D. ist der große Arbeitsaufwand, ein Vorteil besteht darin, daß die digitale Repräsentation der Vorlage im Rechner durch den Nutzer des Digitalisiergerätes beeinflußbar ist und damit gut strukturiert werden kann.

Ein spezieller Fall der D. ist das Scannen, das nicht nur für die Erfassung von technischen Zeichnungen, sondern auch von Photos, Gemälden und anderen zweidimensionalen Vorlagen genutzt wird. Das Ergebnis des Scannens ist ein Abbild der Vorlage, das ausschließlich aus Rasterpunkten zusammengesetzt ist. Für viele Zwecke sind solche Rasterbilder nicht ausreichend, zur weiteren Verarbeitung von Plänen benötigt man als Beschreibungselemente mindestens Punkte und Linien sowie natürlich Zeichen und andere Symbole. Um von reinen Rasterdarstellungen zu vorrangig durch Linien beschriebenen digitalen Repräsentationen zu kommen, wird der Prozeß der sogenannten Vektorisierung durchgeführt. Dabei werden näherungsweise auf einer Geraden liegende Rasterpunkte zu einer Strecke (oft auch Vektoren genannt) zusammengefaßt, die dann nur noch durch die Koordinaten von Anfangs- und Endpunkt sowie durch Linienattribute beschrieben werden.

Je besser strukturiert eine digitale grafische Darstellung ist, um so besser kann sie für nachfolgende Verarbeitungsprozesse genutzt werden. Im Bereich des CAFM ist es z. B. wichtig, die festen Teile eines Bauwerkes und Inventar voneinander unterscheiden zu können. Hat man als Vorlage einen Geschoßplan, in dem auch Mobiliar in den einzelnen Räumen eingezeichnet ist, so reicht eine unstrukturierte Vektordarstellung zur Trennung von Bausubstanz und Mobiliar nicht aus. Hier ist vielmehr das Gebiet der automatisierten Bildinterpretation bzw. Objekterkennung herausgefordert. Eine ähnliche Situation liegt vor, wenn es darum geht, Räume in Geschoßplänen zu identifizieren, ihre Begrenzungen zu erkennen und in einer CAFM-Lösung automatisiert entsprechende Raumzonen zu generieren (Raumzonenverwaltung).

Die D. im Sinne einer automatisierten Erzeugung rechnerinterner Modelle realer Objekte betrifft im Bereich des CAFM z. B. die Generierung von 3D-Modellen von Bauwerken, Anlagenkomponenten oder anderer Facilities auf der Grundlage einer 3D-Vermessung z. B. mittels 3D-Scanning oder Photogrammetrie.

Dokumentationserstellung
Zusammenstellung einer Dokumentation.

Eine Dokumentation besteht aus verschiedenen Objekten, z.B. aus Texten, Tabellen, Bildern, Videoaufnahmen. Für eine vollständig rechnergestützte Dokumentation müssen diese Objekte in elektronisch lesbare Form gebracht werden (z.B. durch Scannen). Die Zusammenstellung und Verwaltung übernimmt ein Dokumenten Management System.
Dokumentationspflege
Aktualisierung und Reorganisation einer bestehenden Dokumentation.


Dokumentationsverteilung
Weiterleitung von Dokumentationen von der Erstellung und Überarbeitung an den Nutzer

Dokumentationen zu Systemen, die ständig weiterentwickelt werden, unterliegen häufigen Aktualisierungen und Änderungen. Durch die D. muß sichergestellt werden, daß alle Nutzer über die aktuelle Version der Dokumentation verfügen.


Dokumenten-Management
Ganzheitliche (elektronische) Verwaltung von Dokumentationen.

Beim rechnergestützten D.-M. werde Informationen über Inhalt, Historie und Aufbewahrung von Dokumenten elektronisch verwaltet. Im Idealfall liegen auch die Dokumente selbst in elektronischer Form vor, und es werden Dokumentationserstellung, Dokumentationspflege und -verwaltung sowie Dokumentationsverteilung durchgängig rechnergestützt durchgeführt.


Einrichtungsplanung
Auswahl und Planung der Anordnung von Einrichtungsgegenständen in Räumen.

Die Planung der Einrichtung von Räumen erfolgt unter funktionalen, ergonomischen, wirtschaftlichen und ästhetischen Gesichtspunkten nach bestimmten Regeln und Normen. Sie ist eine wichtige Aufgabe des Facility Management und wird zunehmend mit Unterstützung von Computertechnik durchgeführt (Computer-Aided Facility Management).

Eine automatisierte E. schließt den computerbasierten Entwurf der Anordnung von Einrichtungsgegenständen, insbesondere von Mobiliar, in vorgegebenen Räumen ein (Facility Layout, Layout-Entwurf). Mit Hilfe von CAD-Systemen und Computergrafik können die mittels Rechner geplanten Inneneinrichtungen visualisiert werden. Typische Darstellungsformen sind Präsentationen des Layouts in der Draufsicht auf den jeweiligen Raum (2D-Computergrafik), einfach schattierte 3D-Darstellungen der Objekte in ihrer räumlichen Anordnung (3D-Computergrafik) bzw. photorealistische Computergrafiken von Inneneinrichtungen unter Berücksichtigung komplexer Beleuchtungsverhältnisse.

Automatisch erstellte Planungsergebnisse können meist nur als ein erster Vorschlag gelten, der dann in interaktiver Arbeitsweise bis hin zur allseits akzeptierten Planungsvariante verändert wird.


Fabrik Layout
1. Auf der Grundlage vorgegebener Ziele und unter Einhaltung vielfältiger Restriktionen vorgenommener Entwurf der räumlichen Anordnung von industriellen Objekten (Facilities) in einer Fabrik.
2. Ergebnis dieses Entwurfs.

F. L. ist ein Spezialfall des Facility Layouts. Anstelle von F. L. wird häufig auch im deutschen Sprachgebrauch der aus dem Englischen stammende Begriff Plant Layout verwendet. F. L. ist ein Anwendungsbereich des Layout Entwurfs bzw. der Layout Optimierung mit folgenden spezifischen Charakteristika:
• Bei Industrieanlagen geht es um höchste Produktivität und Effizienz der Recourcen-Nutzung, d. h. die Anordnung der einzelnen Facilities muß einerseits möglichst raumsparend sein und andererseits den Bedürfnissen der Produktionsprozesse optimal genügen.
• Dies führt dazu, daß die Geometrie der Facilities im F. L. sehr genau berücksichtigt werden muß. Dies betrifft oft nur die Abmessungen der Objekte in ihrem Grundriß, in besonders komplexen, hochautomatisierten Industrieanlagen aber auch die dritte Dimension (z.B. bei Chemieanlagen und Montagehallen der Automobilindustrie mit ihren vielfältigen, übereinander angeordneten Förder- bzw. Transporteinrichtungen). Es gibt auch Layout-Probleme, bei denen die Geometrie der anzuordnenden Objekte eine untergeordnete Rolle spielt (Location Problem).
• Für das F. L. reichen aber geometrische Aspekte bei weitem nicht aus. Vielmehr haben ganze Produktionsabläufe und funktional-technische Charakteristika der einzelnen Facilities den Layout-Entwurf entscheidend zu beeinflussen. So sollten z.B. Maschinen, zwischen denen ein besonders intensiver innerbetrieblicher Transport stattfindet, nahe beieinander angeordnet werden. Zur Veranschaulichung solcher Transportflüsse und ihrer Stärke eignen sich Sencke Diagramme.
• Industrielle Facilities lassen sich aufgrund ihres Eigengewichtes und ihrer vielfältigen Verbindungen zu anderen Komponenten von Produktionseinrichtungen nicht so leicht hin- und herschieben. Ein F. L. muß dementsprechend über längere Zeit den betrieblichen Bedürfnissen gut genügen. Dies wiederum erfordert besondere Sorgfalt und Weitsicht, insbesondere die Berücksichtigung absehbarer Veränderungen, beim Prozeß des F. L..
Im Zusammenhang mit der Anordnung von Maschinen und anderen Facilities in einer Fabrikhalle spricht man auch von Hallen-Layout.

Facilities
Aus dem Engl. stammende Bezeichnung für technische Einrichtung, Objekt des Facility-Management.

Wichtige F. von Unternehmen bzw. Institutionen sind u. a. Grundstücke, Gebäude, Räume in Gebäuden (Flächenmanagement), Infrastruktursysteme mit ihren einzelnen Komponenten wie Klima-, Lüftungs- und Heizungsanlagen sowie Kommunikations- und Energieversorgungsnetzwerke, Rohrleitungsnetze, Sanitäreinrichtungen, Maschinen, Anlagenkomponenten, Geräte, Arbeitsplätze, Mobiliar und Computer.

Für viele betriebliche Prozesse, die F. betreffen, werden zunehmend Computersysteme für das Computer-Aided Facility Management (CAFM) genutzt. Netzwerke mit ihren Komponenten sind besonders wichtige und komplexe F., für ihre computerbasierte Planung, Verwaltung und Dokumentation kommt Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management zum Einsatz. F. sind stets auch räumlich anzuordnen. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Entwurf solcher Anordnungen spricht man auch von Facility Layout.


Facility Layout
1. Entwurf der räumlichen Anordnung von Facilities (Objekten) auf der Grundlage vorgegebener Ziele und unter Einhaltung von Restriktionen.
2. Ergebnis dieses Layout-Entwurfs.

F. L. gehört zu den Bereichen des Facility Management, die die Planung des Einsatzes betrieblicher Ressourcen betreffen. In den meisten Anwendungsfällen von F. L. in der Praxis handelt es sich um die Behandlung komplizierter Entwurfsprobleme, für die der Einsatz von Computertechnik sinnvoll oder gar unumgänglich ist (rechnerunterstützter Entwurf, Computer-Aided Facility Management). Dies gilt z. B. für die Planung einer möglichst günstigen (optimalen) Anordnung von Maschinen und anderen Objekten in Werkshallen einer Fabrik (Fabrik Layout) oder die räumliche Auslegung von Netzwerken (Netzwerk-Layout).


Facility Management
Unternehmerischer Prozeß, der durch die Integration von Planung, Kontrolle und Bewirtschaftung bei Gebäuden, Anlagen und Einrichtungen (Facilities) und unter Berücksichtigung von Arbeitsplatz und Arbeitsumfeld eine verbesserte Nutzungsflexibilität, Arbeitsproduktivität und Kapitalrentabilität zum Ziel hat. 'Facilities' werden als strategische Ressourcen in den unternehmerischen Gesamtprozeß integriert (GEFMA, Deutscher Verband für Facility-Management).

Mittels F. M. können Unternehmen und Institutionen die Nutzung ihrer Liegenschaften, Gebäudekomplexe, Maschinensysteme und Anlagen sowie solche Infrastrukturen wie Kommunikationsnetzwerke durch effiziente Planung und Verwaltung optimieren. Dies betrifft den gesamten 'Lebenszyklus' dieser Objekte (Facilities), d. h. u. a. den Kauf, Bau oder die Anmietung, Bewirtschaftung bzw. Betrieb sowie Umzug, Umbau, Abriß bzw. Verkauf. Eine rationelle, systematische Planung und Durchführung entsprechender Prozesse über eine hinreichend lange Zeit kann zu großen Kosteneinsparungen bzw. Erträgen führen. Voraussetzung dafür ist allerdings die schnelle und aufwandsarme Bereitstellung korrekter, insbesondere aktueller Informationen, die in größeren Unternehmen/Institutionen sehr umfangreich und komplex sind. Deshalb bietet sich der Einsatz von Computertechnik für F. M. geradezu an. Bisher sind es vor allem größere Industriebetriebe, öffentliche Einrichtungen (z. B. Universitäten), Banken und Versicherungen sowie Betreiber großer Verkehrseinrichtungen wie Flughäfen, die sich zu F. M. bekennen und Computertechnik dafür einsetzen. Dies betrifft vor allem folgende Bereiche:
• Planung, z. B. die Planung des Flächenbedarfs, der Raumnutzung, der räumlichen Anordnung von Maschinen und Anlagen, der Auslegung von Netzwerken,
• Gebäudeautomatisierung,
• Bewirtschaftung von Liegenschaften, Bauwerken, Räumen und Anlagen (Reinigung, Renovierung, Wartung), insbesondere auch das Change Management (Umzüge, Umbauten, Erweiterungen).
Diese vielfältigen Prozesse des F. M. können heute effizient durch komplexe, computerbasierte Systeme unterstützt werden, die meist über eine grafische Oberfläche (Computergrafik) verfügen. Man spricht von Computer-Aided Facility Management (CAFM), im Spezialfall des Anwendungsbereiches Netzwerke auch von Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management (CANFM). Für CANFM-Systeme sind auch die eingeschränkteren Bezeichnungen Netzwerkdokumentationssysteme und Kabelmanagementsysteme (oder Kabeldokumentationssysteme) gebräuchlich.

Zum Planungsbereich innerhalb des F. M. gehört u. a. das Facility Layout. Dabei geht es um die räumliche Anordnung von Objekten (Facilities), z. B. um die Anordnung von Maschinen in einer Werkhalle (Fabrik Layout) oder um die räumliche Auslegung von Netzwerken in Geländen, Gebäuden bzw. Industrieanlagen (Netzwerk Layout).

Diverse Prozesse des F. M. werden von vielen Betrieben bzw. Institutionen externen Unternehmen übertragen (Outsourcing von F. M.-Dienstleistungen).


Flaechenmanagement
Planung und Verwaltung von Flächen in Geländen und Gebäuden.

Neben der Raumzonenverwaltung gehören zum Flächenmanagement z.B. die Vergabe und Abrechnung von Mietverträgen, Ermittlung von Betriebskosten sowie Planung und Abrechnung von Bau- und Rekonstruktionsarbeiten. Die Umzugsplanung ist eine der komplexesten Aufgaben des Flächenmanagements.

GIS
Geoinformationssystem

Gebaeudeautomatisierung
Rechnergestützte Steuerung aller für Betrieb und Nutzung eines Gebäudes benötigter Funktionen

Geoinformationssystem
System zur Erfassung, Pflege und Verwaltung von raumbezogenen (geografischen) Informationen

Havarie-Management
Management zur Schadensbegrenzung im Havariefall.

Immer komplexer werdende technische Systeme erhöhen das Gefährdungspotential für diese Systeme selbst und deren Umgebungen durch Havarien. Dem H.-M. kommt deshalb wachsende Bedeutung zu. Computer-Aided Facility Management (CAFM) kann helfen, die Auswirkungen von Havarien in möglichst engen Grenzen zu halten. In einem guten CAFM-System liegt ein Abbild der aktuellen Situation z. B. in einem ganzen industriellen Unternehmen vor, und zwar so, daß
• mittels Computergrafiken eine leichte Orientierung möglich ist,
• schnell zwischen großen Übersichten und Detaildarstellungen gewechselt werden kann,
• sich für das H.-M. wichtige Informationen per Knopfdruck abrufen lassen,
• bestimmte Schlußfolgerungen und das Unterbreiten von Handlungsvorschlägen dem System selbst überlassen werden kann.
Ein typisches Beispiel für erfolgreiches H.-M. mit Hilfe von CAFM ist die Information der Feuerwehr z. B. über die aktuelle Lagerung von brennbaren Stoffen und giftigen Chemikalien bereits bei ihrem Eintreffen in einem von einem Brand heimgesuchten Werk. Ein anders Beispiel betrifft die Unterspülung von frisch gegossenen Fundamenten aufgrund der Zerstörung einer Wasserleitung durch einen Bagger. Die schnelle Verfügbarkeit der Information über die nächsten Möglichkeiten der Absperrung der geborstenen Leitung entscheidet wesentlich über das Ausmaß der Bauschäden.

ISO-OSI-Schichtenmodell
Durch die ISO (International Standardization Organization) standartisiertes, aus sieben Schichten bestehendes Modell der Kommunikation in Open System Interconnections (OSI). Die Schichten werden von unten nach oben mit 1 bis 7 durchnummeriert. Im folgenden werden diese Schichten kurz charakterisiert.

Schicht 1: Bitübertragungsschicht:
• Aufbau, Zustandsüberwachung, Abbau einer ungesicherten Systemverbindung
• Herstellung einer Zweipunktverbindung zwischen zwei Datenendeinrichtungen (DTE Data Terminal Equipment) bzw. einer DTE und einer Schaltkreisendeinrichtung (DCE Data Circuit Terminating Equipment)
• transparente Bitübertragung
Schicht 2: Verbindungssicherungsschicht:
• Abstraktion von den physikalischen Verbindungen zu logischen 2-Punkt-Verbindungen
• Verwaltung der Verbindungen
• Zusammenfassung von (binären) Datenpaketen
• Fehlererkennung und -behebung auf Paketebene
Schicht 3: Vermittlungsschicht:
• globale Sicht auf das Netz über 2-Punkt-Verbindungen hinweg
• Routingfunktionen zum Auffinden des optimalen Weges durch das Netz unter Berücksichtigung von Länge, aktueller Belastung, Störungen
Schicht 4: Transportschicht:
• Bereitstellung einer End-to-end-Verbindung
Schicht 5: Kommunikationssteuerschicht:
• Errichtung einer Kommunikationssitzung unter Angabe eines Kommunikationspartners, Ermittlung der Adresse, Anforderung einer Verbindung von der Transportschicht
Schicht 6: Datendarstellungsschicht:
• anwendungsspezifische Formattransformationen auf ein allen Kommunikationspartnern verständliches Format
• Anwendung kryptografischer Verfahren (Codierungen)
Schicht 7:
• Schnittstelle zwischen dem Übertragungsmedium als Ganzes (Schicht 1-6) und spezifischen AnwendungsprozessenFestlegung von Regeln für die Kontrolle des Informationsaustausches zwischen Anwendungsprozessen sowie Definition einer zugehörigen Semantik und Syntax
Das ISO/OSI-S. dient der logischen Beschreibung von Kommunikationsprozessen in Kommunikationsnetzwerken, deren Planung, Verwaltung und Dokumentation zunehmend mit Hilfe von Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management durchgeführt wird. Mit Hilfe von Network Management Systemen hingegen erfolgt ds Management von Kommunikationsnetzwerken auf der Grundlage der logischen Sicht auf das Netz.

Kabelmanagementsystem
Anderer, ebenfalls gebräuchlicher Begriff für CANFM-System.

Der Begriff schränkt allerdings die umfangreiche Funktionalität von CANFM-Systemen (Computer-Aided Newtwork Facilities Management) auf die Verwaltung von Kabeln ein. CANFM-Systeme dagegen dienen aber auch zur Planung, Verwaltung und Dokumentation von Funk- und Infrarotübertragungsstrecken, der passiven und aktiven Gerätetechnik, sowie spezieller Objektbeziehungen (Connectivity) im Kontext der geografischen bzw. architektonischen Netzumgebung, z.B. auch der Modellierung von Trassen.


Kommunikationsnetzwerk
Netzwerk, das zur Übertragung von Nachrichten (Daten, Sprache, Bildern, Videos) oder Signalen der Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik dient.

Zu K. gehören Daten-, Telekommunikations- und Überwachungsnetze sowie Netze der Gebäudeleittechnik. K. bestehen aus Knoten- und Vesbindungskomponenten (entsprechend den Knoten und Kanten in Netzwerken allgemein).

Bei den Knotenkomponenten werden passive und aktive Komponenten unterschieden. Die passiven Knoten dienen lediglich der Weiterleitung, Lenkung und Verteilung von Übertragungssignalen, ohne diese in ihrer Qualität zu verändern. Beispiele dafür sind Patch- bzw. Rangierfelder, Anschlußdosen, Spleißboxen und Kupplungen (z.B. Muffen). Aktive Komponenten dienen zur Verstärkung (z.B. Repeater) und Umwandlung (z.B. optoelektronische Wandler) oder zur softwaregesteuerten Verteilung von Signalen (z.B. Router und Switches).

Die Verbindungskomponenten in Kommunikationsnetzen können Kabel, Infrarot- oder Funkstrecken sein. Im Bereich der Kommunikationskabel werden bezüglich ihrer Anschlußmöglichkeit konfektionierte, d.h. mit Steckern versehene, und nichtkonfektionierte Kabel unterschieden. Desweiteren werden Kabel bezüglich ihres Materials bzw. internen Aufbaus klassifiziert: Verdrillte Kupferkabel (je nach Grad der Schirmung UTP, FTP, USTP, STP usw.), Coaxialkabel, Lichtwellenleiter (Multimode- oder Singlemode-LWL).

K. werden zunehmend mit Hilfe von Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management geplant, verwaltet und dokumentiert.


Layout Entwurf
Prozeß des Entwurfs eines Layouts, d. h. einer Anordnung von Objekten.

Ein Layout kann ausschließlich vom Menschen, in interaktiver Arbeitsweise rechnerunterstützt oder vollautomatisch durch einen Computer entworfen werden. Beispiele sind Entwürfe der Anordung von Machinen, Anlagenkomponenten und von Mobiliar sowie die räumliche Auslegung von Netzwerken (Netzlayout).

Wichtige Anwendungsgebiete des L.-E. sind Facility Layout und insbesondere Fabrik Layout. Häufig kann ein Layout-Problem als Optimierungsaufgabe formalisiert und entsprechend behandelt werden.


Location Problem
Problem der Optimierung von Standorten für Ver- oder Entsorgungseinrichtungen.

Das L. P. spielt in sehr unterschiedlichen Bereichen eine große Rolle. Die Ver- und Entsorgungseinrichtungen, deren Standorte zu optimieren sind, können z. B. Supermärkte, Schulen und Kindertagesstätten zur Versorgung von Wohngebieten, Filialen einer Handelskette, Warenumschlagzentren, Recycling-Stützpunkte, Verteiler in Elektroenergieversorgungsnetzen und Konzentratoren in Kommunikationsnetzwerken sein. Das wichtigste Ziel der Optimierung bezieht sich meist in irgendeiner Weise auf die Länge der Wege zwischen Abnehmern, Verbrauchern und anderen Kunden sowie Zulieferern einerseits und den Ver- oder Entsorgungseinrichtungen andererseits. Dabei kann das Ziel z. B. in der Minimierung der durchschnittlichen Weglänge oder des längsten auftretenden Weges bestehen. Die mit Weglängen korrespondierenden Ziele beziehen Aspekte ein, die i. allg. weit über die begrenzte Lokalität der in Frage kommenden Standorte der Einrichtungen hinausgehen. Zusätzlich spielen bei der Behandlung des L. P. meist aber auch Ziele und Restriktionen eine wichtige Rolle, die sich ausschließlich auf diese Standorte beziehen. Ein Beispiel dafür ist die Festlegung des Standortes für einen Etagenverteiler in einem Kommunikationsnetzwerk, das in einem Gebäude installiert werden soll (Netzwerk-Layout). Vom Etagenverteiler gehen die einzelnen Leitungen sternförmig zu den Kommunikationsendgeräten, die in der Etage verteilt sind. Der Etagenverteiler sollte also so plaziert sein, daß diese Leitungen und die Steigleitung zu ihm insgesamt möglichst kurz werden. Andererseits kann er aber nicht an beliebiger Stelle auf der Etage, sondern nur in bestimmten, kleinen Räumen untergebracht werden. Falls ein solcher Raum erst zu schaffen ist, sind damit i. allg. an verschiedenen Stellen auf der Etage unterschiedliche Kosten verbunden. Diese gehen in das Optimierungsproblem ebenfalls mit ein. Viele L. P. lassen sich adäquat als mehrkriterielle Optimierungsprobleme fassen (Polyoptimierung). Bei L. P. geht es um die räumliche Anordnung (Engl. Layout) eines Objektes (Facility) oder mehrerer Facilities, allerdings beschränkt auf die Auswahl von Standorten. Bei allgemeineren Problemstellungen zur räumlichen Anordnung spricht man von Facility Layout, im Fall der Anordnung von industriellen Objekten wie Maschinen und Anlagenkomponenten in einer Fabrikhalle von Fabrik Layout oder Plant Layout (vgl. auch Layout Entwurf und Layout Optimierung).


LON
Local Operating Network


Messtechnik
Bereich der Technik, der sich mit dem Messen, d.h. der Erfassung von Zustandsgrößen in technischen oder natürlichen Systemen, mit dem Auswerten und Verarbeiten von Meßwerten sowie den dazu notwendigen technischen Hilfsmitteln befaßt.

Messungen werden für die Kontrolle und Überwachung, die Fehlerlokalisierung, die Zertifizierung oder die Steuerung von Systemen bzw. Teilsystemen genutzt. Messungen werden je nach Nutzungsart diskontinuierlich oder permanent durchgeführt. Nach der Signalform unterscheidet man die analoge und digitale Meßtechnik. Die M. ist auf die jeweils zu erfassende Meßgröße ausgerichtet, sie realisiert spezielle Meßverfahren. Die Protokollierung von Meßumgebung, Meßaufbau und Meßergebnissen erfolgt im sogenannten Meßprotokoll.

In der Gebäudeautomatisierung, im Computer-Aided Facility Management und im Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management spielt M. ein große Rolle, da mit ihrer Hilfe aktuelle Daten (z.B. Temperaturen in Gebäuden) erfaßt und in den entsprechenden computerbasierten Systemen ausgewertet bzw. weiterverarbeitet werden können (z.B. zur Minimierung von Heizkosten). Zur Temperaturmessung lassen sich sowohl einzelne (praktisch in einem Raumpunkt messende) Sensoren als auch lineare Meßfühler (faseroptische Temperaturmeßkabel) verwenden. Letztere lassen eine kontinuierliche Messung entlang einer beliebig gefährdeten Linie (etwa an Rohrleitungen oder in Kabeltrassen) zu.

In Kommunikationsnetzwerken werden in erster Linie
• die Qualität von physischen Übertragungsstrecken und
• die aktuelle Netzbelastung
gemessen. Ersteres umfaßt Messungen zum Verdrahtungsplan, zur Länge und zur Dämpfung, die Messung des Nah-/Nebensprechens (NEXT-Wert), des ACR-Werts, der Impedanz differenziert nach den zu messenden Übertragungsmedien (Kupfer, LWL) und unter Nutzung verschiedener Methoden (z.B. Spannungs- oder Widerstandsmessungen und Impulsmeßverfahren wie TDR, OTDR). Die Meßvorgaben (Grenzwerte) werden durch Normen spezifiziert (z.B. der US-Standard TIA TSB 67 oder die Europanorm EN 50173). Diese Messungen werden zur Abnahme von neuinstallierten Netzen, zu Netzüberprüfungen bei Netzerweiterungen oder Umstrukturierungsmaßnahmen bzw. zur Fehlersuche genutzt (s. auch Messweg). Entsprechende Meßprotokolle können in CANFM-Systeme eingehen und dort verwaltet werden.

Messweg
Im Bereich der Kommunikationsnetzwerke die zu messende Übertragungsstrecke, die sich ggf. als Kette von n hintereinandergeschalteten Einzel-Verbindungen über n-1 passive Knotenkomponenten (z.B. Datendose, Patch- bzw. Rangierfeld) ergibt.

In CANFM-Systemen (Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management) wird der M. oft in Form eines speziellen Signalweges verwaltet, die Meßergebnisse werden ihm als Meßprotokoll (Messtechnik) in Form eines ASCII-, Excel- oder csv-Files zugeordnet. Einzelne Meßgrößen werden direkt in die Datenbank von CANFM-Systemen übernommen (z.B. erfüllte Norm oder die Länge).


NMS
Abk. für Netzwerk Management System

Network Management System
Softwaresystem zur Verwaltung, Parametrisierung und kontinuierlichen Überwachung von Kommunikationsnetzwerken, abgekürzt NMS.

Im Unterschied zu CANFM-Systemen (Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management) erfolgt das Management vermöge der logischen Sicht auf das Netz (ISO/OSI-Schichtenmodell), d.h. es werden die Komponenten des Netzwerkes erfaßt, auf deren Zustände und Einstellungen über spezielle Abfrage- und Kommandosprachen (z.B. SNMP, das Simple Network Management Protocol) vom NMS zugegriffen werden kann. NMS verwalten logische Namen von Netzwerkkomponenten (z.B. Hostname), Adressen von Netzwerkkomponenten (MAC-Adressen und logische Adressen wie die IP-Adressen von Komponentenports), Einstellungen an aktiven Komponenten (z.B. Routingparameter) und logische Teilnetzstrukturen (Domains, Virtual Local Area Networks). Desweiteren werden temporäre Zustände von Komponenten (Up and Down) sowie Zustände der Netzwerkverbindungen (z.B. augenblickliche Netzlast, bottle necks) kontrolliert bzw. erfaßt und zugehörige Statistiken oder Historien angelegt.


Netzwerk
1.Darstellungs- oder Modellierungsform für verschiedene Problemstellungen (wie Transport-, Ver- und Entsorgungsprobleme) und komplizierte Prozeßabläufe (Prozesse und ihre Abhängigkeiten, sequentielle Abläufe) mit den Methoden der Graphentheorie.
2.Bezeichnung für Infrastruktursysteme, die netzartig aufgebaut sind (z.B. Verkehrs-, Rohrleitungs- oder Kommunikationsnetzwerke).

N. lassen sich gut durch Graphen beschreiben, d.h. sie bestehen aus Netzwerkknoten und Kanten, die die Verbindung von mindestens zwei Netzwerkknoten realisieren. Existiert die Verbindung nur in einer Richtung, werden sogenannte gerichtete Kanten genutzt. Kosten, die durch eine Verbindung von Netzwerkknoten entstehen, werden der entsprechenden Kante als ihre Bewertung zugeordnet. Durch die Netzwerkmodellierung sind Optimierungsverfahren wie die Bestimmung optimaler Wege und kostenmimimaler Flüsse anwendbar


Netzwerk-Layout
Räumliche Auslegung eines Netzwerkes in einem Gebiet, Gelände bzw. Bauwerk.

Beim N. L. ist i.allg. eine Vielzahl von Randbedingungen zu beachten. Dazu gehören fest vorgegebene Anschlußstellen für das auszulegende Netzwerk (z. B. Einspeisungen von Elektroenergie seitens übergeordneter Versorgungssysteme, Anschlüsse an fest lokalisierte Abnehmer). Weiterhin sind Knotenkomponenten von Netzen wie Verteiler, Pumpstationen und Steuerungs- bzw. Überwachungseinrichtungen meist nicht frei positionierbar, sondern dürfen nur in speziell dafür vorgesehenen Räumen aufgestellt werden. Die einzelnen Verbindungen eines Netzwerkes (Kabel, Rohre) sind schließlich weitgehend an Trassen verschiedener Bauformen gebunden. Dabei kann es sich z. B. um Rohrleitungsbrücken, Schächte oder Kabelführungseinrichtungen unterschiedlicher Art handeln. Das Bild zeigt eine hierarchisch gegliederte Kabeltrasse. Die Aufgabe des F. L. besteht darin, die Knotenkomponenten eines Netzwerkes so zu plazieren und die einzelnen Verbindungen so zu führen (Routing), daß die gesamten Material- und Installationskosten für das Netzwerk unter Einhaltung aller Randbedingungen minimal werden. Zuweilen sind diese Randbedingungen so einschränkend, daß wenig Alternativen für das N. L. verbleiben. Dies ist z. B. bei der strukturierten Verkabelung in Bürogebäuden häufig der Fall.

Man kann das N. L. als Problem der Layout-Optimierung (Layout-Entwurf) z. B. so formalisieren, daß man sämtliche sinnvolle, den Randbedingungen genügenden Möglichkeiten für die Plazierung von Knotenkomponenten des Netzwerkes und für die Führung von Verbindungen zwischen diesen und zu festen Anschlußstellen als Graphen modelliert und auf diesen den die Netzwerk-Struktur beschreibenden Graphen optimal abbildet.


Netzwerk Management System
Softwaresystem zur Verwaltung, Parametrisierung und kontinuierlichen Überwachung von Kommunikationsnetzwerken, abgekürzt NMS.

Im Unterschied zu CANFM-Systemen (Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management) erfolgt das Management vermöge der logischen Sicht auf das Netz (ISO/OSI-Schichtenmodell), d.h. es werden die Komponenten des Netzwerkes erfaßt, auf deren Zustände und Einstellungen über spezielle Abfrage- und Kommandosprachen (z.B. SNMP, das Simple Network Management Protocol) vom NMS zugegriffen werden kann. NMS verwalten logische Namen von Netzwerkkomponenten (z.B. Hostname), Adressen von Netzwerkkomponenten (MAC-Adressen und logische Adressen wie die IP-Adressen von Komponentenports), Einstellungen an aktiven Komponenten (z.B. Routingparameter) und logische Teilnetzstrukturen (Domains, Virtual Local Area Networks). Desweiteren werden temporäre Zustände von Komponenten (Up and Down) sowie Zustände der Netzwerkverbindungen (z.B. augenblickliche Netzlast, bottle necks) kontrolliert bzw. erfaßt und zugehörige Statistiken oder Historien angelegt.


Netzwerkdokumentationssystem
Anderer, ebenfalls gebräuchlicher Begriff für CANFM-Systeme (Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management).

Der Begriff schränkt allerdings die umfangreiche Funktionalität von CANFM-Systemen auf den Aspekt der Dokumentation ein (Rechnerunterstützte Dokumentation).


ODBC
Open Database Connectivity

Open Database Connectivity
Ein Standard für den Zugriff auf verschiedene Datenbanken. Abk. ODBC

Eine Anwendung kann Anfragen an einen O.D.C.-Treiber stellen. Dabei wird ein spezieller SQL-Dialekt benutzt. Der O.D.C.-Treiber übersetzt die Anfrage dann in einen Dialekt, den die jeweilige Datenbank versteht.

Es existieren Sprachbindungen für verschiedenste Systeme (C, C++, Visual Basic, ...) und O.D.C.-Treiber sind für eine Vielzahl von Betriebssystemen (MS-Windows, Unix, OS/2, Mac-OS) verfügbar.


Photorealistische Computergrafik
Im Rahmen der Computergrafik gebräuchlicher Begriff, der die rechnerunterstützte Synthese von Darstellungen betrifft, die (fast) so realitätsnah wie Photos wirken.

P.C. spielt im Rahmen des Facility Management (s. auch Computer-Aided Facility Management) eine wichtige Rolle, wenn es darum geht, Facilities (z.B. Gebäude) bereits vor ihrer Fertigstellung einem Kreis von Interessenten zu präsentieren. Dabei kann es z.B. um den Kauf bzw. das Anmieten eines Gebäudes oder um die realitätsnahe Darstellung baulicher Veränderungen für betroffene Anwohner gehen.


Raumzonenverwaltung
Verwaltung der räumlichen Ausprägung und Gliederung von Flächen und Räumen in Gelände und Gebäude sowie der in ihnen lokalisierten Objekte.

Die Raumzonenverwaltung ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil von Facility Management Lösungen. Raumzonen können als Flächen und Volumina verwaltet werden. Die Raumzonenverwaltung erlaubt sich vielfältige Auswertungen bez. Gebäudeflächen bzw. Raumcharakteristika. Aus den Koordinaten von Objekten läßt sich automatisch deren Zugehörigkeit zu Raumzonen ermitteln. Insbesondere bei der rechnergestützten Umzugsplanung ist die Definition von Raumzonen innerhalb von CAD-modellierten Gebäuden von großer praktischer Bedeutung. Raumzonen sind häufig hierarchisch gegliedert. Auf der untersten Hierarchieebene befinden sich meist Zonen, die den baulichen Räumen bzw. Grundstücken entsprechen. Gelegentlich werden jedoch auch Arbeitsplätze (z.B. innerhalb eines Großraumbüros) als kleinste Zonen verwaltet. Auf höheren Hierarchieebenen können sich Raumzonen befinden, die die räumlichen Ressourcen z.B. von Betriebsabteilungen repräsentieren.


Rechnerunterstuetzte Dokumentation
Dokumentationsprozeß, der durch Computer maßgeblich unterstützt wurde.

Dokumentationen sind Sammlung von Unterlagen und Informationen über ein komplexes System. Sie werden z.B. für technische Konsumgüter, Softwarepakete und ganze Fabrikanlagen benötigt. Man unterscheidet zwischen System- und Nutzerdokumentation. Letztere dient der Unterstützung des Endanwenders bei der Bedienung des Systems.


Rechnerunterstuetzte Konstruktion
Konstruktionsprozeß, der durch Computer und grafische Geräte unterstützt oder sogar weitgehend automatisch durchgeführt wird.

Typische Prozesse der r. K. (häufig auch CAD genannt) sind u. a.:
• die interaktive Erzeugung rechnerinterner Modelle von Einzelteilen, Baugruppen bzw. ganzen Erzeugnissen,
• die Speicherung und Verwaltung solcher Modelle,
• die Durchführung von Berechnungen (wie z. B. die Bestimmung von Volumina, Massen und Trägheitsmomenten),
• die rechnerunterstützte Erstellung von Zeichnungen und anderen technischen Dokumentationen (Rechnergestützte Dokumentation).
Die Computergrafik spielt sowohl bei der interaktiven Erzeugung bzw. Variation von Modellen (interaktive Arbeitsweise) als auch bei der Zeichnungserstellung eine entscheidende Rolle. Insbesondere zwecks Integration möglichst vieler betrieblicher Prozesse in rechnerunterstützte Lösungen kommen bei der r. K. zunehmend 3D-Modellierung sowie 3D-Computergrafik zum Einsatz (rechnerunterstützter Entwurf).


Rechnerunterstuetzter Entwurf
Entwurfsprozeß, der durch rechentechnische Mittel, insbesondere Computer und grafische Geräte, unterstützt oder sogar weitgehend automatisch durchgeführt wird.

Der Begriff r. E. entspricht weitgehend dem angelsächsischen Begriff Computer-Aided Design, von dem das auch im deutschsprachigen Raum gebräuchliche Kürzel CAD abgeleitet ist. Er wird einerseits als Oberbegriff auf alle rechnerunterstützten Prozesse angewendet, die zum Entwurf eines neuen Objektes oder Projektes führen, und steht andererseits in eingeschränktem Sinn nur für diejenigen Entwurfsprozesse, die nicht mit dem Begriff rechnerunterstützte Konstruktion belegt ist. Man spricht z. B. von rechnerunterstütztem Leiterplatten- und Schaltkreisentwurf, dem Entwurf einer Inneneinrichtung oder eines ganzen Bauwerks, eines Kommunikationsnetzwerkes oder der räumlichen Anordnung von Facilities wie Maschinen bzw. Anlagenkomponenten (Facility Layout).

Durch die Rechnerunterstützung von Entwurfsprozessen kann eine erhebliche Steigerung der Arbeitsproduktivität und Verbesserung der Qualität der Entwürfe erreicht werden. Dabei ist der r. E. nicht unabhängig von anderen betrieblichen Prozessen zu sehen. Mit wachsenden rechentechnischen Möglichkeiten entwickelte sich der r. E. weit über die rechnerunterstützte Zeichnungserstellung hinaus, die in einer früheren Phase Schwerpunkt der Anwendung von CAD war (teilweise wurde CAD sogar synonym zu Computer Aided Drafting verwendet). Sobald das Endergebnis des r. E. nicht mehr nur Dokumentation auf Papier (etwa in Form von Werkstattzeichnungen oder grafischer Schemata), sondern umfassendere rechnerinterne Modelle von Entwürfen sind, können andere rechnerunterstützte betriebliche Prozesse in hohem Maß vom r. E. profitieren. Dies betrifft z. B. die automatisierte Ableitung von Mengengerüsten zu entworfenen Netzwerken, von Inventarlisten, die rechnerunterstützte Fertigung computerbasiert entworfener Formen für die Produktion von Automobilkarosserieteilen, die rechnerunterstützte Herstellung und Bestückung von Leiterkarten, die Durchführung komplexer Berechnungen, z. B. die FEM-Analyse sowie die rechnerunterstützte Qualitätssicherung (CAQ) durch Ableitung von Informationen (aus dem jeweiligen rechnerinternen Modell) zur Steuerung von NC-Meßmaschinen (CAD/CAM, CIM). Der r. E. wird u. a. auf Grund der für ihn erforderlichen Kreativität heute meist in interaktiver Arbeitsweise durchgeführt. Dabei ist die Mensch-Rechner-Kommunikation von großer Bedeutung. Sie ist heute weitgehend durch die Nutzung von Computergrafik und entsprechender grafischer Geräte geprägt, die auch aus ergonomischer Sicht effektiv sind. Wichtigste Bestandteile von Systemen für den r. E. sind neben Rechnern selbst Geräte für die externe Speicherung, Grafikdisplays, Eingabegeräte wie Tastatur und Maus sowie Ausgabegeräte wie Drucker, Plotter und in besonderen
12 Dec 2009
19:59:34
Lichty Martin
Lexikon wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Teil 2

Schnittstelle
Verbindungsstelle, über die die einzelnen Komponenten eines rechnerunterstützten Systems zusammenwirken (Engl. interface).

S. lassen sich in Hardware- und Software-S. unterteilen. Die Spezifikation von S. beinhaltet u. a. Festlegungen zu Funktionalität, Datenflüssen, Zustandsbeschreibungen incl. Fehlermeldungen und physischer Realisierung. Vorteile des Aufbaus eines Gesamtsystems aus Komponenten, die über genau definierte S. miteinander kooperieren, liegen in der Vereinfachung bzw. Beschleunigung der Entwicklung, Inbetriebnahme, Wartung, Modifikation und Erweiterung solcher Systeme. Insbesondere wird die Portierbarkeit von Programmsystemen auf unterschiedliche Gerätetechnik (Computer und Peripherie) wesentlich erleichtert.

Zu S. wurden und werden Standardisierungen vorgenommen. Wichtige Beispiele, die die Computergrafik betreffen. sind die S. zwischen Anwenderprogrammen und GKS-Implementationen und das Computer Graphics Interface (CGI) zwischen grafischen Basissystemen und grafischen Geräten.

Für die Akzeptanz rechnerunterstützter Systeme ist die geeignete Gestaltung der S. zwischen Mensch und System von entscheidender Bedeutung (Benutzerschnittstelle).


Sencke-Diagramm
Grafische Darstellung der Stärke von Verkehrsflüssen bzw. Transportströmen z. B. zwischen verschiedenen Räumen eines Gebäudes oder zwischen Maschinen in einer Werkshalle.

In einem S.-D. werden die Stärken von Verkehrsflüssen bzw. Transportströmen durch die Breite von Linien repräsentiert, die in grafischen Darstellungen Start- und Zielpunkte von Verkehr bzw. Transport miteinander verbinden. Beispiele sind Pläne von Industriegeländen mit Linien unterschiedlicher Breite zwischen verschiedenen Gebäuden, Etagenpläne mit derartigen Linien zwischen den einzelnen Räumen und Verbindungslinien differenzierter Stärke zwischen Maschinen in einem Hallen-Layout.

Repräsentationen von Verkehrsflüssen und Transportströmen durch Linien unterschiedlicher Breite lassen sich auch gut in Adjacency Graphen und Bubble Diagramme integrieren.

Die Kanten zwischen den Knoten eines Adjacency Graphen bzw. die Linien zwischen den Kreisen eines Bubble Diagramms zeigen dann nicht nur, daß z. B. zwischen den durch Knoten oder Kreise repräsentierten Räumen eine direkte Verbindung existiert. Vielmehr geben dann diese Linien mit ihrer Breite Aufschluß über zu erwartende Verkehrs- bzw. Transportströme über diese Verbindungen.

Structured Query Language
Eine Sprache, die eine Schnittstelle zu einem DBMS liefert. Abk. SQL

S.Q.L. ist der de-facto-Standard für Schnittstellen zu Datenbanksystemen. Gleichzeitig existieren jeweils eine ISO- und ein ANSI-Standard. S.Q.L. wird oft in andere Sprachen integriert

Strukturierte Verkabelung
Dienste- und protokollunabhängige Verkabelungsstrategie, die im Gegensatz zur bedarfsorientierten Verkabelung ein einheitliches Netzwerk-Layout vorschreibt, unabhängig von der aktuellen Arbeitsplatzverteilung und weitestgehend unabhängig von individuellen Abstufungen bezüglich des Kommunikationsbedarfs.

Folgende Vorgaben sind bei der s. V. einzuhalten:
• Das Kommunikationsnetz wird klar in Primär- (Gelände-), Sekundär- (Steig-) und Tertiärbereiche (Etagen) untergliedert,
• die Netzstruktur ist eine hierarchische Sterntopologie undfür das gesamte passive Netz sind spezifische internationale Normen einzuhalten.
Diese Normen regeln u.a. die Auflegearten an der einheitlichen Anschlußtechnik (z.B. für Kupferkabel RJ45-Ports), sie fordern die Verwendung von Systemtechnik und Kabeln mit spezifischen Qualitätsmerkmalen (bei der Systemtechnik generell die Anforderungen der Kategorie 5, bei Kabeln gemäß EIA/TIA Bulletin TSB 36 Level 5) und legen Grenzwerte für Stör- und Abstrahlsicherheit (Einhaltung der DIN/VDE 0871 Grenzwertklasse B) fest. Weiterhin wird bei Neuplanungen flächendeckend gearbeitet, d.h. Netzanschlüsse werden unabhängig von der aktuellen Arbeitsplatzverteilung homogen über die gesamte Bürofläche verteilt.


Switch
Aktive Komponente von Kommunikationsnetzwerken, die Nachrichten gemäß ihrer Software-Einstellungen weiterverteilt.

Die Verteilung erfolgt bei den meisten S. auf Ebene 2 des ISO/OSI-Schichtenmodells, es gibt aber auch Layer-3-Switches. Zwischen Eingangs-und Ausgangsports (bei Layer-2-Switches über die MAC-Adresse) werden für eine Nachricht permanente Verbindungen aufgebaut. Hierfür sind zwei Verfahren grundsätzlich zu unterscheiden: Real Switching und Bridged Switching. Beim Real Switching werden Daten gemäß der Portzuordnungsmatrix parallel übertragen, bei Bridged Switches erfolgt die Übertragung von mehreren Eingangsports seriell über eine gemeinsame interne Warteschlange zu den zugehörigen Ausgangsports. Für Computer-Aided Network Facilities Management sind S. wichtige Knotenkomponenten (Facilities).


Trouble Ticketing System
System zur weitestgehend automatisierten Steuerung der Bearbeitung von Stör- und Fehlersituationen (special events).

Trouble Ticketing umfaßt
• die Klassifizierung von special events,
• das Anstoßen eines Benachrichtigungssystems, das durch ein individuell zu erstellendes, event-abhängiges Regelwerk definiert wird,
• die automatisierte Zuweisung von event-bezogenen Eskallationsstufen,
• das automatisierte Abrufen und Sammeln von Zusatzinformationen,
• ggf. die Initiierung von Gegenmaßnahmen (z.B. Generierung von Arbeitsaufträgen, Auslösen von Alarmen, Ansteuerung von Komponenten der Gebäudeleittechnik),
• Verwaltung des Status der jeweiligen special events und
• die Verwaltung von Statistiken und Historien.
Umzugsplanung
Planung des Ortswechsels von Objekten (Facilities) sowie von Mitarbeitern.
Die U. ist ein wichtiger Teil des Change Management. Für die Planung eines Umzugs muß zunächst ermittelt werden, welche Mitarbeiter und Objekte umziehen sollen. Die Auswahl kann sich z. B. auf einzelne Facilities, auf Mitarbeiter-Arbeitsplätze mit allen zugehörigen Objekten sowie auf die Inhalte einzelner Räume oder ganzer Raumgruppen beziehen. Danach sind die Zielräume sowie die Anordnung der Objekte in den jeweiligen Räumen festzulegen (Facility Layout, Layout-Entwurf). Weiterhin sind die technischen Anschlüsse zu planen bzw. ihre Verfügbarkeit ist zu prüfen. Zur U. gehört auch die Festlegung der Transporte (Wege, Kapazitäten, zeitlicher Ablauf). Für die planmäßige Abwicklung der Umzugsprozesse ist die Rückmeldung der durchgeführten Aktivitäten und eine dynamische Anpassung der U. an aktuelle Situationen von großer Bedeutung. Die bei der U. auftretenden Probleme sind z. T. von hoher mathematischer Komplexität (NP-complete). Die rechnergestützte U. verwendet deshalb für diese Probleme heuristische Verfahren, um zulässige Lösungen automatisch in vertretbarer Rechenzeit generieren zu können.


VLAN
Engl. Abk. für Virtual Local Area Network.


Vektorisierung
Erzeugung von elektronischen Bildern in einem Vektorformat.

Die rechnergestützte Vektorisierung erfolgt manuell durch das Nachzeichnen von Konturen mit Hilfe einer Fadenkreuz-Maus auf der Papiervorlage oder als On-Screen-Digitalisierung direkt am Display auf einer Rasterbildvorlage, die durch Scannen gewonnen wurde. Rasterbilder können auch durch entsprechende Software in Vektordarstellungen umgewandelt werden. Man spricht in diesem Zusammenhang auch von automatischer Raster-Vektor-Konvertierung.

Virtual Local Area Network
Frei definierbare Teilnetze von Kommunikationsnetzwerken, abgekürzt VLAN.

VLAN werden mit Hilfe von Switches realisiert. Jeder Port der Switch unterstützt die maximal mögliche Bandbreite. Die Zuordnung der Ports (und damit der physischen Segmente) zu den Virtuellen Teilnetzen erfolgt über NMS-Systeme (Network Management System) etwa mit Hilfe von Adreßtabellen (MAC-Adresse und VLAN-Adresse). Es gibt gegenwärtig keine einheitlichen Verfahren zur Navigation der Nachrichten in VLAN, die gebräuchlichsten sind
• die Verwaltung von Adreßtabellen in den Switches und ihr regelmäßiger Austausch,
• das Frame Tagging, bei dem jedes Paket zusätzlich mit einem VLAN-Identifier versehen wird,
• das Zeitmultiplexverfahren, bei dem jedem VLAN ein Zeitintervall zugewiesen wird.
Durch die Definition von VLANs wird eine Vielzahl von physischen Umstrukturierungen im Kommunikationsnetzwerk, etwa bei Umzügen oder bei der Bildung projektbezogener Arbeitsgruppen, unnötig (Change Management).

Zonenverwaltung
Raumzonenverwaltung
12 Dec 2009
20:01:46
Lichty Martin
Lexikon wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Hallo,
als Ergänzung mit dem Schwerpunkt CH.
Viel Erfolg
Moser

AB Abluft

Die Abkürzung AB für Abluft ist gemäss DIN1946.
In der Schweiz wird für Abluft die Abkürzung ABL verwendet.
ABL Abluft

Die Abkürzung ABL ist in der Schweiz gebräuchlich für Abluft.
In der DIN1946 wird für Abluft die Abkürzung AB verwendet.

Amp. Ampere (A): Einheit für die elektrische Stromgrösse

AU Aussenluft

Die Abkürzung AU für Aussenluft ist gemäss DIN1946.
In der Schweiz wird für Aussenluft die Abkürzung AUL verwendet.

AUL Aussenluft

Die Abkürzung AUL ist in der Schweiz gebräuchlich für Aussenluft.
In der DIN1946 wird für Aussenluft die Abkürzung AU verwendet.

BAT Biologischer Arbeitsstoff Toleranzwert

CEMEP Comité Européen de Constructeurs de Machines Electriques et d'Electronique de Puissance

European Commitee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics

DDC Digital Direct Control

EDV Elektronische Datenverarbeitung.
Die Elektronische Datenverarbeitung (kurz EDV oder DV genannt) ist der Sammelbegriff für alle Manipulationen an Daten durch elektronische Maschinen (Computer).
Mittlerweile findet die Datenverarbeitung zunehmend auch in lokalen und globalen Netzwerken statt, wobei die Telekommunikation dabei eine immer wichtigere Rolle spielt. Daher verwendet man heute zunehmend statt der deutschen Abkürzung EDV oder gar DV die international übliche Abkürzung IT für information technology bzw. "Informationstechnik".
Informationstechnik ist somit der Oberbegriff für die Datenverarbeitung (EDV oder DV) und die Telekommunikation.
et al et al. Abkürzung für:
et alii (lat.: "und andere")
zudem auch für:
et alia (lat.: "und auf andere Weise")
et alia/et aliud (lat.: "und anderes")
et alias (lat.: "und ein andermal")
et alibi (lat.: "und anderswo")

FH Fachhochschule
FO Fortluft

Die Abkürzung FO für Fortluft ist gemäss DIN1946.
In der Schweiz wird für Fortluft die Abkürzung FOL verwendet.

FOL Fortluft

Die Abkürzung FOL ist in der Schweiz gebräuchlich für Fortluft.
In der DIN1946 wird für Fortluft die Abkürzung FO verwendet.

FU Frequenzumformer


HLK Heizung, Lüftung, Klima

HLKK Heizung, Lüftung, Klima, Kälte

HLKKSE Heizung, Lüftung, Klima, Kälte, Sanitär, Elektro

HLKS Heizung, Lüftung, Klima, Sanitär

HLKSE Heizung, Lüftung, Klima, Sanitär, Elektro

HVAC Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning

ICT Information- and Communication-Technology

IKT Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie

IP Internet Protokoll

IT Informationstechnologie, Informationstechnik.
Informationstechnik ist der Oberbegriff für die Datenverarbeitung (EDV oder DV) und die Telekommunikation.
Informationstechnik (IT) (bisher war auch von der Informationstechnologie die Rede) ist der Oberbegriff für die Informations- und Datenverarbeitung. Er beschreibt Verfahren zur Verarbeitung von Informationen und Daten (EDV), aber auch den Bereich der Telekommunikation. Der Begriff IT bzw. Information Technology wird heutzutage auch oftmals als Bezeichnung der Abteilung eines Unternehmens verwendet, die sich mit der Entwicklung und Betreuung der unternehmensinternen Computer-Infrastruktur (Administration, Intranet, ...) befasst.

LNG Liquefied Natural Gas; Verflüssigtes Erdgas

LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases;Flüssiggas (in der Regel Propan / Butan)

MAK Maximaler Arbeitsplatz Konzentrationswert

MI Mischluft
Die Abkürzung MI für Mischluft ist gemäss DIN1946.
In der Schweiz wird für Mischluft die Abkürzung MIL verwendet.
MIL Mischluft
Die Abkürzung MIL ist in der Schweiz gebräuchlich für Mischluft.
In der DIN1946 wird für Mischluft die Abkürzung MI verwendet.

MSR Mess-, Steuer-, Regeltechnik

MSRL Mess-, Steuer-, Regel-, Leittechnik (Leitsystemtechnik)

ORC Organic Ranking Cycle
Organischer Rankine Prozess

PCB Polychlorierte Biphenyle

PSA Personen Such Anlage (Pagerruf)

PSA Persönliche Schutz Ausrüstung

PWW Pumpen Warm Wasser

RFID Radio Frequency Identification

Radio Frequenz Identifikation

Funk Frequenz Indentifikation

Funk-Erkennung
RLT Raumlufttechnische Anlage

SIA
Schweizerischer Ingenieur und Architektenverein
STV
Schweizerischer Technischer Verband
SWKI
Schweizerischer Verein von Wärme- und Klima-Ingenieuren

TABS Thermisch aktive Bauteilsysteme
TGA Technische Gebäude Ausrüstung

UM Umluft

Die Abkürzung UM für Aussenluft ist gemäss DIN1946.
In der Schweiz wird für Umluft die Abkürzung UML verwendet.
UML Umluft

Die Abkürzung UML ist in der Schweiz gebräuchlich für Umluft.
In der DIN1946 wird für Umluft die Abkürzung UM verwendet.

URL Uniform Resource Locator ist die eindeutig identifizierbare Adresse eines Webservers im Internet

VDI
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure

VoIP Abkürzung von Voice over IP. Bezeichnet die Umwandlung eines Sprachsignals in ein IP-Paket (IP = Internet - Protokoll). VoIP kann als reine Bezeichnung für den Transportmechanismus für Sprache in IP-Datennetzwerken aufgefasst werden.

ZU Zuluft

Die Abkürzung ZU für Zuluft ist gemäss DIN1946.
In der Schweiz wird für Zuluft die Abkürzung ZUL verwendet.

ZUL Zuluft

Die Abkürzung ZUL ist in der Schweiz gebräuchlich für Zuluft.
In der DIN1946 wird für Zuluft die Abkürzung ZU verwendet.

13 Dec 2009
14:22:24
Moser
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 1

LEXICON English
Cable trays
Open, suspended troughs that hold data, signal, and power cables.
CAD
Computer-aided design. An automated software program used to develop and manage construction drawings and other types of drawings associated with facilities.
CAFM System
Computer-aided facilities management system. A collective group of computer hardware and software systems used to automate typical facilities management operations such as leasing, maintenance, property management, space inventory, furniture inventory, and drawings production.
Caisson
A cylindrical shaft driven into the ground and filled with reinforced or unreinforced concrete. Used in foundation work for bridges spanning rivers and for high-rise buildings.
Calcium
One of the principal elements making up the earth\'s crust, the compounds of which, when dissolved in water, make the water hard. The presence of calcium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds, which are means of clearly identifying hard water.
Calibration
The exact setting of control devices to render accurate readings — e.g., thermostats and other sensors.
Caliper
Tree size determined by the diameter of the trunk 1 ft (30.5 cm) above the ground.
Call-by-call
A telecommunications service that allows the twenty-four channels on a T-1.5 line to be used for any type of call (voice, fax, data, video).
Canedla or candle power
The unit of light intensity or brightness; abbreviated cd. One candela is the intensity of the light produced in one direction by a burning candle of standard size.
Cant strip
An inclined, continuous strip of wood that supports the flashing on a roof. This base forms a triangle with a structural deck and a parapet wall or other vertical surface. The 45 degree slope of exposed surface of cant strip provides a gradual transition for base flashing and roofing membrane from the horizontal roof surface to the vertical wall surface.
Cap flashing
See Flashing.
Cap sheet
A sheet of mineral-surfaced coated felt (or a coated felt without mineral surfacing) used as the top ply of built-up roofing membrane.
Capacitance
Property by which an electrical component (a capacitor) stores and later releases electric energy; abbreviated C.
Capacitor
(1) A device used to temporarily store electric energy in a circuit by establishing an electrostat field between two conducting media. (2) An electrical device that stores electricity for short periods of time; used in ballasts for light fixtures, in electronic equipment, and to provide increased starting torque in some motors.
Capacitor-run motor or permanent-capacitor motor
A split-phase motor that always has a capacitor and auxiliary winding in the circuit during operation. Improves overall motor power factor.
Capacitor-start motor
A split-phase motor with a capacitor connected in series with the starting winding. Each is energized only during starting. Exhibits high torque for starting under load.
CAPACITOR-STARTING/RUN MOTOR Capacitor-starting/run motor
A split-phase motor with two parallel capacitors — connected in series with the auxiliary winding. High starting torque, high power factor.
Capital
(1) Corporate assets in the form of cash; capital projects add asset value to a corporate portfolio and show up on the balance sheet. See also Operating Funds. (2) The store of produced goods that is saved, or wealth that is represented by the surplus of production above the level of consumption.
Capital budget
Corporate funding allocated to the production of assets and capital gains that have residual value for longer than one year. Capital is usually generated from equity investment (stocks) or debt instruments, such as bonds or mortgages. Capital budgets span several years. See also Operating Budget.
Capital expenditure
Those costs incurred by acquiring or upgrading assets that produce revenue. Capital expenditures are expected to produce a return in the form of increased project value that appears in a corporate balance sheet. They may include tenant build-out costs, renovation costs, capital repair items, and commissions.
Capital gain
Gain resulting from the sale of investment property.
Capital Project
A project that creates residual asset value to a company. Most require the approval of top corporate management, compete with nondepartmental capital projects for funding, and often are highly visible and may be politically sensitive.
Capitalization
A process through which future income streams are transformed into present value, resulting in the elimination of a consideration of economic profits. The conversion of expected future benefits into a capital sum. The discounting of future incomes to present value.
CAPITALIZATION RATE (CAP RATE) Capittalization rate (CAP RATE)
An income rate that reflects an investor\'s analysis of risk. It is used to convert a single year\'s net operating income expectancy into a price or value. An investor\'s cap rate is also considered the desired rate of return.
Captive insurer
An insurance company set up by a business whose sole or major customer is the business itself.
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance.
Caretaker function
Emphasis on facilities operations and maintenance based on standard work performance criteria or guidelines set by management.
Cargo insurance
Coverage for property that is in the process of being transported from one place to another.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
A cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) causing pain, numbness, and tingling in the hands due to compression of the median nerve.
Carpet tile
Carpeted flooring sold as tiles, usually 24 in. by 24 in. See also Broadloom and Modular Carpet.
Carriers
Shelves into which telecommunications system circuit packs are installed. (Do not confuse this term with a Local Exchange Carrier or Long-Distance Carrier.) See also Resellers.
Carryover
The entrainment of boiler water solids in the steam system due to mechanical or chemical conditions.
Cartridge fuse
A fuse that consists of a cylindrical insulated housing with a copper ferrule, or tubular section, at each end. The element inside the fuse is connected by the two ferrules.
CAS
Call accounting system. A telecommunications system that maintains a database of all calls made from the system and enables users to identify abuse, bill charges back to departments or clients, and track trends for use in budget development.
Case goods
Independent, freestanding desks, tables, credenzas, file cabinets, and bookcases; chairs of all sorts, whether ergonomic or not.
Casement
A window with a sash that opens or hinges at the side, or the sash itself.
Cash expense
An expense for which money is paid to someone else; canceled checks and receipts are retained as evidence of the transaction. This type of expense constitutes the great majority of deductible expenses. See also Noncash Expense.
Cash flow
Actual cash, or spendable income, that remains after expenses and debt service are subtracted from the gross income of an investment or enterprise. The flow of funds into and out of a firm or economic enterprise.
Cash-accounting method
A method which measures cash flow computed by taking any cash-income received, less cash-expense paid.
Cash-on-cash return
A ratio derived by dividing the actual income received from an enterprise by the actual cash invested in the enterprise. Also known as the equity-dividend rate.
Catalog-based CAFM applications
Furniture and equipment inventory management systems that track assets by a catalog number that encompasses several characteristics; useful for tracking multiple quantities of the same item. See also Asset-Based CAFM Applications.
Catch basin
A manufactured device that surrounds the fill pipe of an underground storage tank to catch overfill or spilling during filling operations.
Cathode
A metal that collects the metal ions emitted from the anode during corrosion.
Cathodes
Areas along the metal surface which attract the electrons from the anode. The cathode area controls how fast the metal loss occurs at the anode.
Cathodic Protection
An engineered solution for preventing corrosion of steel or other metal structures by using induced currents to counteract the natural corrosion process.
Cation
A positively charged ion that is attached to the cathode in electrolysis.
Cation Exchange
In water softening, this is principally the exchange of calcium and magnesium ions in water for sodium ions in an insoluble ion exchange material. Ferrous iron and other metals such as manganese and aluminum are sometimes present in small quantities. These metals are also exchanged, but they may precipitate and foul the exchanger bed.
Caveat Emptor
(1) Latin for \"let the buyer beware!\" A buyer should inspect the goods or realty before purchase, because the buyer buys \"as is\" and at his or her own risk. (2) A principle of law that states that a purchaser of an item is responsible for examining and judging for himself or herself the acceptability of the item (i.e., the purchaser buys at his or her own risk).
CCTV
Closed circuit television.
CD
An informal abbreviation for construction document.
CD-ROM
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. An electronic computer data storage device that can be used to manage large volumes of information.
CEC
Canadian Electrical Code. In Canada, strict electrical codes and standards written to safeguard the health and safety of people from the hazards inherent in using electricity; published by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), with direct references to the standards of various trade and professional groups.
Ceding Company
An insurance company that purchases reinsurance.
Ceiling concentration
An airborne concentration of a toxic substance in the work environment that should never be exceeded; often measured in fifteen-minute intervals.
CEL
See Consultants\' Environmental Liability Coverage.
Cell
The intersection of a column and a row on a spreadsheet or table.
Cellular deck
A honeycomb-like pattern of preformed sheet steel used as a form when pouring concrete floors in many commercial buildings.
Centralized Management
Management of a business entity that is concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals as compared to the number of owners.
Centralized Processing
Computer systems based on a large mainframe computer to which many terminals are attached. All data processing is done at the central unit rather than at the users\' terminals.
Centralized station energy management control system
An Energy Management Control System (EMCS) that uses a centralized computer to control sensors and actuators operating building equipment.
CENTREX
Telephone service leased from the local phone company. The service extends the capabilities and intelligence of the phone company\'s central office via controller equipment located in a customer\'s building.
Centrifugal Compressor
A compressor using a high-speed impeller or motor to compress refrigerant volume instead of using pistons.
Centrifugal switch
A switch mechanism, mounted on a motor shaft, that typically opens a circuit when the motor speed reaches the correct speed.
CEPA
Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The Canadian regulations governing the enforcement of environmental laws at the federal level.
Ceramic tile
A material consisting of a fired clay body with a decorative face, produced in slab form.
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act. An act of Congress that makes the owners or operators of real property liable for the cleanup of environmental hazards, regardless of whether they were responsible for them or not.
CERCLIS
CERCLA Information System. Maintained by EPA for reporting information collected under CERCLA.
CERLA or superfund
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, a federal statute that imposes liability on a wide variety of potentially responsible parties for cleaning up hazardous substances released or posing a threat of release into the environment.
Certificate Holder
The party to whom the insurance certificate is sent.
Certificate of coverage
The evidence of coverage given to the employee to show that he or she has group health, life, or dental insurance coverage.
Certificate of deposit
An evidence of debt issued by a bank or other financial intermediary for a fixed period of time and rate of interest.
Certificate of insurance
Written verification of types, terms, and amounts of insurance carried by the named insured, which are sent to those who require proof of such coverage. See also Certificate of Coverage.
Certificate of limited partnership
A certificate that legally creates a limited partnership when it is filed with the state in which the limited partnership is formed.
Certificate of occupancy
A certificate issued by a local government authorizing occupancy of a space that has been found to meet building code requirements and is considered safe for human occupancy.
Certified employee benefits specialist (CEBS)
A designation awarded to those in the employee benefits field upon completion of ten examinations.
Certified industrial hygienist
A professional qualified by education, training, and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate, and develop controls for occupational health hazards; certified to practice by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.
Certified marketing director (CMD)
A professional certification offered by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC).
Certified property manager (CPM)
A professional classification within the Institute of Real Estate Management (IREM) that is common in asset management.
Certified shopping center manager (CSM)
A professional certification offered by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC).
CFCs
Chlorofluorocarbons. Environmentally hazardous substances, now being phased out of use, found in air-conditioning and fire suppression systems.
CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute)
The physical volume of air moved by a fan and expressed as fan outlet conditions.
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations. An annual compilation of U.S. regulations divided into titles and then into parts, subparts, and paragraphs.
Chain of command
The line of authority in an organization, from the most senior company officer to each employee. See also Line Authority.
Chaining logic
A strict, sequentially-based mathematical logic system in which the operator is assigned prior to entering the numeric value.
Chalking
A powdery surface on a coat of paint.
Change in service
A closure option for tanks being used to store products different from those originally intended.
Change orders
Revisions to the scope of construction work, in terms of time, physical space, or funding, made after the construction contract has been initiated.
Characteristic waste
A solid waste that meets the criteria of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
Chargeback
A cost for facilities department services, materials, or products levied on an end user of space.
Chargeback system
An administrative mechanism for billing the costs of facilities operations and services to facilities customers, usually on the basis of each customer\'s actual costs and/or share of the total area of the corporate space inventory.
Chargeback system
A system of cost control that requires the requesting unit or organization to pay for work done to its area.
Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC) and Certified Financial Planner (CFP)
Designations awarded to those in the tax planning and investment fields.
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
A designation roughly similar to the CPCU for those in the life insurance field.
Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU)
A designation awarded to those in the property and casualty area who have passed a series of ten examinations covering such areas as risk management, law, accounting, and insurance.
Chattels
Any movable personal property (things).
Checking or crazing
A pattern of fine cracks in a paint surface caused by stress in the paint film.
Check-the-box regulations
Tax regulations adopted by the U.S. Treasury Department and the Internal Revenue Service that allow certain business organizations to elect whether to be treated as a corporation or as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
Chelation therapy
Medical treatment in which a drug that is attracted to metals (such as lead) is infused into a patient\'s vein. The drug binds to the metal in the blood; both the drug and the metal are then excreted.
Chemical biocide
A treatment specifically designed to control microbiological organisms in a water system.
Chemical corrosion inhibitors
Special chemicals, that inhibit corrosion by forming a protective film layer on metal surfaces or by destroying corrosive materials such as oxygen.
Chemical treatment program
An overall plan to control corrosion, scale, fouling, and microbiological growth.
Chipping or flaking
A condition in which paint breaks away from the surface, usually caused by lack of surface preparation.
Chroma or intensity
The brightness of a color.
Chromaticity or color temperature
A common measurement of the color of a light source on heat; measured in degrees Kelvin (K).
Chronic effect
A response to being exposed to a hazard that may take days, months, or years to develop.
Chrysotile
A white, serpentine type of asbestos mineral that is the most common form used in buildings.
Churn
The total number of employee workplace moves made in a year, divided by the total number of office employees in that facility, multiplied by 100.
Churn rate
The annual rate of reconfiguration, relocation, or other physical change in a facility expressed as a percentage of square feet (square meters) or population involved in the change.
Cinder blocks
Concrete masonry units used in many types of masonry construction, either loadbearing or nonloadbearing, hollow or solid. Made from an aggregate of cleaned cinders from coal-fueled power plants mixed in a portland cement paste and formed into blocks.
Circuit
A distinct geographic area that defines the jurisdictional boundaries of each of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.
Circuit Analyzer
A device that plugs into standard receptacles and can function simply as a voltage tester — which indicates the available voltage only — or incorporates sophisticated circuits with digital readouts.
Circuit breakers
Devices designed so a circuit can be opened and closed manually. A circuit will also open automatically if a predetermined amount of overcurrent flows through it, without damaging the circuit breaker when it is being used correctly within its rating.
Circuit protection device
Devices that detect any unsafe increase in current flow and automatically open the affected circuit.
Circular mil
The standard used for wire sizes larger than 4/0, AWG. The smallest-diameter wire in this system is 250,000 circular mils, written 250 kcmil or 250 MCM. The largest wire in this system is 2 million circular mils, written 2,000 kcmil or 2,000 MCM.
Circulation area
The portion of the gross area of a building required for physical access to various divisions and subdivisions of space.
Circulation space
The area allocated to corridors and aisles.
Civil law
Body of law concerned with private rights and remedies.
Civil procedure
The body of law that governs the practices, procedures, and methods used in civil litigation within a particular court system.
Claims adjuster
The insurance representative who investigates and settles claims on behalf of the insurer.
Claims-made policy
Liability policy in which the claim must actually be made during the policy period and, perhaps, even reported to the insurance company during the policy period.
Claims-made trigger
A limitation on claims to those made during the time when a policy is in effect, regardless of when the event causing the claim occurred.
Class (of buildings)
The method used to determine the desirability of one building over another using age, location, and quality of improvements as determining factors. Usually defined as Class A, B, or C.
Class A fire
A fire involving combustible materials such as paper and trash.
Class B Fire
A fire involving flammable liquids or grease.
Class C Fire
A fire involving electrical equipment.
Class D fire
A fire involving combustible metals such as magnesium or potassium.
Class rating
A system of rating risks in a standardized manner based on general characteristics the risks have in common.
Clay soil
Composed of microscopically small mineral particles, flattened and fitting closely together.
Clean air act
A law that authorizes comprehensive control strategies that regulate sources of air emissions and establish ambient air quality standards. Regulations are published by the EPA in 40 CFR 52-99.
Clean power
Electric power that has been filtered to eliminate any electromagnetic interference, harmonic distortion, or \"noise.\"
Clean room
The intermediate area between the outside environment and a sterile environment or between a contaminated environment and a noncontaminated environment.
Cleaner
A worker whose duties consist only of cleaning.
Cleanser
A scouring material that cleans primarily by abrasive action.
Clerical activities
Tasks such as data entry, customer service, and word processing.
Clinical cleaning
Removes all traces of dirt of any kind, including bacteria and viruses.
Clock speed
The frequency at which a CPU processes instructions, measured in megahertz (millions of cycles per second, abbreviated as MHz).
Closed plan
An approach to designing workspace with a predominance of full-height walls and few or no screens, panels, or modular furniture.
Closed recirculating system
A water system in which the water is continuously reused. A closed recirculating system is common in chilled water loops in air conditioning systems and hot water recirculating systems.
Closed-loop geothermal heat pump
A heat pump that uses the earth as a heat source or heat sink. Heat transfer liquid remains in a sealed pipe, and is continuously circulated through the loop.
Closing
The settlement of the sale of real estate when the purchaser delivers the purchase price and the seller delivers the deed to the real estate.
Closure
Removal of an existing underground storage tank; may be temporary, permanent, or a change in service.
Clouds on title
A cited exception on a title report that can impede the transfer of clear title of a property during buying or selling transactions; usually involves a lien or some unresolved claim.
CLU
See Chartered Life Underwriter.
CMS
Call management system. A telecommunications system that can assess the productivity of a telephone order or telemarketing group; it can pinpoint areas of the operation that need improvement and provide a group manager with enough information to reassign resources.
Coal-tar pitch
A dark brown to black solid hydrocarbon mixture obtained from the residuum of the distillation of coke-oven tar, used as a waterproofing agent of dead-level or low-slope built-up roofs. Coal-tar pitch is supplied in a narrow range of softening points, from 140°F to 155°F (60°C to 68°C). Compare with Asphalt.
Coated base sheet or felt
A felt sheet previously saturated (impregnated with asphalt) and then coated with a harder, more viscous asphalt, which greatly increases its impermeability to moisture.
Coating
Any material spread over the surface of an object to protect the surface from deterioration caused by the object\'s environment.
Coaxial cable
A combination of a single wire surrounded by insulation and a woven copper braid that shields against electromagnetic noise.
COBRA
See Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reform Act.
Code
A set of legal requirements adopted by a governing body as the minimum standards for a material, component, or system, and intended to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the public.
Coefficient Of Performance (COP)
The ratio of useful heating or cooling provided by a system to the energy consumed by the system in delivering the heating or cooling; in consistent units for a specific temperature. Higher COPs indicate higher system efficiencies.
Coercive Remedies
Remedies that involve orders issued by a court to do or refrain from doing something; these commands are backed by the contempt power of the court.
Cohesion
The ability of a new coat of paint to bond to a surface.
Coinsurance (Health insurance)
The agreed-upon percentage of the bill for covered medical expenses paid by the insurance company after the deductible is paid by the insured individual.
Coinsurance clause (property insurance)
The amount of each loss that the insurance company pays according to a specific ratio between the amount of insurance carried, the amount of insurance required, and the amount of loss.
COLA
See Cost-Of-Living Adjustment.
Cold site
A redundant Secured Compartmental Information Facility (SCIF) kept in a ready state to start operation on very short notice but not kept running concurrently with the primary site. See also Hot Site.
Cold-process (roofing)
Any bituminous membrane comprising layers of coated felts bonded with a cold-applied asphalt roof cement and surfaced with cutback or emulsified asphalt roof coating.
Collateral
Property pledged by a borrower to protect the interests of a lender.
Collateral contract
A contract that allows for the possibility that the parties entered into two contracts — a written contract and an oral contract that relates to the collateral item.
Collectors
A term used to identify a system designed to collect backwash water from the surface of ion exchange beds.
Collision Insurance
A type of physical damage auto insurance that covers losses caused by collision or overturn of the vehicle.
Color
The eye\'s perception of light reflected from a surface.
Color rendition
The spectrum of frequencies of light waves emitted by an electric lamp. Determines our ability to see various colors without natural light.
Color temperature
The apparent color temperature of a light source, measured in degrees Kelvin (K), indicates its degree of warmth or coolness, higher numbers indicating coolness.
Color-Rendering Index (CRI)
Describes an object\'s color — on a scale from 0 to 100 — when viewed in a nonincandescent light and compared to an incandescent lamp with the same color temperature in degrees Kelvin (K).
Color-Rendering Properties
A general expression for the appearance of surface colors when illuminated by light from a given source compared with their appearance under light from a reference source. A color-rendering index (CRI) number is assigned to a light source based on its ability to match the reference standard.
Combinable entities
A rule of common ownership which states that there must be at least 51 percent common ownership for entities to be combined for the purpose of insurance.
Combination
Increasing the number of units exposed to loss.
Combined sewer system
A sewer system that conveys both sanitary sewage and stormwater flows.
Combined Single Limit of Liability (CSL)
Bodily injury liability and property damage liability expressed as a single sum of coverage per occurrence, commonly used in automobile insurance.
Combustible Liquids
Liquids with flash points above 100°F (37.8°C) but below 200°F (93.3°C).
Commercial bank
A financial intermediary having the principal function of financing the production, sale, and distribution of goods and services.
Commercial comparability
In facilities management, comparing service delivery in corporate-owned space to how the same services are provided and billed in commercial-leased space.
Commercial General Liability policy (CGL)
Liability coverage section with separate limits of coverage for claims alleging liability arising from an occurrence, meaning events that occur over time or gradually.
Commercial lines manual
A manual that contains many rules concerning such areas as classification of risks, the proper premium exposure basis for each classification, and a detailed background summary of general procedures in rating, categorizing, and pricing risks.
Commercial paper
An unsecured, interest-bearing or discount obligation of a large, creditworthy corporation issued for periods of 1 to 270 days.
Commitment fee
A fee paid by the borrower to the lender in consideration of the lender\'s processing of the loan application and commitment.
Commodity
An economic good that is useful or valuable.
Common Area Maintenance (CAM) charges
Fees charged directly to tenants by owners for upkeep of common areas.
Common areas
Areas of a building usable by all occupants or visitors: lobbies and reception areas, halls and stairs, and rest rooms.
Common control
Used to refer to a telecommunications system\'s CPU where the system memory and those control cards critical to the overall operation of the system are stored.
Common law
Judge-made law. A body of law developed over the years by the U.S. federal and state appeals courts. (2) Body of law derived from usage, custom, and judgments and decrees of the courts and not from any written statute or regulation.
Common stock
Represents fundamental ownership of the firm after all other legal claims upon the firm have been paid.
Communication
Includes oral, written, and graphic communication; presentations to all levels of management; development of standards, work practices, and procedures; and development and management of specialized and technical information in a management context.
Communication interaction zone
The distance established between us and other people for different types of communication.
Community property
A principle in property law holding that property obtained during a marriage is jointly owned by the marital parties.
Commutator
That portion of the rotor on which the brushes from the stator ride or make electrical conduct in a DC motor.
Comparable sold properties
Properties that are very similar to the subject property and that have sold and closed in the last 180 days.
Comparative negligence
A principle of law that apportions negligence in an accident according to the percentage of negligence applicable to each party.
Comparative negligence
Legal doctrine that compares the relative fault of the plaintiff and the defendant in a negligence action and awards damages based on the defendant\'s percentage of fault.
Comparison grid
A spreadsheet used to compare similar properties and make adjustments for differences among these properties for the purpose of estimating value.
Compatibility
(1) Generally, the similarity of data file formats that enables a file produced by one computer system or program to be imported successfully into another computer system or program, without first having to convert the file. Refers also to operating systems and software. (2) The ability of one paint to mix with another.
Compensatory damages
Damages awarded to compensate a plaintiff for actual harm or loss suffered. Intended to restore the plaintiff to his or her same position prior to the injury.
Competency assessment
A process of identifying underlying characteristics that lead to successful performance among a group of employees (typically a department), within a job category, or at a given hierarchical level in an organization.
Competitive Market Analysis (CMA)
See Broker\'s Price Opinion
Competitive upgrade
A discount offered by a software or hardware vendor to switch from a competitor\'s product to theirs.
Complaint
The first pleading filed in a civil lawsuit.
Complete performance
The fulfillment of all obligations or duties of a contract.
Completed operations liability
A named insured\'s (contractor\'s) liability for claims alleging loss that is caused by faulty work and that occurs after the work has been completed.
Compliance
The act of meeting the explicit and implicit requirements of environmental health and safety laws.
Compliance (Managerial) Audits
These audits review compliance with procedures and verify whether transactions are properly documented and on file.
Composite data
Information from sources available to the public. This is also known as public data.
Compost
Organic matter made from decaying remains of plants and animals.
Compound document
A document produced by using dynamic data exchange (DDE).
Compound interest
Interest that is earned on cash assets and is immediately included in the investment principal. Compound interest is interest that is earned on itself, thereby increasing the actual interest derived.
Compound motor
A Direct Current (DC) motor that combines the operating characteristics of series and shunt motors.
Comprehensive boiler and machinery insurance
Coverage for all objects at the insured locations, rather than coverage only for certain \"scheduled\" objects.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund
Legislation passed in 1980 that imposes a standard of strict, joint, and several liability on entities associated with contaminated property. The law is applied retroactively to sites already contaminated.
Comprehensive Insurance
Another type of physical damage auto insurance to cover losses not caused by a collision or overturn of the vehicle.
Comprehensive major medical plans
Standard comprehensive major medical plans underwritten by an insurance company or by Blue Cross and Blue Shield. These plans usually set deductibles, coinsurance, out-of-pocket maximums, and overall maximum coverage limits.
Compressed gases
Contained gases with pressures greater than 40 psi.
Compression fittings Couplings used with an Electrical Metal Tubing (EMT) conduit that provide a moisture seal. Their use is allowed by the National Electric Code/Canadiam Electric Code (NEC/CEC) in some wet locations.
Compressive stress
A force tending to crush a material, such as the downward force within a brick wall caused by the weight of the upper bricks.
Compressor
A primary refrigeration system component that increases the pressure and temperature of a refrigerant.
Computer Literacy
Knowledge of and ease in using computer terminology, the basic design and general structure of hardware, and software programs.
Computer-Aided Facilities Management
See CAFM.
Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (SMMS)
User-friendly computer software packages used in building operation and maintenance departments to record, store, analyze, and manipulate vast quantities of data to control costs and improve productivity.
Computer-use adoption rates
The rates at which manual jobs are automated.
Concealment
Hiding facts from the insurer.
Concentration
The buildup of contaminants in boiler or tower water due to evaporation.
Concentration-dilution cycle
A refrigeration cycle that transfers heat by using a lithium bromide or other type solution to alternately absorb heat at a low-temperature level and reject it at a high-temperature level.
Concentrator
An absorption chiller component that separates refrigerant from a lithium bromide-refrigerant (or dilute) solution by heating the solution and vaporizing the refrigerant.
Conceptual competition
A competitive process that asks each broker or agent to analyze the loss exposures, risk management, and insurance needs of a business and to then propose an appropriate plan of coverages and services.
Concrete
An artificial stone made by binding together particles of aggregate with a paste made of cement and water.
Concrete Blocks
Concrete masonry units used in many types of masonry construction, either loadbearing or nonloadbearing, hollow or solid. Made from stone or other types of aggregate in a portland cement paste.
Concrete seal
A poured concrete cap usually near the surface of a monitoring well used to secure the placement of the well. [BOMI Institute source]
Concurrent condition
The occurrence of a condition precedent that obligates both parties to a bilateral contract to perform at the same time.
Concurrent ownership
Ownership of a particular parcel of real property by two or more persons either as joint tenants, tenants in common, or as tenants by the entirety.
Concurrent work process
Multiple tasks being performed at once. See also Linear Work Process.
Condemnation
(1) The taking, by a governmental entity, of private property for public use through the exercise of government\'s right of eminent domain. Condemnation proceedings must include payment of fair compensation for the property that is converted to public use. (2) The process through which the water content of air liquifies as the air temperature drops or atmospheric pressure rises. See also Dew Point.
Condenser
A heat exchanger in which hot, pressurized refrigerant is condensed through the transfer of heat to cooler surrounding air, water, or earth. The condenser is the heat rejection component of an air conditioning system.
Condition precedent
An act or event that must occur before one of the parties to the contract is obliged to perform.
Condition subsequent
The occurrence of an act or event that can relieve a contract party from an obligation to perform a promise or to compensate the other party for breach of contract.
Conditional contract
Contract in which the insured or the insurer are required to do certain things only if and when certain conditions occur.
Conditions
The section of an insurance policy that lays out the general ground rules of the insurance policy. It describes the rights and obligations of both the insured and the insurer.
Condominium interest
One in which various owners have a fractional interest in a larger property.
Conductance
A measure of the ability of a material to allow electrons to flow. Conductance, abbreviated G, is the reciprocal of resistance.
Conduction
The transfer of heat through matter due to temperature differences between adjacent objects.
Conductivity
The measure of water\'s capacity to carry an electric current. The greater the water\'s mineral content, the higher its conductivity.
Conductor
In electrical circuits, the wire that carries current to the appliance that uses the current. Commonly used conductors include copper and aluminum.
Conduit
An enclosure for wire or cable whose primary purpose is to protect the wires running through it from physical damage and excessive moisture. Metal conduit may also serve as a continuous grounding connection.
Conectivity
Accessing and using files in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. In building automation systems, the ability to monitor the controls of one manufacturer\'s system from another system. See also Interoperability.
Config.sys
The standard name of the file containing instructions telling a computer how to configure itself to accommodate peripherals.
Configuration
The process of organizing how program and data files are managed as well as telling a computer what sorts of devices it must work with and how to communicate with them.
Confined space
A workplace area — large enough and configured so that a person can bodily enter it — having limited or restricted egress, and not designed for continuous occupancy.
Confusion
The blending, mixing, intermingling, or merging of goods so that they can no longer be distinguished.
Conifers
See Softwood.
Connectors
Rivets, welds, bolts, etc., used to connect lengths of the structural members used in wide-span designs.
Consent
The voluntary agreements to an act or a proposal. Consent may be either express or implied.
Consequential damages
Damages that, although they are caused by the contract breach, do not result directly from the breach but rather from special circumstances.
Consideration
That which is bargained for in exchange for a promise or performance.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reform Act (COBRA)
A federal act that makes it mandatory for employers to offer continued health benefits to employees (at the employee\'s expense) for up to 18 months after employment has been terminated, for up to 29 months if the employee is on Social Security disability, and for up to 36 months for dependents of those employees.
Conspiracy
A crime that requires an agreement between two or more persons, an intent to enter into such agreement, and an intent to accomplish either some criminal or unlawful act, or a lawful act by unlawful means.
Constant-Air-Volume (CAV) Systems
A type of air handling system that maintains comfort in buildings by providing a constant flow of air at varying temperatures.
Construction administration
General management of the construction phase of a project, including review of shop drawings, approval of progress payments and change orders, and interpretation of construction documents.
Construction area
That portion of the gross area of a building rendered unusable by the presence of structural elements such as the walls and columns.
Construction contract
The written legal agreement between a property owner and a construction contractor for provision of construction labor, services, and materials for a specific project.
Construction contract documents
Five types of documents used for construction contracts: the written legal agreement for construction, construction drawings and specifications, addenda, and change orders.
Construction drawings
A complete set of architectural drawings with keyed notes detailing the work required and types of materials to be used in constructing the improvements; synonymous with working drawings.
Construction loan
A loan for the purpose of financing the construction or substantial renovation of buildings and other improvements.
Construction loan agreement
A loan document that sets forth the conditions for disbursement of construction loan funds.
Construction management
Management of the construction components of a project, such as selection of materials, construction methods, and how architectural detailing is approached; does not address how an occupant\'s needs are identified or how a strategy is formulated to make a project support corporate business objectives. A construction manager addresses the requirements of construction, not those of the occupants or the company.
Construction manager
An individual or firm that provides construction services to an owner/landlord in an owner-representative form. See also General Contractor.
Construction ratio
In the U.S. General Services Administration, a numeric ratio of the cost to build special space of a given type compared to the cost of building typical office space.
Construction standard
Standards that apply to building construction but, in facilities management, most often to occupant space, such as typical interior partition assemblies and which walls will be insulated or run slab-to-slab. In commercial leasing, such standards are set during lease negotiations in the work letter.
Construction supervisor
The day-to-day manager of the construction process who ensures that a project is built according to the drawings and specifications.
Constructive (or involuntary) bailment
A bailment in which the bailee does not desire to take control over the bailed property.
Consultants
Important members of a property-management team which might include: attorney, appraiser, architect, accountant, contractor, and environmental consultant.
Consultants\' Environmental Liability coverage (CEL)
A form that combines coverage for pollution liability and professional liability.
Consumer Price Index
A government statistic used to measure inflation.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
An index that attempts to statistically measure the effect of inflation on the purchasing power of a U.S. dollar. This monthly report is published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
Containment
A method of protecting both workers and the environment by controlling exposures to the dust and debris from hazardous materials such as lead created during abatement.
Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in quantities above regulatory limits or at levels representing elevated risk to those who are exposed.
CONTIGUOUS SPACE Contiguous space
Space that is directly adjacent to another space or spaces, or space that is directly above or below a specific space.
Continental seating
Auditorium seating characterized by deeper spacing between rows and fewer aisles compared with conventional seating.
Contingency
An unresolved issue that determines whether a buyer will finalize an offer to purchase.
Contingency funds
Funds allotted to cover unexpected costs that may be incurred throughout the project.
Contingency plan
A document that sets out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to follow in case an accident, fire, or explosion releases hazardous waste that could threaten human health or the environment.
Contingent interest
An equity participation by lenders that allows lenders to participate in the cash flow of a project after specified income objectives are met.
Continuous current rating
The ampere rating at which a circuit breaker can operate continuously without exceeding its thermal limits.
Continuous power
Electric power that ensures no interruption in service, even during a power failure. Continuity is usually provided by a an Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) system.
Contract
A promise or set of promises that the law will enforce as a duty, or for which, if broken, the law gives a remedy.
Contract administration
In the context of the provision of Architect/Engineer (A/E) services, the administration of the construction contract, including supervision of the bidding process, site visits, inspection of the work, review of change order requests, interpretation of drawings and specs, review of shop drawing submittals, and attendance at job progress meetings.
Contract documents
The combined documents of working drawings, details, and specifications from which a project will be built. See also Working Drawings.
Contract of adhesion
A contract offered to the insured individual or small business as a standardized document to be accepted or declined by the insured without changes or bargaining.
Contract of sale
A contract that typically specifies the purchase price and identifies the conditions that must be met in order for each party to complete the transaction.
Contract rental rates
Rental rates to be paid, specified in a lease or other agreement.
Contract uberrimae fidae
Agreement of utmost good faith, in which the insured is required to make known all material and pertinent facts to the insurance company.
Contracting officer
A person officially authorized to contractually bind a company to a contract.
Contractors\' Operations and Professional Services coverage (COPS)
A form that combines pollution liability insurance with professional liability coverage.
Contractors\' Pollution Liability Insurance (CPL)
Coverage that protects contractors from claims of third-party bodily injury and third-party property damage arising from pollution conditions caused during operations.
Contractual liability coverage
Coverage for liability assumed in a contract or agreement that is an insured contract.
Contrarian-investment fund
Sometimes referred to as a \"vulture fund,\" or opportunity fund. Comes into play when property values are depressed, and investors buy up property at depreciated prices, expecting to resell at a higher rate when the economy improves.
Contrast ratio
A numeric ratio of the light reflectance values of two surfaces.
Contribution
A theory that looks at individual portions of the whole property and measures their relative worth.
Contributory Negligence
(1) The principle of law recognizing that injured persons may have contributed to their own injury; under this theory, a defendant may allege that since the defendant and plaintiff were both negligent, each is in the wrong, and neither should be able to collect from the other. (2) Negligent behavior by a plaintiff which, together with the defendant\'s negligence, contributes as a proximate cause to the plaintiff\'s injury and may bar recovery from defendant.
Control Joints
Cracks intentionally formed in concrete at designated intervals to absorb the forces of expansion and contraction in an orderly pattern. Control joints allow a certain amount of tilting and heaving to prevent high stresses from developing and possibly breaking the concrete.
Convection
The transfer of heat by the circulation of a liquid or gas.
Conventional memory
The first 640 kilobytes of memory in a PC. See also Extended Memory and Upper Memory.
Convergent Organization
A type of organization in which related development activities are consolidated and colocated, usually at corporate headquarters (e.g., R&D, design, and product engineering). See also Divergent Organization.
Conversion
(1) Wrongfully taking the property of others into one\'s care, custody, and control and either disposing of it, failing to return it as agreed, refusing to return it, or breaking it while in one\'s possession. (2) Any intentional or unauthorized act which permanently or indefinitely deprives owner of its chattels.
Convertible debt
A debt instrument that can be converted into equity or stock in a project or firm.
Convertible mortgage
A mortgage that enables the lender, at its option, to convert all or part of the mortgage debt into equity in the project.
Convertible security
A corporate debt instrument that is convertible into either preferred or common stock, or a preferred stock that is convertible into common stock.
Cooling
The process in which heat is transferred (e.g., by evaporation) from one substance to another, cooler substance.
Coordination of benefits
The medical insurance policy provision that is designed to ensure that individuals covered under their employer\'s health plan and also under their spouse\'s health plan cannot be reimbursed more than 100 percent of total covered charges.
Coordination of construction documents
The process of cross-referencing architectural and engineering drawings and specifications for contractual integrity by avoiding dimensional conflicts between systems, inconsistencies between notes on drawings and specifications, and similar problems.
COPE
Acronym for the four most important property underwriting criteria: construction, occupancy, protection, and exposure.
Core competency or functio
A business function directly related to the corporate mission and to sales generation. (Noncore functions include any business function not directly related to a company\'s core business and sales generation, including facilities management.)
Core factor
The number of square feet in a multitenant building devoted to the lobby and hallways and for which each tenant is assessed a certain percentage.
Cork
The light, thick, elastic outer bark of the cork oak tree, found in southern Europe, made in sheets and tiles. Cork has four surface types: (1) natural, (2) waxed, (3) resin-reinforced-waxed, and (4) vinyl.
Corporate Charter
A formal document that accomplishes the incorporation of a legal entity when filed with the state of incorporation.
Corporate mission
The purpose or plan of a company to produce a distinctive good or service.
Corporate real estate
The owned, leased, or subleased real property including land, facilities, and legal commitments (such as easements and rights-of-way) controlled by an organization in support of the organization\'s business mission.
Corporate strategic planning
The process of developing strategies, options, scenarios, and contingencies for pursuing corporate business objectives. See also Strategic Facilities Planning.
Corporation
A body formed and authorized by law to act as a single person, although made up of one or more persons, and legally endowed with multiple rights and duties, including the capacity of succession. (2) A statutorily authorized entity that has a legal existence separate and apart from its owners.
Corrected lead concentration
An amount calculated by subtracting the substrate-effect lead from the apparent lead concentration.
Corrective maintenance
Repair work to restore normal operation in equipment or systems that are deficient or have failed.
Corrective maintenance
Maintenance activities performed because of equipment or system failure. Activities are directed toward the restoration of an item to a specified level of performance. Sometimes called \"breakdown maintenance.\"
Corrosion
The destruction of metal through electrochemical oxidation; the gradual wearing away of material, usually by chemical action.
Corrosion Coupons
Metal strips that are inserted into water to get an indication of the corrosion rates of different metals.
Cosourcing
When a corporation does not want to transfer responsibility for the facility function to a service provider, but desires the results that they have seen through outsourcing done by other companies.
Cost
The total dollar expenditure for any improvement, for either replacement or reproduction cost.
Cost approach
One of the three basic approaches to value computed by determining the value of vacant land, estimating construction costs, and subtracting actual depreciation. When used by appraisers it considers the cost of totally replacing or reconstructing a property, including the purchase of land where the property is located.
Cost center
A program, project, or organizational unit in which budgetary funding is used to sustain operations.
Cost effectiveness
Obtaining the best value for the money, not necessarily the lowest-cost solution.
Cost of operation
The total costs associated with the day-to-day operation of a facility. It includes all maintenance and repair , administrative costs, labor costs, janitorial, housekeeping, all utility costs, and all costs associated with roadways and grounds.
Cost savings / cost avoidance
In cost-benefit analysis, money saved or costs avoided, over existing spending levels, by a proposed initiative. See also Cost-Benefit Analysis.
Cost-benefit analysis
An analysis of the ratio of the monetary and nonmonetary benefits of an item or proposal to its monetary and nonmonetary costs.
Cost-Of-Living Adjustment (COLA)
An optional provision in disability insurance policies to increase the benefits payable over time based on a cost-of-living index.
Coulomb
A quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor; (6.25 x 1018 electrons) coulombs per second equals one ampere.
Counter electromotive force
The Electromotive Force (emf) that opposes the flow of current. Just as the windings of a generator produce voltage, the rotor in a motor produces voltage that is counter or opposed to the supply voltage. This counter emf creates additional resistance that must be overcome by the supply voltage.
Counterclaim
A claim brought by a defendant against the plaintiff that will oppose or reduce the plaintiff\'s claims.
Counterflashing
See Flashing.
Coupon
A means by which interest payments are received by a holder of bearer securities. The coupons are physically removed from the security and presented for payment on or after a specified payment due date.
Coupon clipper
A term applied to an individual who, rather than working, lives on interest and dividends received from inherited wealth.
Covenants
A promise contained in a deed or other document under which one party is bound to the other for the performance or nonperformance of a specified act or a particular set of conditions. It is also a private legal restriction on the use of land.
Coventants of title
Legal binding warranties or promises made by the seller of real property in the deed regarding the quality of title to the real property.
Coverage
The surface area in square feet (square meters), or squares to be continuously coated by a specific unit of roofing materials, after allowance is made for specified overlap.
Coverage ratio
The ratio of the annual net operating income from a property to the annual debt service on a mortgage loan on the property. Also termed the debt coverage ratio. The relationship between net operating income and required debt service payments on a loan. Sometimes termed the loan coverage ratio.
CPU
Central processing unit. The basic components of a computer system located on the system board or motherboard inside the case: the silicon chip that processes instructions, ROM, RAM, the power supply, the computer\'s internal clock, hard disk and floppy disk drives, and its ports.
Crack
A tear or break in a membrane, produced by bending or shrinkage, often at a wrinkle.
Cracking or scaling
A paint defect where the surface splits or curls back, usually caused by buildup of too many coats on a surface or by paint applied too thickly.
Cradle to grave
The basic premise behind the Resource Conservation and Recovering Act (RCRA) in defining the liability associated with the management and ownership of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste must be managed properly from the time it is generated until its ultimate treatment or disposal, and beyond.
Crash
The failure or malfunction of computer hardware or software that makes programs inoperable or causes data loss.
Crawling and creeping
A paint defect that develops when paint, varnish, or enamel draws up into beads and does not wet a hard, glossy surface.
Creep
(1) Permanent elongation or shrinkage of a membrane resulting from thermal or moisture changes. (2) Permanent deformation of a structural member, such as framing or deck, resulting from plastic flow under continued stress or dimensional changes accompanying changing moisture content or temperature.
Criminal law
Laws that define which actions are prohibited or illegal and provide for the punishment of those acts.
Crisis management
The practice of attempting to manage by reacting to events rather than anticipating events and planning an appropriate response. See also Reactive Maintenance.
Criteria air pollutants
Substances for which a National Ambient Air Quality Standard has been established under the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments.
Critical path chart
A chart showing the minimum amount of time required to complete a project from beginning to end, and which tasks must be completed before subsequent ones can be started. It is based on the time required for each task, its timing relative to other tasks, and interrelationships between tasks.
Critical radiant flux
A measure of a carpet\'s resistance to bursting into flames in the presence of a heat source.
Crocidolite
A blue type of asbestos mineral that is the least common form found in buildings.
Cross training
Preparing for and participating in multiple facilities management functions as part of a job.
Cross-claim
A claim brought by co-defendants or co-plaintiffs against each other. These parties are on the same side of a main litigation.
CSHOs
Compliance safety and health officers. Personnel within the ten OSHA regions who are responsible for ensuring compliance with workplace safety and health standards.
CSI
Customer Satisfaction Index. A baseline index that allows a before-and-after view and ongoing monitoring of contractor performance against an established standard.
CSL
See Combined Single Limit Of Liability.
CTD
Cumulative trauma disorder. An injury resulting from repetitive motions or tasks, which place stress on the body and ultimately result in injury.
Cubic feet (meters)
The volumetric unit used for measuring ion exchange materials. Volume is measured on an in-place, backwashed, drained, and settled condition.
Curb appeal
The appeal of a property from the exterior of the rental unit as perceived by a prospective tenant.
Cure period
The time necessary for a market to gain an equilibrium in the real estate market.
Current leasing report
Itemizes current lease negotiations.
Current tracer
A device that can be attached to any accessible point in the circuit to physically trace circuit wiring back through the building.
Current-interrupting rating
The highest current at rated voltage that a fuse or circuit breaker is intended to interrupt without damage under standard operating conditions.
Curtain wall
An external nonloadbearing wall, which is intended to separate the exterior and interior environments and which is fixed to this external building frame.
Custodial area
The sum of floor area used for building protection, care, cleaning, and maintenance.
Custodial housekeeping
Activities performed to keep a facility clean and tidy. See also Improvements and Maintenance.
Custodian
A caretaker, generally in an institution, who has general building maintenance duties in addition to cleaning.
Customer service agreements
Informal minicontracts between the facilities department and its customers for facilities services.
Customization
The process of modifying a standard-issue software program to meet the needs of a specific user or requirement, usually by altering the source code (programming language) of the original program. See also Fine Tuning.
Cutback
An organic, solvent-thinned, soft or fluid cold-process bituminous roof coating or flashing cement.
Cycle
One complete sine wave, which is one 360° rotation of a simple Alternating Current (AC) generator.
Cycles of concentration
The ratio of the concentration of a chemical or mineral in the recirculating water to its concentration in the makeup water. Also called concentration ratio.
Cyclical maintenance
Maintenance that can be predicted and performed on a regular basis (cycle).
D&O (Directors and Officers) liability insurance
Professional liability insurance for directors and officers of companies which provides coverage in two basic areas: (1) Coverage for the business to reimburse it for having to reimburse the directors and officers for their financial losses and expenses (2) Direct coverage for the directors and officers for their losses and expenses that are not reimbursed by the firm.
DADO
A rectangular groove cut across the grain of a wood blocking member, typically to provide edge canting at the outer edge of the roof.
Damages
Monetary compensation that may be sought or awarded in court as a remedy for a tort or a breach of contract. The term is sometimes also used to mean actual harm or loss suffered by a plaintiff as a result of a tort committed by another.
Dark shell
Unfinished space with no finishes or building utilities.
Data conversion
Changing information that has been entered using one file format to another file format for import into another application or platform.
Data entry
The process of entering data (usually by typing or electronic transfer from another database) into an electronic record.
Data field
A specific electronic code placed on a certain type of data (identified by the user) that permits rapid retrieval and sorting of all data of a certain type.
Data intensive
he characteristic of certain data, especially automated graphics files, to consume far more disk space and use more computer memory than conventional text files do.
Data path
See Bandwidth.
Database
An automated electronic file(s) in which data is stored; also used to include data stored in any form, automated or not.
Database management system
Computer software used to manage a database.
Day porter services
Services provided by facilities departments for miscellaneous needs of occupants, such as moving boxes and setting up meeting spaces.
DC (Direct Current)
circuit A circuit powered by a source of Electromotive Force (emf) in which the current flows in only one direction.
DDC
Direct digital control. A method of controlling the operation of HVAC systems by automated processing of signals from digital sensors.
DDE
Dynamic data exchange. Importing data from one program to another while keeping the two files linked so that a change in the target application file also changes the original file. See also Compound Document and OLE (Object Linking and Embedding.)
Dead level
Absolutely horizontal, or zero slope. See Slope.
Dead load
The weight of walls, columns, partitions, floors, roofs, and all other permanent construction of a building, including plumbing, stacks, air-conditioning units, or other fixed building service equipment supported by the structure.
Deadband
A preset temperature range across which conditioned spaces are neither heated nor cooled. In this temperature range, the HVAC system provides ventilation only.
Deadband control
A control device that monitors and operates the deadband range and, when necessary, activates the buil
14 Dec 2009
15:52:09
Braun
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 2

Deadband control
A control device that monitors and operates the deadband range and, when necessary, activates the building heating system below a predetermined temperature and the building cooling system above a second predetermined temperature.
Deadly force
Force that is likely or intended to cause either death or great bodily harm.
Debenture
A general term applied to all forms of unsecured, long-term indebtedness.
Debriefing
A meeting held with an unsuccessful bidder or proposer to explain why the winning contractor was selected and what the unsuccessful bidder can do to improve future proposals.
Debris removal clause
Provision in property insurance that excludes coverage for the cost to extract pollutants from land or water or to remove, restore, or replace polluted water.
Debt
An amount of money owed by one party to another through a transaction in which value passes to a debtor. A debt is a pecuniary obligation of the debtor.
Debt coverage ratio
The ratio of the projected net income to debt service.
Debt financing
(1) Raising money through borrowing and the issuing of a mortgage, bond, note, or debenture. (2) DEBT FINANCING. Financing a purchase of real estate by taking out a loan.
Debt rating service
A firm that evaluates and reports on the creditworthiness of firms and governments that issue debt securities. These services include Dun and Bradstreet, Moody's, and Standard & Poor's rating services.
Debt service
Periodic payments made under a mortgage loan. Each payment normally includes an amount for interest accrued since the last payment plus a principal amount that ultimately amortizes the loan. Scheduled payments made to retire principal and interest on a debt.
Debt-to-equity ratio
The relationship between the total amount owed to the lender and the investment of the owner. Also called the leverage ratio.
Decibel
A measure of the intensity of a sound in terms of the air-pressure change caused by a sound wave.
Deciduous tree
A tree that loses its leaves at the end of the growing season — typically in the fall — often showing great color while doing so.
Declaration
The so-called headline page of an insurance policy that lists such important facts as the policy period, policy premium, policy number, types of coverages provided, and the named insured.
Declaratory Judgment
A judgment whereby a judge renders an opinion on the meaning of the disputed contract language or the obligations arising from it.
Declaratory Remedies
Remedies that permit a party to have a court resolve a contract dispute based on a disagreement concerning contract language.
Dedicated access
Private telephone-line facilities installed by a company directly from their location to the local exchange carrier's central office or Point of Presence (POP). See also Switched Access.
Dedicated Circuit / Line
An electrical circuit or telephone line reserved exclusively for one appliance or occupant.
Dedicated heat pump
A heat pump devoted to a single task such as providing service water heating.
Deductible
The amount or portion of a loss that must be paid by the policyholder before the insurance company is required to pay.
Deductible (Health Insurance)
The agreed-upon amount of medical expenses paid by the insured before benefit payments begin. The deductible usually applies annually to each covered member of the family. It is sometimes waived if medical expenses result from accident.
Deductions
Eligible operating expenses that may be used to reduce the annual gross income subject to taxation.
Deed
A written instrument that is signed by the owner of real property and conforms to certain formalities specified by state law in order to convey the real property to another person.
Deed of trust
A legal instrument, similar to a mortgage, that grants a lien on real property to secure the performance of an obligation, usually the payment of debt. Unlike a mortgage, a deed of trust involves a third party trustee who acts for the benefit of the lender.
Deep Rot
A problem associated with fungal attack on wood in cooling towers.
Defamation
A statement that harms the reputation of a person so much as to lower such person in the estimation of the community or to deter third persons from associating or dealing with him or her.
Default
An act or omission that constitutes the failure to meet a promise, discharge an obligation, or perform under an agreement with other parties.
Deferred maintenance
A formal or informal listing of unaccomplished maintenance tasks. Such situations arise because of shortages of funds, personnel, or specific management practices.
Deficiency judgment
A term that provides that if loan documents do not contain an exculpatory clause and the lender still has not recovered its losses, it has the right to sue the borrower personally for any remaining unpaid debt after foreclosure.
Defined benefit plans
Retirement plans that are basically the opposite of defined contribution plans in that the benefit is fixed, but the necessary funds needed to pay for those fixed benefits at retirement are not specified in amount.
Defined contribution plans
Retirement plans that specify what the periodic contribution to the plan is, but not the retirement benefits the plan will provide. Those benefits are determined by the investment success of the funds set aside.
Defragmentation
The process of rearranging files on a hard disk so that all portions of a file are located together in one or more adjacent sectors on the disk.
Degree days
The absolute difference between the outdoor mean temperature and a base temperature over a 24-hour period (typically 65°F) (18.3°C). (For example, a mean temperature of 30°F (1.1°C) yields 35 (19.4) heating degree days; a mean temperature of 90°F (32.2°C) yields 25 (13.9) cooling degree days.) Degree days are roughly proportional to the weather loading on a structure.
Delamination
The separation of felt plies in a built-up roofing membrane, sometimes resulting in wrinkling and cracking.
Deleader
Any person, corporation, or other entity that tests, removes, reduces, covers, contains, and disposes of any material containing dangerous levels of lead.
Delegated Contracting Authority
The act of a contracting officer giving the authority for certain contracting actions, such as signing change orders up to $5,000, to other qualified individuals.
Delta-connected transformer
A transformer with the internal taps configured so that the positive end of each phase winding is connected to the negative end of a subsequent phase winding.
Demand
The desire and ability to purchase or lease goods or services. The amount of a type of real estate desired for purchase or lease by buyers or tenants in the marketplace.
Demand charge
A utility company charge based on the highest average or peak power consumed during a given time interval (generally 15 or 30 minutes). It is designed to help a utility recover the fixed costs of generating, transmitting, and distributing a certain amount of electricity at one time.
Demand control device
A monitor that is connected to a current transformer in order to track electricity consumption. When the device's logic indicates that a preset demand limit will be exceeded during a demand interval, the secondary loads are dropped to reduce demand and cost. The load is restored when the demand interval is over.
Demand deposits
Money in checking accounts; called demand deposits because you can get the money on demand, through checks or withdrawals.
Demising book
Sometimes referred to as a stacking plan. It lists floor plans, tenants and their lease expirations, square footage, and delineated expansion rights.
Demographics
The study of the statistics of populations, such as births, marriages, and population movements and concentrations.
Demolition insurance
Coverage to pay for the cost of demolishing undamaged portions of buildings that are required by ordinance or law to be demolished following major damage to the insured building.
Demolition plan
A construction drawing that delineates all partitions, doors, and power/communications outlets to be demolished.
Demountable partition
A prefabricated modular wall assembly that can be installed, removed, and reinstalled.
Demountable walls
Full-height, prefabricated panels manufactured as a system, with specific methods of being attached to ceilings, floors, and each other.
Density (air)
The actual weight of air in pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter). At 70°F and 29.92 in. barometric pressure, air density is 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.2 kg/m3).
Dental Insurance plans
Health insurance plans specifically designed to cover dental and/or orthodontic care.
Deodorants
Odor-controlling chemicals.
Deposit premium
An estimated policy premium based on an exposure basis such as sales or payroll, which is subject to variation.
Deposition
(1) The recorded, out-of-court, oral testimony of a witness under oath. (2) Oral testimony under oath taken outside of the courtroom.
Depreciation
In the economic sense, depreciation is the physical wearing out or obsolescence of an asset. The loss in value of a capital asset over its economic life.
Depreciation schedules
Tables showing the rate at which a capital asset will lose fancial value, as well as the amount of the loss, over the useful life of the asset.
Descent
Legal means by which real property of an intestate is distributed.
Desiccant
A substance that absorbs water vapor from the environment in which it is placed.
Design storm
The expected return frequency of a storm event. Determined by the design engineer and used to lay out a stormwater system.
Design-build
A development approach in which the developer hires design professionals as well as all construction trades.
Design-intent drawings
Drawings that show the intent of the approved design — where everything is supposed to go and how it will look. They also show the location of all construction elements but do not include engineering calculations or construction details.
Desk audit
A process in which an employee's work is monitored over several days to verify that the actual work warrants a requested upgrade.
Desktop
A term for a Personal Computer (PC), which often is located on top of a worker's desk.
Desktop publishing
A type of software designed to accomplish the tasks associated with producing text and graphics for newsletters, flyers, reports, and papers with integrated graphic design.
Desuperheater
A device that recovers waste heat from hot refrigerant vapor in the condenser of an air conditioner or heat pump for use in service water heating.
Detail books
Bound collections of details, usually for building standard conditions and typical construction, such as interior wall connections to suspended ceilings and the connection of door frames to walls.
Details
In the context of construction, enlarged sections indicating the precise assembly of building components.
Detention ponds
Manmade ponds designed to collect excess stormwater runoff and discharge it at a controlled rate to prevent flooding and erosion. Also called retention ponds.
Deviated rates
Rates that are different from Insurance Services Office (ISO) suggested rates.
Device drivers
Files containing instructions on how the computer must configure itself to accommodate various peripheral devices such as a mouse, monitor, printers, tape backup drives, and scanners.
Devise
The transfer of real property by will.
Dew point
The temperature at which air with a given amount of moisture is fully saturated, so that condensation occurs.
Diagnostic Control
A management technique that focuses on measurement against predetermined targets and does not encompass the scope of management competencies.
DIC (Difference-In-Conditions) policy
A special form property policy that supplements a specified peril property policy and usually includes flood and earthquake insurance.
DID
Direct inward dialing. Offered only by a local exchange carrier, this process allows someone to dial each extension in a company directly from the outside without an operator transferring the call.
Dielectric
The material placed between the two plates of a capacitor.
Diffuse (or general) lighting system
A system in which light is distributed equally to both the upper and lower areas of a room—50 percent upward and 50 percent downward.
Digital meter
An electric meter that converts analog electrical measurements into a digital medium.
Digital signal
A control signal that is either on of off (e.g., fan start/stop).
Digitizer
An input device consisting of a pen and tablet that detects the position of the pointing device on the tablet surface and converts it into x,y coordinates within a fixed space.
Dimension string
A line on a drawing showing the length of an object.
Diminimus rule
When low-dollar items may qualify for capitalization and can be expensed to eliminate the additional record keeping.
Dimmers
Devices that reduce the output of light from lamps, either with or without reductions in the energy supplied to the light fixtures.
Direct contribution
The ability of an organizational unit to generate corporate sales and income. See also Indirect Contribution.
Direct current (DC) generators
Devices that convert mechanical energy into DC electricity through electromagnetic induction.
Direct digital control
System control performed by electronic microprocessor-based controllers that use digital signals for monitoring analog sensor inputs and controlling analog actuator outputs.
Direct glue-down
The use of glue to apply carpet tile directly to concrete floor slabs.
Direct lighting system
A system in which 90 percent to 100 percent of the light from a luminaire shines down toward the working surface.
Direct sales comparison approach
Compares characteristics of a subject property with those of sold properties that have closed within the last 180 days.
Direct selling method
A method of selling through advertising without personal contact between the policyholder and a sales representative of the insurance company.
Direct writing method
A sales system in which the insurance companies use employed salespersons to make direct personal contact with prospective policyholders. The insurance company owns the business produced by the salesperson.
Direct-billed premium
Insurance premium billed by the insurance company.
Direct-expansion refrigerator
A refrigeration machine that uses mechanical energy to generate cool air.
Directory
A group of computer files found in one location with a common name.
Direct-read XRF analyzer
An instrument that provides the operator with a direct readout of the lead concentration in paint.
Dirt
Any filthy or soiling substance, such as dust, soil, grime or mud.
Discount
Something purchased or sold for less than the face value or stated price. Discounting is the calculation of the reduction of future payments to present worth.
Discount rate
(1) An income rate used to discount future cash flows back to a present value. Discount rates are generally higher than cap rates because they include a factor for inflation as well as a risk factor. (2)The interest rate that the Federal Reserve Bank charges member banks to borrow money from the discount window. The discount rate is sometimes referred to as the "rediscount rate."
Discount window
An activity of the Federal Reserve Bank wherein member banks borrow money to meet reserve requirements.
Discounted cash flow (DCF)
A technique that gives the present value of an investment, and is used for calculating comparable evaluators for investments with future cash flows.
Discovery
(1) Pretrial information-gathering by both sides engaged in a lawsuit. (2) The pretrial procedure by which the parties to litigation obtain facts and information pertinent to the case from the other party in order to prepare for trial.
Discretionary account
An account for which the portfolio manager has complete control to approve budgets, and buy, sell, lease, and improve properties.
Disinfectant
An agent that inhibits, neutralizes or destroys potentially harmful bacteria. May contain synthetic phenols, quaternary ammonium chemicals (quats), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or iodine.
Disk compression
A special software program that enables more data to be stored on a disk than is otherwise possible.
Dissolved solids
Any minerals that may be present in the water supply as a result of the water's ability to dissolve almost any substance.
Distributed / Decentralized processing
Data processing done in several locations rather than in a single, central location.
Distribution
Legal means by which personal property of an intestate is distributed.
Distribution circuits
The way in which electric power moves through an electrical system to the end-use loads.
Distributors
Devices located at the top or bottom of a water softener to distribute or collect the water and to retain the cation exchange material in the units.
Diurnal temperature variations
Temperature changes that occur on a daily, cyclical basis.
Divergent organization
A type of organization in which support functions and related facilities are located away from company headquarters and regional offices, closer to the customers, the market, and the competition.
Dividends
Profits from corporations that are distributed to the stockholders in accordance with their proportional shares of the corporation's stock.
Doctrine of merger
Under the legal doctrine of merger, all covenants as to title in the sale contract, including the implied covenant of marketable title, are merged into the deed so that, from that time forward, the buyer's rights are dictated solely by the covenants and warranties expressed or implied in the deed, if any.
Documents
In software programs, collections of information; objects created for presentation, such as word processing textual documents, spreadsheet and business graphics, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) files, and voice mail messages.
Domestic insurer
An insurer organized under the laws of the state in which it is domiciled.
Domestic water system
The building water system that provides drinking water and sanitary water supplies.
DOS
Disk Operating System. A computer operating system originally designed to manage the basic functions of IBM-based personal computers.
Dose
An amount of a substance received over a specific time period.
Double glazed (or dual glazed)
Two panes separated by a dead air space to provide a thermal barrier. Each pane is independently movable in a system with two sashes (that is, one prime and one storm window). A double-glazed system within a single sash is commonly referred to as "insulating glass."
Double glazed, Acoustic barrier
This term describes two panes separated by a dead air space of at least 2 in. (5.1 cm) in order to provide an acoustic barrier as well as a thermal barrier. Glass panels are usually of different thickness for increased sound attenuation.
Double-net lease
A lease where rent payments cover triple net plus building insurance premiums. The tenant pays for everything except taxes.
Dower rights
The part of or interest in the real estate of a deceased spouse given by law to the surviving spouse during the deceased's life.
Downflow
A term applied to designate the direction (down) in which water flows through the ion exchange during any phase of the operating cycle of a household water softener.
Downside leverage
Reduction of cash flow that occurs when debt service payments are greater than the return from an investment.
Downsizing
A reduction in the workforce.
Downtime
The length of time that a system is not operating and thus impairs the work process.
Draft authority
The delegation of authority to the agent to make payment on small claims.
Drafting systems
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that create and measure drawing constructions using standard drafting conventions. Drafting systems assign mathematical values to the points that define all lines and geometrical shapes, enabling the computer software to electronically calculate and measure lengths and areas. See also Modeling Systems.
Drain
A line used to carry backwash water, spent regenerant, and rinse water to the household water system.
Drainage basin
A small stormwater drainage area. Also known as a watershed.
Drive
A device that holds and spins hard or floppy disks; retrieves and alters data by electromagnetically changing the configuration of the iron oxide coating on the disk(s). See also Floppy Disk and Hard Disk.
Drive-other-car (DOC) coverage
Personal auto insurance for those persons who do not have a personal auto policy and depend on a commercial auto policy for their auto insurance coverage.
Drop inlet
See Catch Basin.
Drop-down menu
A detailed list of choices that appears below a main topic; usually located on a graphic bar at the top of the software application screen.
Dry closing
A mortgage loan closing that takes place prior to the funding of the loan.
Dry sprinkler system
A sprinkler system in which pipes are filled with water only when a fire emergency develops. See also Wet Sprinkler System.
Dry-Bulb (DB) temperature
The temperature of air as measured by an ordinary thermometer.
Dry-foam shampooer
A machine that sets up a lather from a liquid detergent solution and brushes it into the pile. Removed with a vacuum cleaner.
Dual agency
An agency relationship in which an agent acts for two different principals.
Dual-duct system
A type of air circulatory system that conditions the air in a central air handling unit and then distributes the air through two ducts. One duct carries cold air and the other carries hot air. A mixing box in the space to be conditioned then mixes cold and hot air to maintain predetermined space temperatures.
Due Diligence
(1) A type of facilities survey taken before a major acquisition is initiated. Such surveys may include investigation of building condition, environmental hazards, regulatory compliance, financial value, and other factors. (2) The activities performed in advance of a transaction in order to uncover environmental risks and to assess potential environmental liability.
Due on encumbrance
A loan document clause which provides that the entire mortgage debt becomes due upon further encumbrance of the mortgaged property by the borrower.
Due on sale
A loan document clause which provides that the entire mortgage debt becomes due upon sale of the property by the borrower.
Dumb terminal
A terminal with no computer processing capabilities that is connected to a mainframe system.
Durability
An investment's vulnerability to inflationary pressures and the fluctuation of interest rates, as well as its potential physical or economic obsolescence.
Duress
A legal defense used when an otherwise criminal act is committed under threat of imminent death or serious bodily harm to the defendant or to his or her immediate family.
Dust-mop treatment
Substances applied to the yarn of dust mops so that they will pick up and hold dry soils more easily.
Duty cycling
Shutting down HVAC fans and pumps for short periods each hour during the day to reduce consumption and demand.
Dynamic link libraries
Software routines that permit more than one application to use a file (e.g., a dictionary).

Earned premiums
Those premiums that have been used up either through the passage of time during the policy period or by the amount of payroll, sales, or other auditable premium basis that has been generated during the policy period.
Earnest money
Funds committed to the seller by the buyer to purchase real property. The funds are at-risk and nonrefundable if the buyer successfully completes and complies with issues relative to the purchase of the property prior to closing.
Earnest money deposit
A sum of money deposited by the purchaser of real estate with the seller or broker, in accordance with the contract of sale, in order to show the intent and ability of the purchaser to complete the transaction.
Easement
(1) A nonpossessory land interest held by another. An easement places a burden or cloud upon the property interest. A right of one party to use the land of another for a special purpose. (2) A right of one party to lawfully use the land of another for a beneficial purpose.
Easement appurtenant
An easement that benefits one property and burdens an adjoining property.
Easement in gross
An easement that burdens one or more properties but does not necessarily benefit any particular property.
Economic profit
Excess revenues above the opportunity costs of resources expended.
Economic rent
Surpluses received by owners of property or resources in excess of the minimum necessary to supply the property or resource.
Economizer cycle
An energy-saving process that discontinues the operation of the cooling system when the outdoor temperature falls below a predetermined temperature setting, normally between 50° and 60°F (10° to 15°C). At such a time, cooler outdoor air is then brought into the system and used to reduce indoor temperatures.
Edge venting
The practice of providing horizontal escape outlets through the insulation to ported or grooved edge boards and/or parapet walls.
Edison-based fuse
An older-type fuse, often referred to as a plug fuse, in which the thread size is the same as on a standard, or Edison-based, lightbulb and socket.
Effect lighting
Also known as accent lighting or highlighting; can be used to achieve a certain design effect.
Effective rental rates
Rental rates that include landlord concessions to a tenant to induce the signing of a lease. These concessions include free rent, paid moving expenses, and similar costs paid by the landlord.
Efflorescence
A saltlike deposit on a surface, usually caused by moisture in masonry.
Effluent
The water or solution that emerges from a water softener during any phase of the operating cycle.
Egress
The act of going out of a building.
EIL
See Environmental Impairment Liability Insurance.
EL
Excursion limit. The OSHA standard fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) worker exposure limit to asbestos, averaged over a sampling period of thirty minutes (currently 1.0 f/cc).
EL (electronic) ballasts
Ballasts that operate arc discharge lamps using high-frequency electronic components; more efficient than Electromagnetic (EM) ballasts.
Elasticity
The ability of a material to return to its initial state after being deformed or stressed by an outside force.
Elastomeric
Having elastic properties, capable of expanding or contracting with the surfaces to which the subject material is applied without rupturing.
Elbow or ell
A 90 degree bend used when a conduit run must make a right angle.
Electric boiler
A boiler that heats water or steam using electric resistance heating coils.
Electric distribution system
The equipment and conductors that carry electricity from the electric utility's main power source to the individual panelboards within a building.
Electrical / lighting plan
An engineering construction drawing of all lighting fixtures, switches, and circuitry.
Electrical Circuit
Consists of at least three components--a source, a load, and a complete path. Also normally includes some type of control device, such as a switch.
Electrical cover sheet
A construction drawing of all electrical specifications, notes, and electrical panel schedules. It also specifies supplemental electrical panels, if required.
Electrical drawings or blueprints
Drawings in which the architectural plans for a structure are used to show the physical location, wiring connections, and types of electrical devices to be installed.
Electrical energy
Energy associated with the flow of negatively charged electrons.
Electrical schematics or ladder diagrams
Drawings that show all components in a circuit and how they are connected.
Electrical service
The connection of a building to the power supplied by a local utility company.
Electrical Symbols
A type of shorthand used to identify particular components of a circuit and to show how they are connected. Each type of drawing and its related symbols is selected on the basis of its intended purpose.
Electricity
The flow of electrons through a conducting medium (a solid, liquid, or gas).
Electrochemical reaction
The transfer of electrons between two areas along a metal surface in contact with water capable of carrying an electric current.
Electrolyte
(1) A substance that transfers the ions being emitted during corrosion from the anode to the cathode. When referring to underground storage tank corrosion, the substance is typically moist soil. (2) The chemicals in a battery. When connected to an electrical circuit, the chemicals in the electrolyte react to produce an excess of electrons at the negative terminal and a deficiency of electrons at the positive terminal.
Electrolytic solution
Water capable of carrying an electric current.
Electromagnetic forces
Magnetic forces created by the electric charges of the protons and electrons.
Electromagnetic spectrum
An orderly arrangement of radiant energy by wavelength or frequency including all kinds of electric and magnetic radiation, from gamma rays and X-rays to long waves and the visible spectrum (light). In the visible spectrum, the eye is sensitive to radiant energy between 380 nanometers (violet) and 780 nanometers (red).
Electromagnetism
The most common source of electricity. Mechanical energy is used to move a coil through a magnetic field to create electricity by the process of electromagnetic induction.
Electromygraphy
The study of muscle response to electrical stimulation. Particularly useful in quantifying ergonomic stresses associated with mechanical forces.
Electron Shells
The layers in which electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom. The specific radius of each electron shell is determined by the energy level of the electrons in that shell.
Electrons
A component of an atom that is substantially smaller and has far less mass than either protons or neutrons. The electrons of an atom exhibit a negative (-) electric charge exactly equal to but opposite the positive (+) charge of protons.
Electrostatic
The use of electrical energy to magnetically charge (and thus attract) dust particles to a filter.
Elevators
Enclosed compartments that transport people and goods between floors within a building.
EM (electromagnetic) ballasts
A traditional ballast for arc discharge lighting that uses the principles of the electromagnet.
E-mail (Electronic Mail)
An online communication tool that enables a person to send and receive text messages via the Internet.
Emergency power
Electric power dedicated to operating the equipment needed to protect life and ensure safety during an emergency; not necessarily continuous. See also Standby Power, Continuous Power, Clean Power, and Redundant Power.
Emergency response
A response effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or by other designated responders to an occurrence that results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance.
Emf
Electromotive Force. The force required to move electrons through a conducting medium, EMF determines the quantity of electrons or current flowing through a specific conductor or device. Also known as voltage (V) or potential.
Emfs
Electromagnetic fields. Fields of magnetic flux density (or lines of force per unit area) found wherever electricity is used and resulting from electric current passing through wires or other conductors.
Eminent Domain
The right of a government or properly authorized entity to take private property for public use.
Eminent Domain
The power of a government to take private property for public uses without the owner's consent.
Employee
A person who works for and is subject to the control of the employer.
Employee benefit liability
Coverage for claims involving administration of employee benefit plans.
Employee representative
Anyone designated by the employee to be able to access the employer's log of occupational injuries and illnesses.
Employee right-to-know
Hazard Communication Standard. OSHA Regulation 29 CFR 1910.1200. Mandates that a written chemical hazard communication program be developed and implemented in the workplace.
Employer
A person who employs another to perform a service and who has the right to control the physical conduct of the other in performing the service.
Employers' liability insurance
The liability coverage provided under workers' compensation insurance to protect the employer from employees' employment-related liability claims involving bodily injury or disease.
Employment practices liability insurance
Coverage for claims involving allegations of sexual harassment and wrongful termination and discrimination in terms of race, age, sex, and disability.
Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974
A federal law that lays out the parameters that pension plans must observe. One of the most important reasons that ERISA was enacted was to set certain standards for employee pension plans nationwide and to prevent employer abuse in arbitrarily or capriciously withholding or restricting pension benefits to employees
EMS
Energy management system. An automated HVAC control system that regulates the flow and conditioning of air to a space to optimize the use of energy. See also BAS (Building Automation System) and IBS (Intelligent Building System).
EMT
Electrical metallic tubing. A very popular metal conduit for nonwatertight applications. Also known as thin wall.
Emulsion
(1) A dispersion of minute droplets of some material (such as wax) in water. (2) In roofing, a mixture of bitumen and water, with uniform dispersion of bitumen globules achieved through the addition of a chemical or clay emulsifying agent. See also Latex-type Paint.
Encapsulant
A material that will form a durable coating or covering when applied to surfaces and components that contain hazardous substances such as asbestos or lead.
Enclosure
The construction of airtight walls and ceilings around hazardous materials to reduce the chance that the materials will be released.
Enclosure classification
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has approved over twenty motor classifications based on the type of cooling and physical protection the motor enclosure offers.
Encroachment
A physical intrusion, overlap, or trespass upon another's property.
Encumbrance
Any claim, right, or interest in real property that is held by a person other than the fee simple owner and that diminishes the value of the property without preventing title to the property to pass from the owner.
End plates
That part of a motor that supports the bearings, which allow the rotor shaft to move freely.
End run
A deliberate attempt to bypass someone in the chain of command to withhold information or speed up a decision-making process. See also Chain of Command.
Energy dissipater
A construction, usually of broken stone (riprap), placed near a pipe outlet to reduce the velocity of stormwater and prevent a stream channel from eroding.
Energy Management Control System (EMCS)
A system that monitors, controls, and manages a building or group of buildings, thereby maximizing building efficiency.
Enforcement
The act of assuring compliance with applicable laws by persons of whom such laws require compliance.
Engineering and work controls
Physical or mechanical equipment used to isolate or eliminate hazards at their source, and procedures that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the way in which a task is performed. [BOMI Institute source]
Engineering approach
An approach to loss control that focuses on the mechanical or physical causes of loss.
Engineering scale
Scales based on tenths, hundreds, tens, and hundreds of feet; commonly used by mechanical, structural, plumbing, electrical, and civil engineers. See also Architectural Scale.
Enthalpy
The total heat content of air, measuring its sum total energy and consisting of dry-bulb temperature plus wet-bulb temperature.
Enthalpy economizer cycle
An energy-saving process that stops the operation of the mechanical cooling system when the enthalpy of outdoor air is less than the enthalpy of return air so that outdoor air can be used for cooling interior spaces.
Entrapment
A legal defense that can be used when the idea of the crime arises from the law enforcement officer, rather than the defendant, and the defendant was not in any way predisposed to commit the crime.
Envelope
In roofing, the continuous edge formed by folding the edge base felt over the plies above and securing it to the top felt or, if above-deck insulation is used, to the top surface of insulation. The envelope produced thus prevents bitumen drippage through the enclosed or covered edge joints of laminated, built-up roofing membrane. It also prevents any lateral water infiltration into the insulation.
Environment
In computer terminology, a combination of a computer platform and software applications.
Environmental Assessment
Evaluation of the risks associated with a particular location and their potential environmental impact on the surroundings due to operations, processes, and exposure pathways.
Environmental Impairment Liability (EIL) insurance
Liability coverage for pollution-related claims.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
A U.S. federal agency that reports to the executive branch and enforces regulations to protect the environment.
Environmental report
A listing of all environmental problems or issues within a property and its surrounding area.
EPCRA
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. An EPA regulation that provides citizens with information about chemicals stored, used, and released in their communities.
Equipment floater
A property policy to cover equipment that moves from one place to another.
Equitable conversion
Legal doctrine in effect in many states that for some purposes treats property under contract of sale as though title has already been conveyed to the buyer.
Equitable title
Title to property that includes the right to ultimately receive the income and proceeds from the property.
Equities
Stock or certificates of beneficial interest which evidence ownership in a business firm.
Equity
(1) An owner's right in a property after all claims against the property have been settled. An equity is also called a stock, which provides evidence of actual and partial ownership in an issuing group or corporation. (2) The value of real property less the amount of any debt that is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on such property.
Equity financing
(1) Raising money through the issuance of stock or monetary contribution by investors, who receive a share of ownership in the company raising the funds. (2) Financing the purchase of real estate from the purchaser's own funds.
Equity law
The body of law concerned with fairness and relative positions of the parties.
Equity participation loan
A loan made at a rate below the current fixed-market rate, but including a payment to the lender of some form of appreciation. This loan is also known as an equity kicker.
Equity security
When an investor owns a certificate that evidences actual, partial, and undivided ownership of the issuing group or corporation. An equity is also called a stock.
Equity yield rate
An annual rate of return on equity capital, as distinguished from the rate of return on debt capital or interest; the equity investor's internal rate of return.
Equity-divided ratio
The ratio of the annual dividend to the original equity investment. This ratio is the same as cash-on-cash ratio.
Equivalent value AC voltage
The amount of Alternating Current (AC) produced through one cycle compared to Direct Current (DC) through the same resistance circuit. 1 V of AC measured at its instantaneous peak will produce, through one complete cycle, the same amount of current as 0.707 V DC through the same resistance (heating) circuit.
Ergonomics
The study of the interaction between humans and the work environment.
Ergonomics
The study of equipment design in order to reduce operator fatigue and discomfort.
ERISA
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. In regard to real estate management, the law establishes ethical standards that prevent a fiduciary from doing business with other related companies for a client.
Erosion
The destruction of metal by the velocity of the fluid in a line and the presence of sediment in the fluid.
Erosion corrosion
Metal loss from a surface due to the combined effects of corrosion and the erosive effects of the waterflow.
Errors and omissions insurance
Insurance taken by design professionals to protect themselves from liability claims arising from mistakes made in design and construction documents.
Escalator
A moving stairway that carries passengers from one floor to another continuously.
Escheat
The reversion of property to the state when the owner dies intestate (without a will) and without lawful heirs, or abandons the property.
Establishment
A single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed.
Estimated premium
A premium based on an estimated exposure basis, such as sales or payroll, which is subject to variation.
Estoppel
A legal principle that prevents one party from claiming to have a certain right when that party has previously acted in a manner implying lack of any interest in that right. (2) A legal principle that bars a person from denying the truth of a matter that has been either conclusively determined in a prior law suit, or previously claimed, asserted, or otherwise represented by such person as being true.
Estoppel by deed
A legal principle that precludes the grantor under a deed from denying the truth of the matters contained in the deed.
Estoppel letter
A document that briefly restates the terms of the lease and further specifies that the lease is in full effect and has no defaults or agreements except as stated in the lease document.
Ethernet
A contention-type line-transmission protocol that will stop the sending of data from two sources if a data "collision" occurs; both stations will be instructed to wait a random amount of time before resuming.
ETR plans
Employer trip reduction plans. An EPA program designed to meet federal air quality standards by asking employers in large metropolitan areas to develop plans to reduce the number of trips that employees make when commuting to work.
Eurodollars
United States dollars held outside the United States by their owners.
Eutectic salts storage
An ice cool storage system that uses salts packaged in sealed containers.
Evaporative condenser
A heat exchanger that cools refrigerant vapor by using a combination of water and air.
Evaporator
A heat exchanger that adds heat to a liquid, thereby changing it to a gas. The component of a refrigeration system that absorbs heat.
Evergreen tree
A tree with foliage that remains green through more than one growing season.
Eviction
The legal act of expelling a person from real property, most often for breach of lease terms.
Excess and surplus line (E&S)
A method of marketing in which nonstandard or nonadmitted insurance companies sell their products through certain designated brokers who represent them.
Excess liability insurance
Extra liability coverage over and above the underlying policies but which does not provide broader coverage than the underlying policies.
Exclusions
This area of an insurance policy describes the limitations of coverage under the policy and states specifically what the policy does not cover.
Exclusive agency method
A sales system in which an insurance agent is regarded as an independent business person and is compensated on the basis of the commission revenue generated by the business produced. The exclusive agent generally has no ownership right in the business produced, and is paid a relatively lower commission rate than the independent insurance agent.
Exclusive use
A right granted by a landlord to a single tenant to engage in a particular retail sales activity within a shopping center.
Exculpatory clause
A clause in a contract or agreement that holds a party harmless in the event of a default. (2) Lease term that limits the liability of landlords and tenants.
Exculpatory lease clause
A lease provision that usually seeks to limit the liability of a landlord to a tenant.
Exculpatory loan clause
A clause found in investment loans. It refers to a provision in the loan document that relieves the borrower of personal liability for a deficiency judgement if the sale of the mortgaged property does not provide enough funds to repay the loan. It is commonly referred to as a nonrecourse clause.
Excuse of performance
Circumstances that relieve a party from a contractual obligation or enable the party to invalidate the contract.
Exfiltration
The uncontrolled leakage of conditioned indoor air out of a building.
Exhaust ventilation
Mechanical exhaust of air from isolated special-use areas such as toilets, maintenance shops, copying rooms, and smoking rooms.
Exit interview
An interview conducted at the completion of an audit. Includes an informal discussion during which the auditor reviews concerns that have developed through the audit process.
Expanded memory
Additional memory, obtained through a software program, that switches portions of data between extended memory and a hard disk.
Expansion valve
Valve for controlling refrigerant flow to a cooling element (evaporator).
Expectations
A rational understanding of the variables that shape the economic conditions affecting an individual's life.
Expense
Funds used to secure a benefit or bring about a result.
Expense budget
See Operating Budget.
Expense caps
Lease clauses that require a tenant to pay for expenses beyond a fixed, predetermined amount, such as extra electric power or natural gas consumption.
EXPENSE PASS-THROUGHS Expense pass-throughs
Lease clauses that require a tenant to reimburse the landlord for expenses such as insurance and taxes beyond a fixed amount; common in single-net and double-net leases.
Expense stop
A measure of operating expenses paid by the landlord.
Experience modification factor
An adjustment applied to a workers' compensation premium that reflects the insured's past loss history.
Experience rating
System of rating in which the actual past experience of the risk is instrumental in determining its future rates.
Explosives
Substances that can cause a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, or heat.
Exporting
Transmitting a file formatted in one application to another application with a different format.
Exposure Monitoring
Sampling the air in an employee's breathing zone to determine the amount of contaminant (e.g., lead) to which he or she is exposed.
Express Condition
A contract condition that is specifically stated in a contract. An action by one party or the occurrence of an event, specifically required by the agreement, that triggers the other party's obligation to perform and that, if not fulfilled, may preclude recovery on the contract.
Express Contracts
Contracts that are explicitly set out either orally or in writing.
Express Warranty
A promise that is specifically stated in product literature, guarantees, or warranty brochures.
Extended bodily injury liability coverage
Extends the definition of bodily injury liability to include coverage for the use of reasonable force to protect persons or property.
Extended memory
The portion of a computer's memory above 1,024 Kb (1 Mb). See also Expanded Memory.
External communication channels
Any communication with organizations outside your company.
External customers
Stockholders, constituencies, or stakeholders, such as government agencies, community groups, and the general public. See also Internal Customers.
Extra expense insurance
Pays the necessary expenses incurred during a period of restoration that would not have been incurred if there had been no direct physical loss or damage. In other words, the coverage pays for the expenses that are above the ordinary and expected expenses you would have incurred if no loss had happened.
Extremely flammable liquids
Liquids with flash points below 20°F (-6.7°C).

GGGGGG


GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which include an extensive set of policies and procedures that establish standards to be used in the recording and treatment of accounting transactions.
GAAS
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards. Similar to GAAP and consisting of a detailed set of policies and procedures governing auditing standards.
Gantt chart
A form of bar chart used extensively to show schedules, time frames, and time sequences. See also PERT Chart.
Garagekeeper's insurance
Insurance for those in the business of selling or servicing automobiles, which covers them for bodily injury, property damage, or destruction resulting from vehicles in their care, custody, or control and for which they are legally liable.
Gatekeeper
A primary care physician who determines whether an insured employee needs additional medical care or should see a specialist.
Gateway
A software program that enables Personal Computers (PCs) to access mainframe systems, and vice versa.
General agent
An agent vested with the authority to transact all of the business of his or her principal within the limits of the granted authority.
General aggregate limit
Represents an annual total for bodily injury, property damage, personal injury and advertising injury, and medical expense claims.
General conditions
A list of cost items attributable to a given construction project and not delineated in the plans and specifications. They are usually items not associated with general overhead or administrative costs of a contractor. Project cleaning, trash removal, permits, blueprint costs, design costs, direct labor, and site supervision are some examples.
General contractor
The entity contracted with to construct improvements usually in accordance with a fixed set of contract documents, using some mix of in-house trade labor and subcontractors for a price determined by the construction contract. See also Lump-Sum Contract.
General damages
(1) Damages that may be awarded by the courts for losses that may not be measurable in dollars and cents, but for which monetary payment is allowed. (2) Damages that arise directly from the default of the party under the contract.
General detergent
A synthetic cleaning chemical that enhances the cleaning properties of water.
General obligation
A commitment to repay indebtedness of a governmental entity by levying additional taxes, if necessary.
General partner
A partner in a general partnership or a limited partnership who is personally liable for the partnership's legal obligations.
General partnership
A form of ownership in which more than one entity is involved, usually formed by agreement, in which all entities are, to degrees stipulated in the agreement, responsible for the success or failure of a business.
General permit
A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit used for certain categories of wastewater discharges that occur within a certain geographic area.
General-use property
A property that is readily adaptable to the uses of a variety of tenants.
Germicide
A disinfectant that kills bacteria, or germs, which cause disease.
Ghosting
A coat of paint with a thin appearance, caused by improper priming of walls.
Gift
A voluntary transfer of property by one person to another made gratuitously and without any consideration or compensation.
Gift causa mortis
A gift made by the donor in contemplation of death.
Gilsonite
A pure asphalt found mainly in Utah.
Giving notice
Advising the insurer of an incident that may give rise to a claim as soon after the incident's occurrence as reasonably practical. Failure to do so can result in denial of the claim.
Glare
An undesirable property of light; any brightness from a light source within the field of vision that causes viewer discomfort. This problem is sometimes referred to as direct glare. [
Glaze-coat
(1) The top layer of asphalt in a smooth-surfaced built-up roofing assembly; (2) a thin protective coating of bitumen applied to the lower plies or the top ply of a built-up membrane, when top pouring and aggregate surfacing have been delayed. See also Phased Application.
Glazing
The glass panels in window frames; the process of installing glass or other translucent or transparent materials.
Global
Used in reference to software programs, a change that is made once will automatically apply to all data fields in a file or to an entire database.
Glu-lam
Laminated wood beam created by bonding pieces of lumber or veneer into a single piece, using adhesives and keeping the grains parallel.
Goal
A statement defining a desired end result; quantitative statements translated into measurable tasks. See also Mission and Objective.
Going concern value
The value created by a proven property operation. It is considered as a separate entity to be valued with an established business.
Good faith deposit
A sum of money deposited by a borrower with the lender and returned to the borrower only if the loan is funded or if the loan commitment is terminated for reasons other than the borrower's breach of the loan commitment.
Goods
Personal property that is governed by Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code and that consists of movable, tangible personal property. The term also includes growing crops and other identified things that are attached to real property but can be removed for purposes of sale.
Goodwill
A value attributed to the overall business entity because of its location, reputation, and specialized site features.
Governance
The method or system by which a legal entity is managed and governed.
Government insurers
Governmental entities providing insurance for exposures deemed to be for the public good or too hazardous or broad in scope for the private sector.
Government survey system
A system of legal descriptions adopted by Congress in which land is divided into sections measuring approximately six miles square, called townships, and townships are divided into smaller sections containing approximately 640 acres.
Grace period
A period of time for which a borrower is permitted to rectify a breach of a loan document.
Graduated amortization mortgage
A mortgage in which the amortized payments are changed during the term of the mortgage.
GRAINS PER GALLON (gpg)
A common basis of reporting water analysis in the United States and Canada. One grain per U.S. gallon equals 17.1 milligrams per liter or 17.1 ppm. One grain per Imperial gallon equals 14.3 milligrams per liter or 14.3 ppm. One grain is 1/7000 pounds or 0.0647 grams.
Graphic data
Information in the form of drawings, graphics, or visual images.
Grasses
Shallow-rooted perennials that can be grown in mass (lawn grasses) or grown as individual specimens (ornamental grasses).
Gravel
A collection of loose, rounded fragments of rock, such as pebbles.
Gravel stop
A flanged device, made of metal or plastic, designed to prevent loose gravel from being washed off a roof, and to provide finished edge detail for a built-up roofing assembly.
Gray water
Sanitary wastewater associated with kitchens, baths, and showers; excludes black water.
Green board
Moisture-resistant gypsum wallboard.
Green machines
Personal Computers (PCs) with power-conserving features such as automatic shutoff of hard disk rotation and screen illumination during inactive periods.
Green programs
Voluntary conservation efforts that reduce the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted, while saving money for those companies that adopt such programs.
Gross area
The sum of floor areas within the outside faces of the exterior walls for all building levels which have floor surfaces.
Gross income
Includes all receipts from both active participation (e.g., sales of human labor, production, services, or products) and passive participation (e.g., receipts from interest-bearing accounts or stock dividends, where the income recipient does not perform anything to earn the income but is paid for letting some other party use the money).
Gross lease
A lease that vests all responsibility for operating costs with the lessor, who assumes the full risk of any increases in these costs. The tenant's payments cover all expenses except those specifically excluded or named as above-standard services.
Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM)
A rule of thumb method frequently used by some individuals that arrives at an estimate of fair market value by multiplying gross rental income by a factor that varies with the type of property and its location.
Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
The weight of a vehicle plus the weight the vehicle is designed to carry.
Ground
A wire that ultimately transmits unwanted electrical current harmlessly to the earth to prevent damage to electrical components.
Ground covers
Single low-growing plants planted in mass in an area for a carpeted appearance and to cut down on maintenance.
Ground fault
An electrical condition in which a short circuit develops between an energized conductor and a ground potential, such as the frame of a motor.
Ground fault circuit interrupter
A device that stops the flow of electricity by opening or breaking the circuit when a flow of current to ground is detected.
Ground lease
A lease in which a tenant leases a parcel of vacant land and pays for all improvements made on the side.
GROUNDED CONDUCTOR or NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR
The conductor, normally a white or gray wire, that carries the power back to the power source. White or gray wires shall never be used as phase, current conductor, or hot wires.
Grounding conductor
More properly called the equipment grounding conductor. This green or uninsulated wire is used to connect equipment such as motors, switches, and boxes to earth or a ground source.
Groundwater
Water in the zone of saturation below the earth's surface.
Group address
designated group or team workspace for a specified period of time.
Group disability insurance plans
Insurance to cover the loss of income suffered by an employee because of a covered disability.
Group medical underwriting
The process by which groups of ten employees or larger are underwritten on a group basis. In other words, the insurer accepts or rejects the group as a whole, based on such characteristics of the group as age, sex, location, and industry.
Group relamping
Replacing all bulbs in all fixtures at the same time, at planned intervals.
Groupware
Team-oriented computer software packages, desktop videos and electronic conference boards that are applicable to facility planning and management needs. Facilitates the rapid sharing of data, text and e-mail among a variety of users.
Guaranty
A contract in which the signer engages the promise of a third party to pay in the event the debtor is unable to perform under terms of the contract.
Guard tours
Routine patrols by security personnel through a property.
GUI
Graphic user interface. Software that presents users with decisions, instructions, and choices in the form of boxes, charts, and tables; makes use of software programs easier and more visually-oriented.
Guy
A rope, chain, rod, or wire attached to something as a brace or guide.
Gypsum wallboard
Material used for the interior surfaces of walls and ceilings. Also called drywall or sheetrock.



Halogen lamps
Electric lamps constructed of a heat-resistant quartz tube filled with halogen gas.
Halon
A substance made with Chlorofulorocarbons (CFCs) formerly used in fire-suppression systems.
Hand benders
Tools used to bend Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) with a diameter of 1 1/4 in. or less. Hand benders provide a radius that supports the conduit during bending to avoid crimping or flattening it.
Hard copy or hard data
Data or information printed on paper. See also Soft Data.
Hard costs
Costs that can be specifically and concretely identified as direct reductions (preferred) or savings in production. See also Qualitative Factors and Soft Costs and Benefits.
Hard costs and benefits
Costs associated directly with actual construction, leasing, maintenance, and upkeep. Hard benefits are savings on revenues generated directly from these activities. See also Soft Costs and Benefits.
Hard disk
A system of rigid, electromagnetically imprinted platters on which computer data is stored. Usually installed permanently in a hard disk drive; used to transfer information from memory to permanent storage. See also Floppy Disk.
Hard insurance market
An insurance market characterized by rising premiums and difficulty in obtaining coverage.
Hard water
Water containing calcium and magnesium salts in concentration of 1 gpg or more as calcium carbonate equivalent.
Hardness
A measure of the calcium and magnesium content of water.
Hardware
The physical mechanical components of a computer (processing chip, circuit boards, memory chips, rectifiers, transformers, disk drives, cables, etc.).
Hardware schedule
A table indicating precise types of hardware (such as hinges, hooks, closers, etc.) required for doors, windows, cabinets, and other features.
Hardwood
Wood from deciduous trees (trees with broad leaves that are normally shed in the fall). Not necessarily an indication of the relative hardness of that particular wood.
Harmonic distortion
The ratio of the root-mean-square value of the harmonics to the amplitude of the fundamental component.
Harmonics
Distortion of voltage and/or amperage in an electrical circuit.
Harmonics
Distortion in an electrical distribution system.
Hazardous waste
Broad term encompassing waste from industry and commercial establishments that has the potential to cause increased risk of illness or death. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines hazardous waste by listing specific wastes and including other wastes that display the hazardous characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
Hazardous waste manifest
A legal document that identifies the type and quantity of hazardous waste, as well as the transporters and facility to which it will be shipped.
Hazwoper
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.120, designed to protect employees who are expected to respond to releases of hazardous substances.
HBV
epatitis B virus. A disease that damages the liver and is transmitted by bloodborne pathogens.
HCFCs
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Ozone-depleting chemicals regulated under the U.S. Clean Air Act.
HCS
Hazard Communication Standard. OSHA Regulation 29 CFR 1910.1200. Also known as Employee Right-to-Know. Mandates that a written chemical hazard communication program be developed and implemented in the workplace.
Head-end
See Front-End.
Header
The horizontal structural piece over a window or door opening.
Health and safety plan
A written plan required by regulations and prepared by consultants and contractors addressing the potential health and safety concerns that may be encountered on a specific project or property.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
A prepaid group health insurance plan organized by an insurance company, Blue Cross plan, or corporation that entitles members to services of participating hospitals, doctors, and other providers of medical care. HMOs can be either for profit or nonprofit. In the typical HMO, physicians and other health care professionals are employees of the HMO, and hospitals are either owned by or under contract with the HMO.
Heat exchanger
A device specifically designed to transfer heat between two physically separated fluids.
Heat gun
An apparatus that emits enough heat to soften paint, which can then be scraped from a surface.
Heat pump
An electric device that uses a compressor to drive refrigeration cycles to move heat from one medium to another. A device capable of providing heating or cooling by reversing its operation.
Heat sink
The thermal reservoir to which energy can be added through heat transfer.
Heat source
The thermal reservoir from which energy is withdrawn through heat transfer.
Heat transmission
The movement of heat through material.
Heating, Ventilating, And Air-Conditioning (HVAC) System
The mechanical system of the building that heats, ventilates air from the buildin
14 Dec 2009
15:56:24
Braun
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 3




Heating, Ventilating, And Air-Conditioning (HVAC) System
The mechanical system of the building that heats, ventilates air from the building, and provides fresh or conditioned air.
Henry
The measurement of inductance; abbreviated H. A component or circuit has an inductance of one henry when a current changing at a rate of one ampere per second induces a counter Electromotive Force (emt) of one volt.
HEPA
High efficiency particulate air. Filtration equipment that forces air through high efficiency filters designed to remove a high percentage of hazardous substances such as asbestos fibers.
Hickey
A small hand tool intended for use in bending small rigid conduit.
HID (High-Intensity Discharge) lamps
Types of arc discharge lamps, including mercury vapor, metal-halide, and high-pressure sodium, used for general lighting. These lamps generate light in a quartz arc tube normally sealed in an outer glass bulb.
Hierarchy of human needs
A behavioral theory that holds there are five basic levels of human needs: safety, physical needs, love and belonging, esteem or status, and self-actualization.
Highest and best use
The reasonable, probable, and legal use of vacant land or an improved property, which is physically possible, appropriately supported, financially feasible, and results in the highest value. Four criteria for establishing the highest and best use are legal permissibility, physically possibility, financial feasibility, and maximum profitability.
High-frequency radio system
A Local Area Network (LAN) in which signals are transmitted through antennas at frequencies of 18 GHz to 19 GHz through Ethernet devices with coaxial cable. The system's use of a licensed frequency band protects it from electrical noise.
High-involvement organization
An organization in which higher levels of staff involvement are required in all aspects of a company's operations than are usually present in traditional hierarchical structures.
Highly Protected Risk (Hpr) insurers
Property insurance companies or groups of property insurance companies that specialize in providing coverage for the very best property risks.
High-pressure sodium lamps
The most efficient high-intensity discharge (HID) white light source, producing a warm, golden color.
Hired auto liabilty insurance
Liability coverage in excess of that carried by the owners of hired, rented, or borrowed autos.
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus. A disease that destroys the body's immune system and is transmitted by bloodborne pathogens.
HMO
See Health Maintenance Organization.
Hold-harmless agreement
An agreement in which one party consents to protecting the other from loss and to paying for the other party's losses.
Homicide
The crime that involves any killing of a person by the act, culpable omission, or procurement of another person.
Homogeneous
A material that is evenly mixed and similar in appearance and texture throughout.
HORSEPOWER (hp)
The rate at which work is accomplished over time. One horsepower equals 33,000 ft-lb/min.
Hoskold premise
A discounting concept that holds that there are two component interest rates involved in discounting. These are (1) a safe rate that will return the invested capital at the maturity of the investment, and (2) a speculative rate that is a fair rate of return for the risk taken in making the investment.
Host liquor liability coverage
Incidental liquor liability coverage for people serving alcoholic beverages who are not in the liquor business and who do not charge for providing it.
Hot lead
A power conductor connected to the power source, normally colored black, red, blue, brown, or yellow for identification.
Hot site
A Secured Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF) kept active all the time. See also Cold Site.
Hot spot
An area where light is most concentrated. Caused by luminaires that do not emit light evenly.
Hoteling
Workspace that is reserved on a first call basis and not dedicated to any specific worker beyond a specified amount of time.
Hotelling
Time-sharing in an office environment; space is shared much the same as it is in a hotel (it is "booked" or reserved for specific, limited time periods).
Hot-water (or steam) extractor
A cleaning machine that injects a hot water solution into the carpet and then removes it by vacuuming.
Housekeeper
A worker who performs domestic tasks, as in hotels and hospitals, where cleaning functions are combined with domestic tasks.
HSWA
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments. Legislative amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that authorized the EPA to promulgate requirements that regulate underground storage tanks.
Huddle room
A non-scheduable meeting space for three to four people. This space may be used for a brief meeting or can be assigned for the length of a project. Usually utilized by those who are housed in open workstations.
HUE
A basic color.
Human and environmental factors
Encompass worker health and safety, workers' compensation regulatory practices and procedures, emergency preparedness, and disaster planning and recovery.
Human approach
An approach to loss control that focuses on human errors or practices.
Humus
Partially decomposed organic matter.
HVAC System
See Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system.
Hybrid
A telephone system with features midway between key systems and larger PBX systems. Hybrid systems can serve up to 100 telephones and can usually support longer distances between the control unit and the telephone than key systems can.
Hydraulic elevators
Elevators that depend on the pumping of fluid into a cylinder beneath the elevator car to raise the car.
Hydronic
The transfer of heat using a circulating fluid such as water or water vapor.
Hygroscopic
Readily absorbing and retaining moisture; the process of absorbing moisture by the use of a desiccant.
Hypalon
A synthetic rubber (chlorosulfonated polyathylene), often used in conjunction with neoprene in elastomeric roof coverings. (Hypalon is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company.)
Hypersensitivity diseases
Diseases characterized by allergic responses to antigens.
Hypothecate
To pledge intangible property as security for a debt.

IIIIIIIIIIII


IAQ
See Indoor Air Quality.
IBS
Intelligent building system. An integrated BAS for the physical plant that is electronically linked with corporate mission-related business systems. See also BAS (Building Automation System) and EMS (Energy Management System).
Icon
A graphic symbol for a software program, file, or task used in a Graphic User Interface (GUI).
ICS
Incident command system. An organized approach to effectively control and manage operations at an emergency incident involving hazardous substances, headed by the senior official responding to the incident.
IFB
Invitation for bids. A detailed prescriptive specification, including bidding procedures, and an invitation to contractors to submit bids that meet the lowest cost outlined in the specification.
IFMA
International Facility Management Association. A professional association headquartered in Houston, Texas, dedicated to the support of the facilities management profession and its practitioners.
Ignitable waste
A waste that can cause a fire under certain conditions.
Illuminance
The quantity of light at a point on a surface. Expressed in footcandles (U.S.) or lux (metric).
Impact noise
Any noise in which the interval between peak sound levels is greater than one second.
Impedance
The relationship of resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance in a circuit; abbreviated Z.
Implied condition
A contract condition that is inferred from the circumstances of a contract.
Implied contracts
Contracts that are deemed to have arisen as a result of the actions of the contracting parties.
Implied warranty
A promise that is not specifically stated but is implied to exist.
Importing
Retrieving a file generated in one program into another program (e.g., bringing data from a spreadsheet program into a word processing program).
Impossibility of performance
A defense that is raised when the promisor commits to doing something that becomes impossible through no fault of his or her own.
Impracticability
The Uniform Commercial Code and the Restatement (Second) of Contracts (section 261) excuse the promisor if performance becomes impracticable because of some extreme or unreasonable difficulty, expense, injury, or loss that was not foreseen when the contract was made.
Improvements
Alterations and additions to buildings that increase their asset value. See also Custodial Housekeeping and Maintenance.
In lieu of foreclosure
A negotiated sale of the property to the lender for the amount of a loan, bypassing the need for judicial action, and shortening the foreclosure process.
In rem jurisdiction
The power of a court to determine rights in specific property that will be binding against all persons wherever they are located.
Inactive records
Records accessed less frequently than once a month. See also Archival Records and Vital Records.
Inbound service
Telecommunications services for calls coming into a company. See also Outbound Service.
Incandescent lamp
A device that produces light when a fine tungsten wire (a filament) is heated by passing electric current through it.
Inchoate offenses
Crimes that are committed prior to, and in anticipation of, another crime. Under the Model Penal Code, inchoate offenses include the crimes of solicitation, attempt, and conspiracy.
Incidental malpractice liability coverage
Insures against liability when an insured renders aid to an injured person and is later accused of performing that medical aid in an incorrect manner.
Incidental release
A release of a hazardous substance that can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise controlled by employees in the immediate area.
Income
The return received by a person or firm from any source.
Income loss
Financial loss caused by direct damage to property.
Income stream
The sum of all sources of income from a property.
Income tax
A percentage tax levied by the federal government on earnings of both individuals and corporations.
Increased cost of construction insurance
Coverage for the increased costs of rebuilding or repairing damaged buildings due to laws or codes that require upgrading to new building codes or laws that require expensive modifications to the building.
Incremental funding
Developing funding requests for only those items different from the preceding year, rather than a request for each item each year. See also Zero-Base Funding.
Incurred loss amount
The amount that the insurance company has already paid with respect to a claim, plus the additional amount the insurance company estimates it will have to pay in the future relating to that claim.
Indemnification provision
An agreement by one party (the indemnitor) to act as insurer of another party (the indemnitee) and to substitute the first party's liability for that of the second party by agreeing to reimburse or make whole the second party for losses he or she suffers.
Indemnify
To compensate or reimburse a person for a loss.
Independent agency companies
A method of marketing insurance through agents who represent various insurance companies and operate as independent business people in selling and servicing their clients.
Independent agency system
A sales system in which agents own companies.
Independent claims adjusters
Independent contractors who adjust claims for different insurance companies. They are typically hired by an insurance company when it does not have enough claims activity in a certain geographical area to justify having its own personnel or when a claim requires an adjuster with particular expertise in claims of that type.
Independent contractor
A person who contracts to perform a job or service for a party who does not control the methods or the conduct of the person in performing the job or service.
Independent contractor liability
The named insured's liability for claims alleging loss caused by independent contractors performing work for the named insured.
Indirect contribution
A contribution by an organizational unit to a company's profitability that saves or reduces costs rather than generates income or sales.
Indirect lighting system
A system in which 90 percent to 100 percent of the light from a luminaire shines upward.
Indirect property loss
Collateral damage caused by direct damage to property.
Indirectly attributable costs
In facilities management, items such as maintenance of common space and lobbies or the cost of providing minimal maintenance for vacant space. Such costs are usually allocated pro rata to all customers in a facility. See also Attributable Costs and Nonattributable Costs.
Individual medical underwriting
The process of underwriting health insurance for small employers in which each individual employee or department is accepted or rejected for coverage.
Individual permit
A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for facilities that do not qualify for a general permit and have stormwater flows that come into contact with contaminants.
Indoor air contaminants
Include tobacco smoke; volatile organic compounds; combustion gases; emissions from material and furnishings, appliances, and office equipment and supplies; and biological organisms.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)
The overall quality of air in an enclosed space, accounting for factors such as temperature, humidity, odor, clarity, and absence of toxins or other agents that impair human health. See also BRI Building-Related Illness and SBS Sick Building Syndrome.
Indoor air quality profile
An organized body of information that assesses the impact of indoor air quality maintenance efforts and upgrades of ventilating systems to determine the overall indoor air quality of a building.
Indoor parking facility
A parking garage located within a structure.
Inductance
The process of creating an Electromotive Force (emf), and subsequently an electric current, by causing a conductor to cut through the lines of force of a magnetic field; abbreviated L.
Induction motor
A motor with no direct electrical connection between the stator and the rotor. Moving magnetic fields created in the stator induce an electromagnetic field in the rotor.
Industrial Revenue Bond (IRB)
A government or agency will set up a business venture for the purpose of providing development or employment within the government or agency's jurisdiction. Industrial revenue bonds will be issued on behalf of the government or agency to support the business venture. Repayment of the bonds is directly dependent upon the success of the venture, unlike the general obligation, which can repay the bonds by levying additional taxes.
Inert gases
Gases that do not mix readily with other gases.
Infiltration
The uncontrolled leakage of unconditioned outdoor air into a building.
Inflation
A prolonged and continuous increase of average price levels.
Information
Pertaining to data processing, raw data manipulated to extract patterns, trends, and inferences that explain relationships between the events that constitute the data. See also Knowledge.
Information management
The traditional term for managing computer systems, mostly centralized processing.
Information superhighway
A merging of the telecommunications, television, computer, and cable industries that will enhance connectivity on a very large scale.
Infrared line-of-sight
A method of transmitting signals over a network using the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Infrared scanner
A device that highlights temperature differences between elements in the field of view; newer scanners can be programmed to show the actual temperature.
Infrastructure maintenance
Maintenance performed on a building's structure, core, exterior walls, plumbing system, and finishes in public areas.
Injunction
An order of the court directing a defendant to act or to refrain from acting in a specified way.
Innocent purchaser defense
A legal defense taken to avoid liability imposed by Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act/Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA/SARA) regulations. It implies that a buyer may be relieved from liability "if all appropriate inquiry into previous ownership and uses of the property consistent with good commercial or customary practice" was made.
In-place management
An abatement strategy that reduces the chance of exposure by leaving a substance in place by enclosing, encapsulating, or covering it.
Input
Data or signals entered into a computer or peripheral.
Input devices
Devices used to enter or alter data in computer memory (e.g., a keyboard, mouse, bar-coders, and scanners).
Insourcing
A approach in which FM executives look to outside FM service firms as process experts who are hired as consultants to measure operations against the commercial benchmark and make recommendations for improvement.
Installation floater
Insurance against loss to property while in transit and at the job site until the job is completed and accepted by the owner.
Installed equipment
Equipment affixed to the owner’s buildings that is maintained by the facility manager, not the functional operator or line manager.
Installment land sale contract
Financing the purchase of real estate by agreeing to pay the purchase price to the seller in installments over a period of time.
Installment sale
(1) Purchasing real estate by making payments over time to the seller. (2) A sale of property in which the seller transfers title to the property and receives periodic payments from the purchaser until the unpaid balance is retired.
Instantaneous water heater
A water heater with little or no storage capacity. Water is heated when needed as it flows through the unit's heating apparatus.
Institute Of Real Estate Management (IREM)
An institute founded in 1933 as part of the National Association of Realtors to "improve and promote the professional development and stature of those individuals and organizations engaged in the field of real estate management."
Institutional lender
A financial institution that invests in mortgages and holds the mortgages in its investment portfolio.
Insubordination
A willful, deliberate, or purposeful refusal to follow an employer's reasonable directions.
Insulating glass
Two panes in a single sash separated by a dead air space hermetically sealed to provide thermal insulation. The glass panels are held apart by metal separating channels (filled by desiccant) and the edges are sealed to exclude moisture. See also Double Glazed.)
Insulation
Material whose primary purpose is to confine the electric current flowing through a conductor. A secondary purpose of insulation is to protect a conductor from the effects of its surroundings.
Insulation
See Thermal Insulation.
Insulators
Material through which electricity or electrons do not flow easily. Substances with filled or nearly filled valence subshells (those with seven or eight electrons) do not give up their electrons and thus are good insulators. Insulators also provide protection for both electronic conductors and personnel.
Insurable interest
A principle that states one may not collect more than one's own financial interest in the property damaged or destroyed.
Insurable value
That portion of the value of an asset or asset group that is acknowledged or recognized under the provisions of an applicable loss insurance policy.
Insurance
A means by which the financial consequences of potential accidental losses are transferred from an insured business, person, or family to an insurer by payment of an insurance policy premium.
Insurance binder
A temporary insurance policy, which provides coverage until the actual policy can be issued by the insurance company.
Insurance brokers
Insurance brokers who do not represent insurance companies directly and, therefore, do not have the authority to bind coverage with insurance companies. Brokers offer to shop for their clients among a number of insurance companies and, as compensation, typically receive a portion of the agent's commission or a portion or all of the usual commission paid by the insurance company.
Insurance company staff adjusters
Claims personnel who are employed directly by the insurance company, as opposed to the insurance agent who may be an independent business owner.
Insurance policy endorsements
Printed forms attached to the insurance policy which amend the basic policy in some way.
Insurance Services Office (ISO)
An insurance industry service organization that collects statistical data for numerous insurance companies and disseminates the information to its members.
Insurance specifications
The data provided by the insured to all participants for the preparation of insurance proposals.
Insuring agreement
The part of the policy that describes what the insurer promises to cover in the policy.
Intangible property
Property that has no physical existence but consists of legally recognized rights.
Integration
The process by which all parties to a contract accept the writings of the contract as the full and final agreement.[BOMI Institute source]
Intelligent buildings
Buildings that are designed with a flexibility to accommodate change.
Intent
Requires that the defendant intended to bring about, through an act, the consequences that form the basis of the intentional tort, or that the defendant knew that the consequences would occur.
Intentional misrepresentation
A tort, sometimes known as fraud or deceit, that involves a deceitful or fraudulent misrepresentation or false statement knowingly made by the defendant resulting in monetary loss to the plaintiff.
Intentional tort
(1) An intentionally committed wrongful act for which the law provides a remedy in the form of an action for damages. (2) Deliberate wrongful act or omission, which may have unintentional consequences.
Inter vivos gift
A gift of property not made in contemplation of the donor's death. The recipient, or donee, becomes the absolute owner of the gifted property.
Interactive control systems
Cultural norms that help focus on strategy and its accompanying uncertainties, opportunities, and appropriate responses for changing competitive conditions.
Interest
Fee paid for the use of money. Interest may also be viewed as rent paid for the use of money.
Interest in land
In the context of a statute of frauds analysis, generally means some or all of the title or right of possession to real estate.
Interest-only loan
A loan on which only interest is paid until the maturity date, at which time the entire principal of the obligation is payable.
Interface
Software programs that permit dissimilar devices and software programs to work together to import and export data successfully; also refers to the text line or graphic image used to transmit text or graphics-based instructions to a computer.
Interior design program
The project phase in which the furniture, finishes, and color families and fabrics are selected, and the design of custom furniture and millwork is determined.
Intermediate colors
Colors made by adding a secondary color to a primary color.
Internal customers
People who work in or visit the facility, such as employees, managers, and executives of the organization; contractors; and business customers who come to the facility to conduct business. See also External Customers.
Internal Rate Of Return (IRR)
A measure of investment performance; the rate of return on capital that is generated or capable of being generated within an investment or portfolio over a period of ownership; similar to the equity yield rate. A rate that equates the present value of the future benefits to the present value of the capital outlays by ownership. It is frequently used as an investment criteria for acquisition purposes and is expressed as a percentage rate.
International Council Of Shopping Centers (ICSC)
An organization founded in 1957 to provide specialized assistance to its members in the areas of site management, legislative affairs, and education.
Interoperability
The ability to program and operate one Building Automation System (BAS) manufacturer's controls from another manufacturer's system. See also Connectivity.
Interrogatories
Written questions that are usually answered in writing under oath.
Interstitial
The space between two occupied floors of a building. Similar to a plenum, but usually high and strong enough to walk in; used extensively in ultrahigh concentrations of building utilities (e.g., hospitals and laboratories).
Interstitial monitoring
Checking the space between the primary and secondary layers of containment when secondary containment is required for Underground Storage Tank (UST) systems.
Intervening force
A force that actively produces harm after a defendant's negligent act or omission has already been committed.
Intestate
A person who dies without a valid will.
Intestate law
Law governing the distribution of a person's property when the person dies without a valid will.
Intestate succession
The legal method by which the property of a person who dies without a valid will is distributed.
Intraoffice
The common area between departments, sections, etc., used for corridors, aisles, or walkways.
Intuitive
In computer terminology, software programs designed to emulate what users would naturally or habitually do and to lead them to the next tasks without their having to refer extensively to reference guides. See also User-Friendly.
Invasion of privacy
Infringement on one's right to be left alone.
Investment
Any use of capital with the expectation of producing income, appreciation in value, and return of the principal invested.
Investment philosophy
An approach used by property owners in making acquisition and disposition moves.
Investment value
The specific value of an investment to a particular investor or class of investors based on individual investment requirements; as distinguished from market value, which is impersonal and detached.
Invitee
(1) A person who is expressly or by implication invited to enter upon the premises for the benefit of the owner or occupant. (2) A person who enters property upon the express or implied invitation of the property's owner or possessor.
Involuntary (assigned-risk) market
That segment of the insurance marketplace designed to provide coverage for substandard risks.
Inwood coefficient or premise
A concept which holds that an income stream has a present worth based upon a single discount rate.
Ion
A very small particle dissolved in water carrying a positive or negative electrical charge.
Ion exchanger
An insoluble reactive material capable of interchanging ions combined with the material for ions in the solution.
Iron
Iron is an element often present in ground waters in a soluble form (such as ferrous bicarbonate) in quantities usually ranging from 0.5 to 10 ppm. Iron may exist in surface waters due to natural causes or pollution. Iron in solution is susceptible to oxidation, precipitating as a reddish-brown floc when contacted by air (causing staining and discoloration). Iron can be removed by aeration or chlorination followed by filtration. Iron in solution can be removed by ion exchange. Oxidizing filters such as manganese treated zeolite are used for removing large amounts of iron from household water supplies.
Iron depositing bacteria
A type of bacteria that uses soluble iron for energy, creating insoluble iron deposits.
Iron filter
Usually refers to a manganese zeolite filter which removes iron by oxidation and filtration.
ISDN
Integrated systems digital network. Standards for how hardware and software will be used when they are connected.
ISO
See Insurance Services Office.
Isometric drawing
A method of drawing an object such that it is shown at the same scale in all three dimensions. No effort is made to indicate foreshortened distances, as in perspective drawing.
Itemized deductions
Cash and noncash operating expenses and interest payments that are deducted from annual gross income on tax returns.



Jalousie
A blind with adjustable horizontal slats admitting light and air while excluding sun and rain. A window made of multiple, adjustable glass louvers that control ventilation.
Jamb
An upright piece or surface forming the side of an opening, as for a window or door.
Janitor
A worker who cleans and maintains a building.
Jawboning
Using publications and other media to influence expectations.
Joint and several liability
A situation in which more than one party is liable for repayment of a debt or obligation and a creditor can obtain compensation from one or more parties, either individually or jointly.
Joint tenancy
An estate or unit of interest in real estate that is owned by two or more natural persons with rights of survivorship. (2) Property owned by two or more persons at the same time. The law views the owners not as separate and independent but as one single owner.
Joint venture
A form of ownership in which partners bring different attributes to the venture; typically, the partner who holds the majority ownership is in control of the venture and bears the greater burden of responsibility in its success or failure. An association typically formed between institutions and developers for the development of real estate.
Joisted masonry construction
Buildings usually constructed with exterior walls of concrete block, brick, or some other type of stone, with interior framing or roof joists composed of wood.
Judgment rates
Rates individually determined by the underwriter based on his or her own knowledge and judgment.
Judgments
Official announcement of the results of litigation.
Junior financing
Generally, any financing that does not have first claim upon the borrower's assets.
Junk bond
A debt security issued by an entity whose ability to repay the debt entails the taking of speculative or imprudent risk by an investor.
Jurisdiction
Refers to the power of a court to hear and decide a case.
Just-in-time services
A combination of extensive computer support and networks of reliable suppliers that enable manufacturers to deliver goods directly from the production line to the consumer, eliminating shipping transfers and warehousing costs.



Kbps
Kilobits per second.
Kelvin (K)
Unit of measurement used to determine color temperature. The Kelvin's temperature scale has its zero point at -275.15°C.
Key plans
Small-scale floor plans designed to show room locations, occupant room numbers, and occasionally telephone numbers.
Key systems
Telephone systems designed for small to medium-sized offices with five to forty phones.
Key variables
In strategic planning, those factors that may change and create a major difference in the outcome of any given scenario.
Kick
A small, single bend that makes a minor change in direction of a conduit run.
Kicker
A bonus or additional payment made to a lender over and above fixed or periodic payments. A kicker increases the yield to the lender and becomes an inducement for the lender to make the loan. An additional payment or amount paid to a lender, typically in the form of a percentage of gross receipts or cash flow.
Kilowatt
The unit used to measure the power that is available for work. A kilowatt measures real power. One kilowatt equates to one thousand watts.
Kilowatt-hour
The unit of measurement upon which the utility company bases its charges for the amount of electricity consumed.
Kinetic energy
The energy of motion.
Kirchhoff's voltage law
In a complete series circuit, the sum of the voltage dropped across each element is equal to the Sum of the electromotive Forces (emf's) applied.
Knowledge
Information put in the context of experience. See also Information and Raw Data.



Labeled
Term indicating National Electrical Code/Canadian Electrical Code (NEC/CEC) classifications for equipment or products that have been evaluated and the methods used to produce them have been reviewed for compliance with the appropriate manufacturing or performance standards.
Lack of capacity
Insufficient capacity to understand the terms, conditions, and ramifications of a contract.
Lack of covering or hiding
A paint defect commonly caused by not stirring the paint or enamel properly.
Laminated timber
Several layers of wood, suitable for building, glued together to make a thick beam.
LAN
Local area network. The system of cabling, signal converters and other equipment, and software that links electronically compatible computers and enables them to exchange data and commands.
Land residual
What money remains after income attributable to the improvements is deducted from the property's net operating income.
Land use control measures
In real estate management, plans and capital improvements budgets, zoning ordinances and master land use plans, subdivision regulations, mandatory dedications and development or impact fees, and construction codes.
Landlord
One who leases rights of use of real property to a tenant; informally, a party, such as a facilities department, that manages and controls space occupied by other corporate departments, whether that space is corporate-owned or leased from another party.
Lanware
Software for operating local area networks (LANs).
Larceny
A crime consisting of the taking of valuable personal property of another with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of the property.
Large-quantity generator
A facility that generates more than 1,000 kilograms of waste (approximately 2,200 pounds or five 55-gallon [209-liter] drums) per month.
Large-scale alliances
In outsourcing, a limited contractual relationship, established among the contractors, whose limits are defined by the type of work for which the alliance has been formed and by the amount of liability to be assumed by each party on behalf of the other(s). One company in the alliance typically assumes a lead management role for the customer.
Laser printer
The most prevalent type of printer for most professional business applications; laser technology is used to produce very crisp, sharp images.
Last clear chance
Legal doctrine that negates defense of contributory negligence where defendant had the last opportunity to avoid harm to plaintiff.
Latent hea
Heat that when added to or removed from a particular substance changes the state of the substance (e.g., solid to liquid, liquid to gas) without changing its temperature.
Lateral communication
Communication between groups in related departments, all reporting in a single division or business line.
Latex-type paint
A paint in which the binder is dispersed or suspended in the solvent, which is usually water.
Law of large numbers
A mathematical premise in which numerous similar units simultaneously exposed to similar hazards greatly increase the ability to predict likely outcomes accurately.
Law of the shop
A uniform and well-established custom between employers and employees, which becomes a part of the employment relationship.
Laws
Acts passed by legislative bodies and enacted through appropriate executive bodies, or regulations promulgated through administrative rule making.
Layout
plan created by a space planner, interior designer or architect showing locations of tenant improvements and the utilization of the space by the tenant.
LCC
Life Cycle Analysis. Estimating the total cost of an item over its entire life cycle, including initial cost, operation and maintenance costs, and projected replacements, minus any salvage value at the end of its life cycle.
LEA
Local education authority.
Lead
A chemical element (symbol Pb) that is a soft, dense, bluish-gray metal. Very durable, resistant to corrosion, and malleable. Can combine chemically with other atoms or molecules to make new compounds.
Lead based
Surface coatings that contain a dangerous level of lead.
Lead-acid cell
A secondary cell battery that consists of a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid and water (the electrolyte) contained in an acid-resistant enclosure with lead plates creating an Electromotive Force (emf) or potential of approximately 2.2 V.
Lead-based paint hazard
Any exposure that could result in adverse effects on human health from lead-contaminated dust, lead-contaminated soil, or lead-contaminated paint that has deteriorated or is present on accessible, friction, or impact surfaces.
Leadership
Includes setting long-range goals, defining an organization's direction, recognizing potential, and inspiring others. See also Management.
Learning curve
The length of time required to master how to use a computer program and all its features effectively. Applies to any learning experience.
Lease
A written document in which the rights to use and occupancy of land or structures are transferred by the owner to another for a specified period of time in return for a specified rent. (2) An agreement between a landlord and tenant governing the terms of their relationship.
Lease buyout
A process usually initiated by a tenant that wants to vacate leased space before the lease term ends.
Lease management system
Often connected to property systems in off-the-shelf software. Two types are available: those for developer/landlords who manage many buildings and lease space to tenants, and those for tenants who occupy many buildings.
Leasehold interest insurance
Coverage for the tenant's or the landlord's insurable interest in protection from a financial exposure to loss that is related to the terms of their lease.
Leasehold loan
A type of loan that benefits a tenant who has unique, specialized, and expensive tenant improvement costs. This loan is usually only in place where there is a long-term lease that would allow the lender of a leasehold loan sufficient time to take possession of the lease and remarket it in an effort to recoup damages.
LEC
Local exchange carrier. The local telephone company that provides dial-tone service.
Ledger
A horizontal framework member that carries joists and is supported by upright posts or by hangers.
Legacy
The transfer of money by will.
Legal benefit
Anything that is beneficial to the promisee.
Legal contract
A legally enforceable agreement that involves legal purpose, offer and acceptance, valid consideration, and legally competent parties.
Legal defense costs
The cost of legal expenses to defend against claims made under policies.
Legal description
A specific identification of a parcel of land, given by reference to public maps, plats, or other recorded information, by which one can specifically and exactly define the boundaries and limits of the property.
Legal description of property
description of land that sufficiently identifies the land to meet state law requirements for a deed.
Legal detriment
Either something the promisor does or agrees to do, or something the promisor refrains from doing or agrees not to do.
Legal title
Title to property that is enforceable in court regarding apparent rights to ownership and possession.
Legislatures
Groups of federal and state representatives elected by U.S. citizens to create statutory law by passing bills that are signed into law by the president or governor.
Lender liability
A term that describes lender responsibilities. If a lender acts in bad faith, is negligent, misrepresents, or is guilty of fraud, the lender may be subject to significant liability.
Lenders due diligence
The process whereby a lender prepares all necessary documentation in preparation for a loan. It is also called underwriting.
Lessor
One who leases rights to use real property.
Leveraging
The tactic of obtaining a large benefit from small improvements in the major cost centers; also, the use of other people's money (stocks or borrowed funds) to obtain returns on an investment. It derives from the concept that a loan on the property allows the borrower to invest less of his own money. Therefore the loan acts as a lever on the cash investment. Leveraging can have a positive or negative effect.
LFL or LEL
Lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit. With a chemical liquid, the lowest concentration or percentage of vapor in the air that will produce a flash or fire when a flame, spark, or heat is introduced.
Liabilities
The dollar value of everything a company or individual owes including loans, bonds, future lease payments, and other debt.
Liability loss
Loss alleging that persons have suffered some form of injury, such as bodily or financial injury, or have sustained damage to their property.
Libel
(1) A written or recorded remark concerning another, which that party considers to be injurious to his or her reputation, good name, or character. (2) A defamatory statement that is recorded in writing or some other permanent form.
Libor
An acronym that stands for London International Bank Offered Rates. It is accepted worldwide as a measure of interest rates.
License
Like an easement, a license permits acts on the land of another that would otherwise be impermissible.
Licensee
A person who enters the land of another for personal purposes, or as a social guest of the owner, and not for the benefit of the owner.
Licensees
Those persons who may be permitted or tolerated on the premises and who may be on the premises for their own purposes or convenience.
Lien
The holding of property given as security or pledged until the debt it secures is paid. The security interest created by a mortgage.
Light
The radiant energy that the eye perceives. From a scientific standpoint, light is composed of electromagnetic wages of varying intensities lying between the ultraviolet and infrared radiation spectrums.
Light (also lite)
The glass (or plastic) pane in a window assembly.
Lightweight aggregate
A mixture consisting of one or more of the following types of inert material: expanded shale or clay (also called haydite or herculite), vermiculite, perlite, cinders, and blast furnace slag.
Limited boiler and machinery form
A type of insurance coverage limited almost exclusively to explosion losses.
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
A statutorily authorized, unincorporated entity that provides corporate-like limited liability for its owners but is managed, in many respects, like a partnership.
Limited Liability Limited Partnership (LLLP)
A limited partnership that registers with the state in which it is formed and thereby shields its general partners, under state law, from personal liability for certain liabilities of the limited partnership.
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
A general partnership that registers with the state in which it is formed and thereby shields its partners, under state law, from personal liability for certain liabilities of the partnership.
Limited partner
A partner in a limited partnership whose personal liability for partnership legal obligations is limited to his or her capital contribution.
Limited partnership
A partnership that, under state law, is permitted to have partners that are not liable for the partnership's torts and contractual obligations.
Limited worldwide liability coverage
Extends coverage to those insured persons who are temporarily outside designated boundaries on business and extends products liability coverage to products that were sold in the restricted area but caused injury outside of those boundaries.
Line authority
The relationship between an employee and any supervisor or manager who has authority to issue direct orders that the employee must follow. See also Staff Function.
Line item
An individual cost or revenue item listed in a budget.
Line notching
A dip in the supply voltage to a converter due to a momentary short-circuit in the Alternating Current (AC) lines during a transfer of unidirectional current. Or, a momentary dip in supply voltage caused by the reactive drops in a supply circuit during the high rates of change in currents that occur in AC lines during the transfer of unidirectional current.
Linear work process
A way of working in which tasks are performed one at a time in sequence rather than concurrently. See also Concurrent Work Process.
Linoleum
The oldest form of resilient floor covering. A decorative mix of oxidized drying oils, natural or synthetic resins, organic fillers, mineral fillers, curing agents, and pigments are thermoset to a suitable carrier (burlap, organic fiber felts saturated with synthetic resins or asphaltic compounds, duck, or mineral fiber sheets).
Liquid chiller
A refrigeration machine that uses mechanical energy to generate chilled water.
Liquidated damages
(1) An amount of money that parties to a contract agree will compensate one party to the contract in the event of breach of the contract by the other party. (2) Damages that are anticipated by the parties to a contract and are specified in the contract as an agreed upon amount to be paid to compensate one party in the event of a material breach of the contract by the other party.
Liquidity
An entity's cash position, based upon assets that can be readily converted into cash.
Liquidtight conduit
A variation of flex conduit covered with a synthetic rubber; used in wet or hazardous locations.
Liquification
A condition that results in soil becoming liquified, often caused by water main breaks, earthquakes, or extensive flooding.
Lis pendens
Public notices that a property is subject to a lawsuit, even though no such determination has been made.
Listed
Term indicating National Elecrical Code/Canadian Electrical Code (NEC/CEC) classified equipment or products have been evaluated and the methods used to produce them reviewed by an organization acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The testing organization publishes a list of equipment or products that meet the appropriate design standards.
Listed waste
Any EPA waste listed in 40 CFR Part 261 Subpart D; known as F-, K-, P-, and U-list wastes.
Listing agent
The agent who works for the broker with whom the property is listed.
Liter
Unit of capacity equal to the volume of one kilogram of water. Equal to 1.0567 liquid quarts.
Little kicker
A hand tool that produces an offset in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT). See also Kick.
Live load
The weight of occupants, furniture, and movable partitions. When applied to a roof surface, it may include an allowance for snow or water.
Lloyd's of london
One of the world's largest insurance organizations, composed of thousands of individual underwriters.
Load factor
Refers to the percentage add-on factor, which is used to convert usable square footage to rentable square footage.
Loadbearing
The characteristic describing the ability of soil or of a wall to bear the load of a building, or of a structural member to bear the compressive load of the building (for example, a loadbearing wall).
Loam soil
A mixture of clay, silt, and sand. The ideal soil, the composition of loam falls between the extremes of clay and sand.
Loan
The renting of money by a lender to a borrower to be repaid at a future time. A loan may be with or without interest.
Loan amortization
The systematic payment of the principal balance of a loan over a prescribed term.
Loan commitment
(1) A binding obligation to perform an act or loan money within a specified period of time in accordance with specific terms and conditions. (2) A contract, usually in writing, under which a lender and borrower agree to enter into a loan transaction.
Loan constant
A mathematical factor used to determine debt service for an amortizing loan.
Loan coverage
A relationship between net income before noncash deductions and debt service required on a loan. The higher the loan coverage, the more secure the loan. The coverage ratio is determined by dividing net income by debt service.
Loan processing
The preparation by a lender of a loan file so that a loan can be closed and disbursed. This processing may include ordering appraisals, credit reports, title insurance, and gathering other documentation for the loan.
Loan servicing
The administration of loans after their closing. Servicing includes collecting mortgage payments, maintaining escrows, dealing with borrowers that are in default, and making periodic property inspections.
Loan-commitment letter
A letter from a permanent or long-term lender stating that upon completion of construction of the property, the lender commits to making a loan.
Loan-To-Value (LTV) Ratio
The percentage of the current outstanding amount of a loan as a ratio of the value of the property secured by the loan. Example: A $100,000 property with an outstanding loan amount of $79,500 would have an LTV of 79.5 percent.
Loan-to-value ratio
The ratio of the loan amount to the value of the collateral.
Local emphasis programs
Programs instituted by OSHA regional offices, as determined by the area director, in which specific industries ranging from academia to food service are inspected.
Localized corrosion
Corrosion at a single location on a metal surface, progressing deep into the metal rather than spreading across the surface.
Localized energy management control system
An EMCS that uses multiple independent local sensors and actuators that operate building equipment without acting in conjunction with surrounding sensors, actuators, or equipment.
Location rent
That portion of rent that is attributable to the economic advantage provided by one location over another because of a particular location's ability to provide lower costs and greater convenience.
Lock-in clause
A mortgage provision that prohibits prepayment of the loan during a portion or the entire term of a loan. The purpose of such mortgage agreements, also known as prepayment prohibitions,is to ensure that the lender receives its anticipated yield during the lock-in period.
Lockout/tagout
A required procedure to ensure that once a circuit has been deenergized, it cannot be reenergized without the knowledge and permission of the person who established the lockout/tagout.
Log
A record of building system performance data. Three basic types used in building operation are the daily operating log, the equipment operating log, and a utilities log.
Log on
To activate an electronic connection between a computer and a Local Area Network (LAN).
Long-arm statutes
State statutes that permit the state's courts to look to the contacts that the defendant has with the state to determine whether the court has personal jurisdiction over the defendant.
Long-distance carrier
A telecommunications company that actually owns and installs long-distance transmission facilities and equipment linked to Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) networks.
Long-range or long-term
A time horizon of more than two years; in North America generally not longer than five years.
Long-term capital gains
Refers to the appreciation of a property over time.
Long-Term Disability Insurance (LTD)
Disability insurance to cover the loss of income suffered by an employee due to serious and lasting disability, usually up to age 65.
Look-up data
Records of equipment lists, property inventories, and other data related to what an organization has as opposed to data related to transactions (what an organization does).
Loss and expense constants
Workers' compensation policy charges that compensate for the additional expenses associated with smaller insurance policies.
Loss control
A process of dealing with loss exposure that involves both loss prevention and loss reduction.
Loss exposure
Possibility of damage to property or bodily injury.
Loss payees
Entities to whom proceeds of a claim are payable based on their financial interest in insured property.
Loss prevention programs
Programs designed to prevent a loss from occurring or to at least reduce the chance of it occurring.
Loss reduction programs
Programs that attempt to minimize the frequency and severity of loss.
Loss reserving
Process by which the insurer's representative estimates the losses that will ultimately be paid and then holds back or reserves money to cover these future expenditures.
Loss runs
Documented records of past and present losses suffered by a business during a policy period.
Loss-of-income insurance
Business insurance to replace lost income following damage to property.
Lost property
Property that has been carelessly and inadvertently parted with. The owner generally has no recollection of where the property was left.
Lost workday cases
Injury or illness cases that involve employee days away from work or days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays
The number of workdays (consecutive or not), after the day of injury or the onset of illness, that an employee is away from work or is limited to restricted work activity because of an occupational injury or illness.
Low voltage
Lighting and electrical systems that operate on voltage much lower than the 110/220-V service commonly found in North America.
Lowest first cost
A method of selecting goods or services on the basis of the lowest cost at the time of purchase.
LRA
Locked-Rotor Amperage. When power is first applied, a motor draws a very high current or amperage due to low counter Electromotive Force (emf).
LTD
See Long-term Disability Insurance.
Lumber
The wood building material that is milled from trees.
Lumen (lm)
The unit of light quantity or output. One lumen is the amount of light striking a surface 1 sq ft (9.3 dm) in area, with a light density of 1 footcandle. Thus, 1 lumen equals 1 footcandle per square foot (9.3 dm).
Luminaire
A complete lighting unit consisting of one or more lamps, housing, optical components, and electrical components (ballast, starters, etc.).
Luminous efficiency or lumens per watt
A quantity that indicates the efficiency of a lamp or lighting system by its raw output of light compared to the energy used. [BOMI Institute source]
Lump-sum contract
A contract method usually arrived at through a competitive bidding approach submitted by a contractor, based on a fixed set of contract documents. The contractor assumes total risk for losses due to bid oversight and retains any additional profit where savings are achieved.
Lung cancer
The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung.
Lux
The metric equivalent of footcandle; 1 footcandle (fc) = 10.764 lux.



Macht
Maximum achievable control technology. Applied to major sources of air pollution emitting listed air toxics.
Macintosh
A proprietary brand name from Apple Computer for a family of microcomputers using a graphically based operating system and system architecture different from that of IBM-compatible Personal Computers (PCs).
Macro commands
Instructions activated by one or two keystrokes that simplify tasks normally requiring numerous keystrokes.
Macroeconomic
Large scale, economy-wide economic activity.
Magnesite composition flooring
A flooring material made from fillers bound together by calcined magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride. Depending on the filler, the floor can vary in density and appearance.
Magnesium
One of the elements making up the earth's crust, the compounds of which, when dissolved in water, make the water hard. The presence of magnesium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds, which are means of clearly identifying hard water.
Magnetic flux
Lines of force traveling between the north pole and south pole of a magnet.
Magnetic motor starter
A motor starter that combines the functions of a simple relay or contactor with other advantages such as overload protection.
Magnetic overload relay
A device that converts electric energy to magnetic force to open the circuit when an overload condition occurs.
Main panel
The first point in the building power distribution system; normally contains some method for disconnecting the electrical system from the source.
Mainframe
A large, powerful central computer, also called a host computer, that accomplishes all data processing instructions it receives from a large number of remote, dumb terminals.
Maintenance
Services that provide the physical upkeep of a facility and its systems, including repairs designed to keep a facility in good condition and preserve its asset value.
Maintenance Worthy Items (MWI)
Equipment and components that should be included in a preventive maintenance program.
Major medical insurance
Health insurance that provides coverage for medical expenses resulting from accident or sickness. It is typically provided through employer, union, or association groups.
Makeup air
Air that is brought into a building from outdoors through the ventilation system and has not been previously circulated through the system.
Malpractice insurance
See Errors And Omissions Insurance.
Managed care plans
Health plans in which the individual must first consult a primary-care physician selected in advance from a list of approved physicians.
Management
Includes executing plans, coordinating activities and resources, fostering cooperation among organizational units, and supervising day-to-day operations. See also Leadership.
Manual cleaning tools
Brushes, brooms, mops, etc., often specialized by design and use.
Manual rates
Rates printed in a rating manual.
Manuscript endorsement
Individualized, nonstandard agreement attached to a policy that is written more or less from scratch to tailor coverage specifically for that account.
Map
EPA Model Accreditation Plan for asbestos abatement established in the AHERA regulation (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E, Appendix C).
Market comparison approach
One of the three basic approaches to value. Calculated by comparing similar sold properties.
Market dominance
Occurs when an investor buys a large share of a particular market, thereby creating a dominance in that marketplace.
Market price
The actual sale amount. It does not necessarily mean that the parties acted prudently or with knowledge.
Market value
The most probable price as of a specific date, in cash, terms equivalent to cash, or in other precisely revealed terms for which the specified property rights should sell after reasonable exposure in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to fair sale. It assumes that the buyer and seller each are acting prudently, knowledgeably, and for self-interest without duress.
Marketable title
Title to real estate that is free of reasonable doubt as to its validity and that a reasonably intelligent person would be willing to accept in exercising normal business prudence.
Mark-to-market
A denominator that indicates that property is adjusted to the current market value.
Masonry noncombustible construction
A type of construction similar to noncombustible construction, except that the walls are of masonry rather than of metal construction.
Master
A person who employs another to perform a service and who has the right to control the conduct of that person in the performance of the service.
Master Limited Partnership (MLP)
(1) A blending of a general partnership/limited partnership, and a way to securitize properties. (2) A limited partnership in which the limited partnership interests are publicly traded on securities exchanges or in the over-the-counter market.
Master policy
he health insurance policy issued to the insured employer.
Master-servant relationship
A legally recognized relationship based on the right of the master to control the physical actions of the servant.
Material breach
A breach of a contract that gives the injured party the right to cancel the remainder of the contract and to sue for damages resulting from the breach.
Material misrepresentation
A misstatement which, if the truth were known, might cause the insurance company to decline to offer coverage or to offer it on very different terms.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
A chemical information form explaining a product's possible hazards, which the manufacturer must provide when the product is purchased in the U.S.
Math coprocessor
A computer chip designed especially to process numeric-intensive instructions faster than ordinary chips; used in conjunction with standard chips.
Matrix management
An organizational design in which an employee reports to one person for technical guidance (usually a lateral or staff relationship with peers) and to another for management line functions (usually a vertical relationship with one's superiors).
Matter
Any substance that has weight or mass and occupies space. All matter is made up of individual atoms or groups of atoms known as molecules. Individual atoms are classified as elements, the building blocks of matter.
Maturity
The date upon which payment of an obligation is due.
Mbps
Megabits per second.
MCC
Motor Control Center. A relatively complex device that makes it possible to remotely control and provide circuit protection for motors installed in a building.
Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT)
The average temperature of all the surfaces to which a person is exposed, exchanging infrared radiation.
Mechanic liens
A type of lien that offers preference to tradesmen. In some states, these liens are granted a prior position to the mortgagee.
Mechanical area
That portion of the gross area of a building designated to house mechanical equipment, utility services, and nonprivate toilet facilities.
Mechanical compression refrigerator
A refrigeration machine that uses mechanical energy to generate chilled water or cool air.
Mechanical cover sheet
n engineering construction drawing that indicates all mechanical notes, legends, and details, including a partial plumbing plan and plumbing riser diagram for the portion of the facility involved.
Mechanical energy
The sum of kinetic and potential energy.
Mechanical plan
An engineering construction drawing that shows all modifications to the existing mechanical system, diffuser locations, thermostat locations, and the specification of any other equipment, such as supplemental cooling systems.
Media
In computer terminology, the form in which output is generated (e.g., on screen, on paper, as sound).
Medical treatment
Treatment of injuries administered by physicians, registered professional personnel, or nonmedical personnel; does not include first aid treatment.
Megohmmeter or megger
An electric meter used to test the resistance of highly resistive materials such as cable insulation or the insulation on motor and generator windings.
Member Appraisal Institute (MAI)
An institute whose members understand how capital improvement or leasing decisions affect short- or long-term value.
Membrane
Any thin, pliable or flexible roof covering; a pliable or flexible weather-resistant component of a roofing system.
Memory
The capacity of a computer to hold data in RAM so it can be edited, supplemented, or deleted. See also Conventional Memory and Upper Memory.
Merchant
Under the Uniform Commercial Code, one who commonly deals in goods of a particular type.
Mercury vapor lamp
The earliest form of High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp; can be used either indoors or outdoors.
Merger
Legal doctrine under which all covenants as to title in the sale contract are extinguished by the deed, unless expressly provided for in the deed.
Merger clause
A statement in a contract declaring that the contract contains the entire agreement between the contracting parties and that all prior negotiations and agreements are merged into the contract.
Mesothelioma
A rare form of cancer, associated with asbestos exposure, that develops in the lining of the chest or abdominal cavity.
Metal passivation
A chemical treatment process that places a protective coating on a metal surface to minimize or prevent corrosion.
Metal-halide lamp
A High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp similar to a mercury vapor lamp with improved color rendition.
Metamerism
A condition in which two objects match under one light source, but not under another.
Metes and bounds legal description
A legal description that describes land by a sequence of courses and distances corresponding to the property's boundaries.
Microbiological growth
A problem in cooling water systems involving tiny organisms like bacteria, algae, and fungi. These organisms can grow into large colonies and destroy metal and wood surfaces and reduce heat transfer.
Microcomputer
he typical desktop or laptop computer.
Microeconomic
Small-scale economic activity i
14 Dec 2009
15:59:42
Braun
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 4

Microcomputer
he typical desktop or laptop computer.
Microeconomic
Small-scale economic activity involving individuals, a business firm, or similar levels of activity.
Milliliter (ml)
A unit of capacity in the metric system equal to 1/1000 of a liter and equivalent to 0.033815 fluid ounces.
Millscale
Debris or contaminants that are found in water pipes after they are manufactured.
Millwork
Custom designed and built furniture, usually built-in.
Millwork plans
Construction drawings that show special architectural construction items. The elevation sheet keys in all millwork sections and details.
Mineral granules
Natural or synthetic mineral or rock fragments ranging in size from 500 microns to 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) diameter, used to cover the top surface of cap sheets, slate sheets, and shingles.
Mineral-surfaced sheet
An asphalt-saturated felt, coated on one or both sides and then covered on the top surface (weather-exposed side) with mineral granules.
Minicomputer
A scaled-down version of a mainframe computer; larger and more powerful than a desktop computer.
Minimization programs
Loss control methods that take effect either before the loss or while it is actually occurring in order to lessen loss severity.
Minimum or minimum earned premium
The premium that the insurance company will be entitled to receive no matter what portion of the policy period has passed. A 25 percent minimum earned premium is common.
MIS
Management information system. A general term for all automated hardware and software used to provide and maintain information.
Miscellaneous materials
A category of asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) comprised mostly of nonfriable asbestos products and materials, such as ceiling tiles, floor tiles, roofing felt, transit pipes and panels, exterior siding, fabrics, and sheetrock systems.
Misdemeanor
Crimes that are less serious than felonies. In some states, misdemeanors include crimes punishable by not more than one year of confinement (whether it be in a state prison or a local jail).
Mislaid property
Property that the owner has intentionally and voluntarily put in a certain place and then forgotten about.
Misrepresentation
(1) A deceitful or fraudulent statement knowingly made to a person and resulting in monetary loss. (2) An incorrect statement.
Mission
A statement of an organization's purpose and reason for existence. See also Goal and Objective.
Mission-related
Pertaining to activities and tasks that directly support a company's reasons for being in business.
Mistake
Refers to a belief of the contracting parties that is not in accord with existing facts. It is also a legal defense used in certain circumstances when a defendant may negate the required element of criminal intent. For example, a person who mistakenly takes another person's coat, believing it to be his or her own, will not be guilty of theft.
Mixing box section
A component of the air filter section of an air handling unit in which air drawn from the building and air drawn from outdoors are mixed to create a uniform airstream prior to reaching the heating and cooling coils.
Mobile equipment
Bulldozers, farm machinery, forklifts, and other vehicles designed for use principally off public roads; vehicles maintained for use solely on or next to premises you own or rent; vehicles, whether self-propelled or maintained primarily to provide mobility to permanently mounted power cranes, shovels, loaders, diggers or drills, or road construction or resurfacing equipment such as graders, scrapers, or rollers.
Modeling systems
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drafting systems that store and retrieve graphic data with mathematical coordinates in three dimensions.
Modem
A communication device that translates computer signals into a format capable of being transmitted over telephone lines.
Modernization
Corrective measures taken to bring a property into conformity with changes in style, whether exterior or interior.
Modular carpet
See Carpet Tile.
Modular furniture
Furniture designed as a set of dimensionally standardized components; may be either freestanding components or systems furniture. See also Systems Furniture.
Molded-case circuit breakers
The most common breakers used in residential and commercial circuits; can be operated by thermal or magnetic forces.
Molecule
A substance composed of two or more atoms of the same element or a combination of many different elements.
Monitor
The cathode ray tube (CRT) screen on which software program information is electronically projected.
Monitoring
The gathering and storage of information and data (e.g., the status of HVAC equipment, facility electrical consumption and demand, indoor and outdoor temperatures).
Monitoring well
An arrangement of hollow piping constructed to provide ongoing surveillance and monitoring of groundwater and soil conditions.
Monoline policy
A policy containing only one type of coverage.
Monopolistic state
State where coverage can only be obtained from the state workers' compensation fund.
Monthly inventory control
The monthly checking of inventory records to determine discrepancies that may indicate a release from an underground storage tank system.
Monthly leak detection
Regulatory-required monitoring of an underground storage tank system to detect leaks manually or by other means such as interstitial monitoring, groundwater monitoring wells, and soil vapor monitoring.
Mopping
The application of bitumen when hot only by means of a mop or mechanical applicator to a substrate or to felts or a built-up roofing membrane.
Mopping outfit
A unit with casters and an handle that incorporates containers for detergent solution and rinse water with a wringer.
Moral hazard
A hazard involving the questionable character or integrity of an insured, which could lead to dubious or intentionally caused claims.
Morale hazard
A hazard resulting from carelessness or indifference on the part of an insured or its employees.
Mortgage
(1) A pledge of real estate to secure a debt through a written instrument given by a borrower (mortgagor) to the lender (mortgagee). (2) A legal instrument that grants a lien on real property to secure the performance of an obligation, usually the payment of debt.
Mortgage broker
A person or company who, for a fee, arranges a mortgage loan between a lender and borrower.
Mortgage equity analysis
A method used to determine capitalization rates. It relies on accurate market data, which takes into account that property is purchased, typically, with both equity and mortgage funds. Both buyer's and seller's interests are considered.
Mortgage loan
A loan using real estate as collateral. (2) A loan that is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust.
Mortgage note
A promissory note given by a borrower to a lender and secured by a mortgage upon real estate.
Mortgage underwriting
The process of judging whether to extend a mortgage loan to a borrower. Mortgage underwriting is both an analytical and subjective process involving analysis of the project and the borrower.
Mortgagee
The lender of funds who receives a mortgage on real property as security for a loan. (2) The creditor party, or grantee, under a mortgage in whose favor the mortgage is granted.
Mortgagor
The borrower of funds who gives a mortgage on real property as security for a loan. (2) The debtor party, or grantor, under a mortgage who grants the mortgage in favor of the lender.
Motivation vs hygiene factors
A theory of job satisfaction suggesting that typical work situations consist of both intrinsic factors (motivators that apply to the work itself) and extrinsic factors such as pay, security, and working conditions.
Motor efficiency
A comparison of the electric power input and the mechanical power output of a motor expressed as a percentage of the power input.
Motor Vehicle Report (MVR)
A report of driving records to ascertain whether drivers have a history of frequent accidents or violations.
Movable-aisle files
File shelving in cabinets that glide on floor-mounted tracks; the units can be stacked together to save space.
Moving walks and ramps
Similar to escalators, but operating as flat or slightly inclined surfaces.
Mulch
Organic material spread over soil to prevent the soil surface from drying out as rapidly as when it is exposed.
Mullion
A vertical member placed between frames of windows and doors.
Multiline companies
Insurers that generally provide diverse types of insurance over a broad spectrum of coverage lines.
Multimeter
An electric meter that combines the functions of an ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter in a single unit.
Multiple chemical sensitivity
A condition in which a person is considered sensitive to a number of chemicals at very low concentrations.
Multiplexing
The transmitting of several control signals simultaneously by time-sharing a single transmission channel or circuit.
Multitasking
The ability of an operating system to decide which task is most important at any given time, when several applications may be loaded in a computer's memory simultaneously.
Multithreading
An operating system's ability to divide computer instructions into subtasks or threads so that more tasks can be performed in smaller increments. See also Multitasking.
Multizone systems
A type of air circulatory system in which hot air and cold air are mixed in localized dampers at the air handling unit to maintain a desired temperature setting and then distributed to the space through a single duct.
Muntin
A horizontal or vertical glazing strip separating panes of glass in a sash.
Mutual benefit bailment
A bailment that benefits both the bailor and the bailee.
Mutual funds
One method of spreading risk in equity investments. These funds hold relatively large ownership blocks in many companies and professionally manage the funds entrusted to them.
Mutual waiver of subrogation clause
Provision stating that neither party will make claims against the other for negligently caused damage and that each party will collect from its own insurance company.



NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards. An EPA-promulgated air quality standard that defines the levels of a pollutant in weight per volume that should not be exceeded under ambient conditions.
Named insured
The person or business entity listed on the policy as being covered and with whom the insurance contract is made.
Nameplate data
A readily available source of pertinent motor operating data. No standard for nameplates exists, but most NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)-rated motors have a nameplate with basic information.
Narrative appraisal
An appraisal form that evaluates in detail the subject property and the sold comparable, as well as the city, state, and region where the property is located. These factors combine to support the appraiser's opinion of the subject property's value.
National adjusting firms
Independent nationwide adjusting companies who offer claims-handling services for a fee.
National Association Of Industrial And Office Properties (NAIOP)
An organization founded in 1967 that is involved in the development of industrial, office, and retail properties throughout the United States and Canada. Its main focus is on providing a resource for analyzing development projects, offering a variety of educational programs and dealing with government policies at the local, state, and national levels.
National council on compensation insurance
The authority that issues suggested workers' compensation rules rates based on compilations of losses from many insurance companies.
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
EPA Regulation 40 CFR 61 Subpart M.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
The organization that sets standards and codes for fire protection.
National priorities list
Composed of properties that have received the highest hazard ranking under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for cleanup and possible financing under Superfund.
National safety council
A group of private industries, municipalities, insurers, and others whose general purpose is to make available all types of safety-related information on a very wide scale.
Navigable waterways
U.S. waters subject to tidal action shoreward to the mean high-water mark that are presently used or may be used for interstate or foreign transport.
NC
Noise criterion curve.
Near-term
A time horizon of one to two years. Also referred to as mid-range.
NEC
National Electrical Code. In the United States, strict electrical codes and standards written to safeguard the health and safety of people from the hazards inherent in using electricity; published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), with direct references to the standards of various trade and professional groups.
Necessity
A legal defense that is similar to self-defense and duress because it excuses an otherwise criminal act when committed to avoid a greater harm.
Negative easement
An easement that restricts the grantor of the easement from using the grantor's land for a specific purpose, or in a manner that the owner would otherwise be entitled to.
Negligence
(1) Breach of a duty of care owed to a person and causing damages to such person. (2) Failing to act as a reasonable person should have acted under the same circumstances. A type of tort that is unintentional.
Negligent (unintentional) torts
Civil wrongs caused by acting in an unreasonable, careless, or imprudent fashion, or failing to act when action is reasonably indicated.
Neoprene
A synthetic rubber (polychlorophrene) used in fluid or sheet-applied elastomeric roofing membranes or flashing. See also Hypalon.
Net assignable area
The sum of the floor areas available for assignment to a program occupant. By definition this excludes custodial, circulation, mechanical, and construction areas.
Net benefit (NB)
A tool that identifies the difference between the lifetime dollar savings and lifetime dollars costs of a facility investment.
Net effective rent
A calculation of various adjustment factors applied to the face rate offer of a lease to determine the true rental rate of a lease.
Net lease
A lease that requires the lessee to pay all operating expenses of a property. Under a net lease, the landlord retains all of the rental income received from the property.
Net of commission
Issuance of insurance policies without any commission payable.
Net Operating Income (NOI)
Income that remains after deducting all fixed and operating expenses. NOI computation excludes debt service and all noncash items such as depreciation, amortization, etc.
Net Present Value (NPV)
The difference between the present value of capital outlays and the present value of all future cash flow benefits. If positive, it reflects a return on capital; if negative, not all capital has been returned. It is expressed as a dollar amount.
Net worth
The difference between the amounts of a company's assets and its liabilities.
Network
A system of transmitting data signals over cabling or electromagnetic waves that enables two or more computers to share data, retrieve and store files, and share operating programs and software applications.
Network operating system
A series of line protocols that link Local Area Network (LAN) adapters and computers and determine how data is transmitted between them.
Network services
Telecommunications services provided by local exchange carriers and long-distance carriers on their own lines and equipment.
Neutral or grounded conductor
The white conductor that carries the current back to the power source and has a ground potential.
Neutron
A component of an atom similar in size and mass to protons but electrically neutral.
Newton-meter
The meter equivalent of foot-pound (ft-lb); abbreviated N-m.
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association.
NIBS
National Institute of Building Sciences. A nongovernmental, nonprofit organization authorized by the U.S. Congress to encourage a more rational building regulatory environment and to accelerate the introduction of existing and new technology into the building process.
Night setback
The lowering of building temperatures during unoccupied periods, most often at nighttime.
NIOSH
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. NIOSH-established criteria are used for training, sample analysis, and the performance of research and studies relating to OSHA regulations.
NIST
National Institute for Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards). Accredits laboratories for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and bulk sample Polarized Light Misroscopy (PLM) analyses via the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP).
NMC
Nonmetallic Sheated Cable. Wiring system limited to residential and small commercial applications.
No loss/no gain
A health insurance provision stating that, when an employer decides to change insurance companies, the new insurer must provide benefits similar to those of the previous insurer for existing conditions. This protects employees from suddenly losing coverage for benefits that would have been provided by the prior insurer.
No-fault automobile insurance
A type of coverage mandated in certain states that requires drivers to collect from their own insurance companies for certain losses, without regard to fault.
No-filing rating method
Not really a rate-filing method at all, this is an attempt to let the free market function in a laissez-faire manner. The no-filing method means that competition between the various insurance companies will determine what rates they are able to get.
NOI
Net Operating Income. Income remaining after subtracting all qualified operating expenses from gross income. NOI is a standard measure of business performance.
Noise
In acoustics, unwanted sound; in telecommunications, electromagnetic interference (such as static) from an outside source.
Nominal damages
A small or trifling sum awarded to a plaintiff when a tort or breach of contract has been shown, but no actual damage or loss has been proven.
Nonasbestos
According to the EPA, materials that contain 1 percent or less asbestos; these materials are not regulated under the National Emission Stadards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).
Nonassessable
Free of further financial obligation beyond the original price.
Nonattributable costs
Costs that a facilities department must bear and cannot attribute to any other department.
Nonbureau insurers
Insurance companies that do not start with the bureau rates in order to determine their own premium levels. They may refer to the bureau rates as a general guide, but will usually develop their own rates.
Noncash expense
Depreciation; the systematic allocation, as an expense, of the original cost of a revenue-generating asset over an estimated useful life.
Noncombustible construction
Buildings constructed of metal or other nonburning materials.
Noncompetition covenant
An agreement between an employer and an employee stating that after the employment relationship has ended, the employee will not compete with the employer's business.
Nondiscretionary account
An account where the portfolio manager must seek approval from the plan sponsor before making acquisitions or dispositions, or granting approval of property operations, plans, or budgets.
Nondisturbance clause
Protects tenants from the foreclosing of their leases in the event of a foreclosure on the property; typically, tenants cannot be in default.
Nonelectrolyte
A solution that cannot conduct electricity.
Nonfreehold estates
These estates normally involve a duty on the part of the holder of the estate (tenant) to make periodic payment for the use of the land (rent). Nonfreehold estates are generally recognized as an estate for years, periodic tenancy, tenancy at will, or tenancy at sufferance.
Nonfriable asbestos
Asbestos-containing material that cannot be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.
Nonloadbearing wall
A wall that does not provide vertical support to other building elements, particularly roof or floor loads. See also Curtain Wall.
Nonowned auto liability insurance
Excess liability coverage to protect you against claims caused by others operating their vehicles on your behalf.
Nonowned disposal site coverage
Covers off-site bodily injury, property damage, or cleanup costs beyond a nonowned location, resulting from pollution originating from the nonowned location, as well as costs to clean up such pollution on, within, or under the nonowned location.
Nonowned watercraft liability coverage
Liability coverage for the operation of watercraft you do not own, usually when such craft are less than 50 feet in length and when they are not being operated for a fee.
Nonparticipating insurers
Insurance companies that do not allow the policyholders to participate in the overall experience of that company.
Nonperforming asset
Another name for Return on Equity (REO) property. Used by lenders when the REO property appears on the asset side of a lender's balance sheet. Typically, it produces little or no income for the lender and therefore is considered nonperforming.
Nonrecirculating hot water system
A type of service water heating distribution system using piping that moves water from the heater to building fixtures but not back again to the heater.
Nonrecourse loan
A loan for which the borrower is not personally liable.
Nonreversible heat pump
A heat pump that passes heat in only one direction.
Nonstandard companies
Insurance companies that provide coverage for risks that the standard companies cannot or will not write. Nonstandard risks are generally out of the ordinary or deemed overly hazardous for the standard companies.
Nonuniform lighting system
A system in which the placement of light fixtures is determined by the actual location of workstations and machinery, and the nature of the task to be accomplished.
Nosing
The portion of a stair tread projecting beyond the face of the riser immediately below it.
Notice of completion
A statement provided to a tenant stating the date of completed improvements.
Notice-type statute
A type of recording statute under which a subsequent grantee will prevail over a previous grantee as long as the subsequent grantee gives value for the conveyance and receives the deed without actual or constructive notice of the prior grant.
Novation
A three-party agreement whereby the original party is discharged from his or her obligations and a new party acquires the obligations. The result is that the old contract is terminated and the new contract, with the same content but with at least one different party, is created.
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Affects programs usually operated and enforced by state water pollution control agencies.
NPRM
Notice of Proposed Rule Making. An advisory published in the Federal Register to all affected industries of OSHA's intent to formulate a safety or health standard.
NRC
Noise reduction coefficient. A measure of the acoustic absorption qualities of a material.
NSPS
New Source Performance Standard. Regulates industrial sources of air pollution.
Nuisance
A type of damage involving conduct that unreasonably interferes with public or private rights.
NVLAP
National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory proficiency program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST).



O&M
Operation and maintenance of building systems.
O&M program
Operations and maintenance program. A formulated plan of training, cleaning, work practices, and surveillance to successfully manage a hazardous substance or situation.
Objective
A statement of how a corporate goal will be accomplished. An objective has a definable and measurable end result.
Oblique drawing
A method of portraying an object at true scale in two dimensions but at reduced scale in the third dimension, with no distortion of parallel lines and surfaces.
Occupancy date
The date on which the tenant takes occupancy of the space to conduct business.
Occupant representative
A person who represents the needs and interests of a department or other group of facilities customers to the facilities management department, typically while developing a project.
Occupational exposure
An OSHA-defined term meaning a reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties.
Occupational illness
Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.
Occupational injury
Any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that results from a work accident or from a single instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA)
A U.S. federal agency created by federal law in 1970 that affects the majority of U.S. employees by setting safety and health standards in the workplace and enforcing compliance.
Occupied replacement
The process of using special tools to jack-up in-place systems furniture panels to replace carpet, without dismantling furniture components.
Occurrence
An accident, which may involve a single exposure or continuous or repeated exposures to substantially the same general harmful conditions.
Occurrence trigger
An event that causes a claim even after a policy term ends, allowing the insured to report claims at any time during or after the policy term, provided that the event occurred during the policy term.
Odor threshold value
The minimum quantity of a gaseous material that can be detected by the olfactory organs.
Off-budget financing
Unplanned expenditures not requested during the normal budgeting process.
Offer
A communication of a promise that defines the terms of a proposed contract.
Offer and acceptance
A legal term describing how a bona fide offer to lease and acceptance of the offer can be binding in certain locales.
Offgassing
The evaporation of volatile solvents from building construction materials and furniture into the building air.
Offset
Two 45 degree conduit bends; used when conduit must bypass an obstacle or when making a connection into an enclosure.
Off-the-shelf
The standard, noncustomized version of a manufactured product. See also Customization.
Ohm
A unit of resistance to the flow of electrical current.
Ohmmeter
An electric meter that directly measures the resistance of an electrical component.
Ohm's law
A law expressing a definite quantifiable relationship among electromotive force (voltage), resistance (ohms), and current (amperes). Simply stated, a current of one ampere will flow when an emf of one volt is applied to a resistance of one ohm.
Oil absorbents
Granular materials of porous clays or minerals, able to absorb twice their weight in oil.
Oil Pollution Act Of 1990 (OPA)
U.S. federal environmental law relating to the safe handling of oil and prevention and cleanup of oil spills.
Oil/water separator
A concrete or steel structure located below ground level in areas with the potential for petroleum product leakage during a storm.
OLE
Object linking and embedding. A programming routine that permits documents generated in one program to be integrated into another document generated in another program. See also DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange).
Once-through system
A water system in which water is passed through the system only once, without any recirculation.
One-time cost
A cost incurred only once in the economic life of an asset. Also called nonrecurring cost.
On-line
Live access to data, as is the case when data is held in RAM.
On-the-job training
Training in which workers are shown how to perform their work on location and are required to demonstrate to the supervisor what they have learned.
Open circuit
The opposite of a short in a circuit; a circuit with an infinite resistance, resulting in no current flow.
Open market operations
Federal Reserve security transactions that have the effect of expanding and contracting the United States money supply and adjusting market interest rates.
Open plan
An approach to designing office workspace involving the use of very few full-height partitions and freestanding conventional or modular furniture.
Open plan offices
Spaces divided by movable partitions.
Open protocol
A nonproprietary (not owned by one vendor) means of exchanging and converting data from one format to another.
Open recirculating system
A water system in which water is continuously reused, and heat is removed through evaporation.
Open reflectors
Lamp fixtures that are typically industrial fixtures; can be used in utility and storage areas of commercial buildings.
Open-loop geothermal heat pump
A heat pump that uses the earth's groundwater as a heat source or heat sink.
Open-web steel joists
A system of trusses built up and welded together with bars or round rods. Ends are strengthened with vertical and horizontal plates and T-sections to act as bearing and gusset plates. Also called trussed joists or bar joists.
Operating agreement
An agreement that determines how a limited liability company will be managed and identifies the rights and responsibilities of the members, including any limitations on the transfer of ownership interests.
Operating budget
Financial plans for the expenditure of funds for anticipated needs during a fiscal year, such as for personnel, parts and materials, and most contracted services. Operating funds are supported by corporate income. Operating budgets are usually prepared for a period of one year or less. See also Capital Budget.
Operating expenses
Costs and expenses incurred by a landlord in operating and maintaining its building.
Operating funds
Corporate funding allocated from the annual operating budget for items that will have no residual asset value after the year in which they are purchased. In accounting terms, these items are expendable.
Operating lease
A term that refers to the normal landlord/tenant lease for space.
Operating system
Software written to control a computer's basic operations involved in accessing and processing data, especially to hard disks, memory, video display, and peripheral devices such as printers. See also Interface.
Operation
The series of acts that engage the systems in a building, turning the building "on."
Operations
In facilities management, those services that enable the facility to function on a daily basis, such as HVAC, security, housekeeping, and cleaning. See also Maintenance.
Operators
Officers, shareholders, partners, individuals, and successor corporations responsible for managing, operating, or leasing a property where hazardous materials were released, treated, or disposed.
Opportunity cost
The return or yield from alternative uses of capital that has been invested in a project.
Optical disk (CD-ROM)
A device used for very high-density storage of alphanumeric and graphic data.
Optimal start
Scheduling the start-up of HVAC equipment so that building temperatures reach desired levels just as occupancy occurs.
Option rights
Gives the lessee the right to extend his or her lease at a specified rate for an additional lease term.
Ordinance and law coverage
Coverage for a loss that results from the enforcement of any law governing the use, construction, repair, or demolition of buildings or other structures, including the removal of debris.
Ordinances
Laws generally passed by municipal legislative bodies and enacted into law by an approving executive body, depending on the municipality's charter.
Organic matter
Also called compost. Composed of decaying remains of plants and animals.
Orientation training
Introduces new workers to the job and provides an opportunity to instill basic work attitudes and procedures.
Origination fee
A fee charged by a lender for expenses incurred in the evaluation and documentation of a loan.
OS/2
An operating system developed by IBM that permits true multitasking with a minimal risk of total system failure.
OSHA
See Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
OSHA NO. 101
(Supplementary Record). The recordkeeping form (or its equivalent) on which additional information, such as how an accident or illness exposure occurred, is recorded for each injury and illness entered on the OSHA No. 200 log.
OSHA NO. 200
(Log and Summary). The recordkeeping form used to list and classify injuries and illnesses and to note the extent of each case; also serves as an annual summary.
Other-than-serious violation
An OSHA infraction that carries the lowest penalties and indicates a violation that was less than life threatening—such as the lack of a written program—and that the employer did not have previous knowledge of the health/safety standard violation.
Outbound service
Telecommunications services for calls from a company to other points outside the company. See also Inbound Service.
Outdoor parking facility
A parking lot that is open, single-level, and paved.
Out-of-pocket expense
The maximum dollar amount payable each year by the insured. Generally there is a maximum limit specified per person, with a higher maximum total specified for the whole family.
Output device
A monitor, printer, plotter, or audio speaker used to display or reproduce data or to copy it to hard copy.
Outside air contaminants
Include vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions, microbiologicals, and pollen.
Outsourcing
The provision of a bundle or full range of services by a third-party single contractor or a group of contractors. The term also implies that day-to-day management is provided by the vendor so that the facilities staff is responsible only for managing the vendor relationship and monitoring its performance.
Outtasking
The provision of individual services by a small service provider. These tend to be the kinds of recurring services offered by a full-scale facilities management department, such as housekeeping, security, and food service.
Out-tasking
A word coined to further define the area to be tasked to an outsource provider.
OVA
Organic vapor analyzer. A field screening instrument used to detect the presence of organic vapors, possibly indicating contamination before laboratory analysis begins.
Overall Capitalization Rate (OAR)
The measurement used when appraising income-producing real estate that looks at the marketplace and converts prices paid for properties into overall rates of capitalization.
Overall coefficient of heat transfer
The resistance to heat flow of all the materials in a building's envelope.
Overhead
Costs necessary to operate an organization that are not directly billable to a specific project.
Owner-Controlled Insurance Program (OCIP)
Plan used by property owners to control the insurance of their hired consultants and contractors, to ensure that adequate limits are available for their project.
Owners' spill liability coverage
Protects the property owner against liability claims arising out of spills that occur in the course of transit when a third-party vendor transports waste off the project site.
Ownership
The full array of rights that can attach to property.
Ownership objectives
The owner's goals which may be tied to real estate or non-real estate issues and may change according to market conditions. Asset managers must determine owner's objectives and formulate management plans to meet them.
Oxidizing filters
A type of filter that will oxidize iron and then filter it out, such as a manganese zeolite iron filter.
Oxygen-deficient atmosphere
An atmospheric concentration of less than 19.5 percent oxygen.
Oxygen-enriched atmosphere
An atmospheric concentration of more than 23.5 percent oxygen.
Ozalid
A method of reproducing drawings that results in a blue or black line against a white background. See also Blueprints.



Package loan
A mortgage loan that combines loans which would normally be separate, e.g., a construction loan packaged with the long-term financing for a project.
Package policy
A policy containing at least two different coverages, typically both property and liability coverages.
Packet-based technology
A method of signal transmission used for Ethernet, Token-Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) networks. A packet, or frame, is a message that contains the addresses of the sending station and the receiving station.
Paid loss amount
The amount that the insurance company has already paid with respect to a claim.
Paint
Various materials, usually liquids, that are applied to surfaces in thin layers and that change to a solid thin film over time.
Pane
A sheet of glass designed for use in a window. See Light and Glazing.
Panel
A component of modular furniture that may be either freestanding or one of several interlocking components, such as those used in systems furniture; frequently supports other components such as shelving, work surfaces, and drawer pedestals. See also Systems Furniture.
Panel wall
An external nonloadbearing wall with individual panels attached to the framing of the building.
Panels
Modular furniture sections used to define the limits of a workstations. Panels do not extend from floor to ceiling.
PAPR
Powered air purifying respirator. A respirator that mechanically filters air through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and distributes it through a face piece to the wearer's breathing zone.
Par value
A stated value or basis. One hundred percent of a price without premium or discount.
Parabolic lenses
Light lenses whose sidewalls resemble a parabola, a shape similar to the graph produced by an algebraic equation that plots the ideal light-dispersion pattern.
Parallax
The apparent convergence of parallel lines.
Parallel circuit
A circuit in which voltage is applied equally to all elements.
Parapet
A low wall around a roof; usually an upward extension of a building's exterior wall.
Parol evidence
Oral or verbal evidence.
Parol evidence rule
Specifies that parties to a written contract who intend the written contract to be the final statement of their agreement cannot introduce evidence of earlier agreements or others entered into at the same time to change the terms of the final contract.
Parquet flooring
A floor consisting of blocks of hardwoods of various sizes which can be laid in a number of patterns.
Part performance
A doctrine that allows the enforcement of an oral contract that ordinarily would be subject to the statute of frauds.
Partial release of mortgage
A mortgage covenant that provides for release of a portion of the pledged asset upon payment of a specified sum of money.
Participating insurers
Insurance companies that allow the policyholders to participate in the overall experience of that company. The participating companies may pay dividends to the policyholders if the experience of the company has been good.
Participation loan
An arrangement wherein two or more lenders share in providing funding for a loan and hold a joint interest in any collateral pledged to secure the loan.
Partition
A full-height wall that joins the suspended ceiling; typically constructed from wood or metal studs and gypsum board or other sheet material such as plywood. See also Screen and Panel.
Partitions
Inside floor-to-ceiling structures not otherwise meeting the criteria of walls. Partitions are movable or removable.
Partnering
An outsourcing technique in which a company establishes long-term relationships with a relatively small group of higher performance vendors.
Partnership
An association of two or more persons who are co-owners of a business for profit. (2) A business entity involving two or more individuals or business entities which jointly own or operate the business.
Parts Per Million (ppm)
A common basis of reporting water analysis in the United States and Canada. One ppm indicates 1 pound of material per million pounds of water.
Passenger elevators
Elevators used by people occupying, visiting, or working at a building.
Passive activities
An arbitrary classification for activity that includes most real estate investments. Income and losses from passive activities are classified as passive. Only passive income can be offset by passive losses.
Passive solar heating systems
Solar heating systems that capture and store heat from the sun's rays automatically, requiring little or no auxiliary equipment.
PAT
Proficiency Analytical Testing. A laboratory proficiency program for airborne fiber analyses by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) (and other industrial hygiene analyses) administered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and required by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) as part of its laboratory accreditation process.
Patch panels
Small panels used to connect trunk lines and lines to individual telephone instruments; usually located closer to localized telephone concentrations to minimize cable run lengths.
Path statement
The instructions that enable the computer to locate, retrieve, and store every file; typically includes the drive letter, directory name, and file name.
Payback period
The time required for the money saved and/or the income generated by a project or product to equal its initial investment cost; determined as part of a life-cycle cost analysis.
PBX
Private branch exchange. A larger and more feature-rich telephone system than either hybrid or key systems. A single PBX can be economical for as few as 50 people or as many as 20,000.
PC
Personal computer. A computer designed for use by an individual; also referred to as a desktop computer. Most often, used to describe a microcomputer based on system architecture developed by IBM.
PCBs
See Polychlorinated Biphenyl.
PCM
Phase contrast microscopy. An optical microscope method, which does not distinguish fiber types, used in conjunction with asbestos air sampling to count the number of fibers present.
PCMCIA Slots
Slots in Personal Computers (PCs) and laptops into which miniaturized peripheral devices — such as Random Access Memory (RAM) cards, modems, and font cards — can be inserted.
Peak demand
The maximum level of demand for electrical service in a building during a given interval (usually fifteen to sixty minutes).
Peak exposures
A maximum concentration of an airborne toxic substance above a ceiling concentration in the workplace that should never be exceeded. Issued for only those OSHA-regulated substances listed in Table Z-2 of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards.
Peak flow
The maximum amount of water that would result from a certain design storm. Usually based on the rainfall-duration-intensity relationship of a certain design storm and used when planning a stormwater system.
Peer-to-peer
A configuration in which any Personal Computer (PC) may act as a file server or as a client of another PC.
Pel
Permissible exposure limit. The maximum concentration of a toxic substance in the workplace that should never be exceeded during an eight-hour work shift, as determined by averaging the exposures measured throughout eight hours.
Pendant-mounted
In reference to light fixtures, suspended on a thin metal pole attached to the ceiling.
Pension fund
A trust formed for the purpose of providing retirement income for its participants. Such funds are subject to the provisions of Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).
Pentium
The fifth generation of Personal Computer (PC) processing chips developed by Intel, Inc.
People, process, and place
A three-part model developed by the Facility Management Institute to describe the basic nature of facilities management. People are the end users, space occupants, visitors, and others who occupy the space; process represents work processes that occur in the space, namely, pedestrian and vehicular movement, work, and paper flow; and place is the physical infrastructure of a building and how it supports employees' work.
Percentage lease
A lease in which the landlord is fully or partially compensated for rent by a percentage of the tenant's sales.
Percentage rent
Rent that is usually based upon a percentage of the gross sales or revenue of the tenant. The percentage rent may be paid monthly, quarterly, or annually.
Perennial
A bedding plant that, once established, reappears each year.
Perfection
The action taken by a secured party under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code to give public notice of its security interest in personal property and to prioritize such security interest over the claims of certain other parties who acquire an interest in such property.
Performance
In human performance, the efficiency and effectiveness with which people perform their jobs; in facilities or buildings, the efficiency and effectiveness of performance as a corporate asset that supports corporate strategic objectives and mission.
Performance specification
A document in which results are described precisely but methods to achieve them are left to the discretion of the contractor.
Period of restoration
The shutdown period for a business following a loss, during which time business income insurance will pay for gross income and continuing expenses losses that are incurred by the insured while business is interrupted.
Peripherals
Devices outside the Central Processing Unit (CPU) — such as printers, scanners, keyboards, and a mouse — through which data is input, stored, or output.
Perjury
A criminal offense consisting of making willful false statements under oath in a judicial proceeding.
Perlite
A material used for its insulating characteristics in lightweight insulating concrete and in preformed insulating board, or blown loose into vacant spaces between structural members. Perlite is formed by heating and expanding volcanic glass. See also Vermiculite.
Permanent closure
Decommissioning an existing underground storage tank system by completely removing the tank and associated piping from the ground or by selecting abandonment.
Permanent loan
Long-term financing for improved real estate.
Permeance
The index of a material's resistance to water-vapor transmission. (Often shortened to Perm.)
Permit-required confined space
A confined space that is known or suspected of posing an atmospheric or serious physical (safety) hazard.
Personal contract
A unique contract based on the characteristics, operations, reputation, and loss history of each particular policyholder.
Personal injury
Allegations of such offenses as false arrest, malicious prosecution, invasion of privacy, wrongful eviction, and libel and slander.
Personal jurisdiction
The authority of a court to subject a particular defendant to its decision.
Personal property
All property that is not permanently attached to real property, including cash, movable equipment, vehicles, paintings, contracts, patents, and trademarks.
Personal protective equipment
Clothing, devices, or equipment worn by an employee to protect against a hazard.
Personal samples
Samples taken to measure a worker's level of exposure to a substance such as asbestos and to verify the effectiveness of exposure controls; considers worker movement and activity over an eight-hour workday.
Perspective drawing
A method of portraying an object that most closely approximates the way our eyes see it, with parallel lines and surfaces appearing to converge at one or more distant points.
Pert chart
A chart that illustrates the interrelationships of tasks over time, how individual tasks or steps affect each other, and how a change in one task will affect several others. See also Gantt Chart and Critical Path Chart.
Peter principle
A well-known problem in personnel management — promoting someone beyond his or her level of competence.
Ph
A measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Phantom gain
Gain resulting from the forgiveness of debt.
Phase i environmental report
A report that identifies and analyzes either an existing or an alleged environmental problem at a property.
Phase i site assessment
(1) The preliminary phase of an environmental assessment that focuses on identifying possible contamination from historical and current uses of a site. (2) A study of the environmental characteristics of a property that is conducted by an environmental professional and includes a records review, site reconnaissance, interviews with facility personnel, and preparation of a report.
Phase ii site assessment
The subsurface or intrusive phase of an environmental assessment, which uses research, sampling, and analysis to determine whether the suspected sources or locations are contaminated.
Phase iii site assessment
The final phase of the environmental assessment, which focuses on defining the extent of contamination, evaluating remedial action alternatives, designing remedial action, and cleanup.
Phase rotation
The rotation of the phases in a three-phase electrical system. The direction of rotation of a three-phase motor can be changed by interchanging any two of the three supply wires, thus reversing the phase rotation.
Phased application
The practice of applying felt plies of built-up roofing membrane in two or more operations, separated by a delay normally of at least one day.
Photovoltaic cells or solar cells
Cells in which special grades of semiconductor materials such as silicon are used to convert light (electromagnetic radiation) into electricity.
Physical infrastructure
The parts of a building that include the land, individual structures, occupant or tenant spaces, and individual workstations and offices, utilities, energy, and telecommunications equipment.
PID
Photoionization detector. A field screening device used to detect possible contamination prior to laboratory analysis.
Pigment
The component that provides color in a paint and helps hide and protect the surface.
Pilasters
Rectangular supports treated architecturally as columns.
Piles
The supporting members of a foundation driven or poured into the soil to transmit the weight of the building superstructure to and any other loads to underlying strata of soil or rock. They furnish support without objectionable settlement.
Pitch pocket
A flanged, metal container placed around a pipe, conduit, or other roof-penetrating element and filled with bitumen or flashing cement to seal the joint.
Pitting
A cavity in a metal surface resulting from localized corrosion and eventually leading to leaks in the system.
Plain concrete
A field definition applicable only in some parts of the U.S. Consists of 3,000 psi (20,685 kPa) portland cement and stone or granite aggregate. Used for sidewalks, driveways, parking lots, etc., where reinforcing is not necessary.
Plan sponsor
A private or public pension fund. The portfolio manager sometimes refers to the plan sponsor as a "client."
Plank flooring
The oldest type of wood floor. Usually 25/32 in. (2.0 cm) thick, it is generally available in random widths. Oak is customarily used.
Planned replacement
An advance plan to replace major components or elements of operating systems or building construction.
Plans
Refers to architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing drawings, and other specialty trade drawings.
Plaster
A pasty mixture of lime, sand, and water, hard when dry, for coating walls, ceilings, and partitions.
Plastic cement
See Flashing Cement.
Plastic conduit
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastic conduit used in place of Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT). Because plastic is a nonconductor, a separate grounding wire must be included in the installation to ensure a continuous ground.
Plastic flow
The tendency of a material to deform under pressure, including the pressure of its own weight.
Platform
A particular combination of computer hardware and operating system software; based on the type of chip used.
Pleadings
Documents that are filed with the court in a legal proceeding.
Plenum
The space between acoustic tile in a suspended ceiling and the underside of the floor above.
PLL
See Pollution Legal Liability Insurance.
PLM
Polarized light microscopy. A light microscope method used to analyze bulk samples of suspect asbestos-containing material.
Plotter
An output device used for printing large documents such as construction drawings.
Plug load
The total electrical demand from appliances plugged into conventional wall and raceway outlets.
Ply
An individual layer of felt in a built-up roofing membrane; a four-ply membrane has at least four plies of felt at any cross section cut through the membrane.
Pneumatic
Pertains to the use of compressed air to operate valves and other devices.
Pneumatic control system
A system that uses compressed air signals to monitor and control mechanical equipment.
POE
Post-occupancy evaluation. A survey taken after project completion to assess end users' level of satisfaction with the various aspects of the new working environment, as well as to obtain their feedback on the relocation process.
Point of demarcation
The point up to which the local exchange carrier is responsible for the performance and testing of telecommunications system circuits. From this point on, the customer is responsible for identifying the cause of any problems.
Point-of-use hot water system
A type of service water heating distribution system using individual automatic storage or instantaneous type heaters at numerous locations throughout a building.
Points
Payment made to a lender at the time a loan is made, measured as a percentage of the loan, with each point equal to 1 percent of the principal amount, as an additional inducement for the lender to make the loan.
Poke-through wiring
Conduits run on the underside of a slab and poked through (core drilled) to the slab above for outlets.
Police power
The right of government to regulate the use of private property in the interest of public welfare, safety, health, and morality.
Policies
General statements of objectives that property management companies use in their standard operating procedure manuals. Designed to remain unchanged for a long period of time.
Policy expiration date
The date at which coverage terminates.
Policy inception date
The date at which coverage starts.
Policy reinstatement
Making a policy in effect again once it has been canceled.
Pollution exclusion
Provision in many standard insurance contracts that eliminates coverage for injuries or damages caused by pollutants.
Pollution Legal Liability (PLL) insurance
The first environmental insurance policy. Covers pollution emanating from a covered facility resulting in bodily injury, property damage, and cleanup costs. PLL also covers liability resulting from onsite contamination for third-party bodily injury, third-party property damage, or related cleanup costs.
Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)
A fire-resistant carcinogen, once commonly used as a coolant in electrical transformers, that can be released by leaks, spills, or fire. Also used in heat transfer, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and light ballasts. Toxic by skin contact and inhalation.
Polyurethane compound
A mixture containing any of various polymers used in flexible elastomers and resins as seals around window panes. See also Thermal Break.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
A plastic material highly resistant to corrosives, nonconductive and heat resistant, often used for piping and insulation and as insulating spacers in thermal barrier windows and curtain walls. See also Thermal Break.
Ponding
The pooling of rainwater in a roof depression; also called bird baths.
Pooled fund
A fund with many different types of investors. May be either open-ended or closed-ended. Values of the portfolios range from two million to five billion dollars.
POP
Point of presence. The point at which a local telephone system connects to a long-distance carrier's network.
Port circuit packs
Telecommunications system cards (circuit boards) installed in the system to allow telephones, trunks, announcement devices, etc., to be connected.
Portable document
A file that can be carried from one computer or platform to another without losing any of its graphics, formatting, or style.
Portfolio manager
A member of an asset management company who is in charge of handling pension-fund accounts and monitoring their investments. Works closely with the asset manager and directly interfaces with the property owner to make recommendations for property operations that will carry out the owner's goals and objectives.
Portland cement
A kind of cement that hardens under water, made by burning a mixture of limestone and clay or similar materials. So named because of the resemblance of the concrete made from it to stone quarried on the Isle of Portland, England.
Ports
In telecommunications systems, the connection points on a port circuit pack. In computers in general, the sockets on the Central Processing Unit (CPU) into which peripheral device cables are plugged.
Positioning
The strategy of aligning the rationale for a project with the strategic business needs of a company.
Positive displacement screw compressor
A compressor that uses meshing male and female helical rotors to reduce refrigerant volume.
Possession
The exercise of dominion or control over property.
Post-audit letter
Formal letter prepared by auditor after completion of the audit and exit interview, detailing particular audit points.
Posting
Placing the annual summary of occupational injuries and illnesses at each U.S. establishment from February 1 to March 1 to provide employees with the record of their establishment's injury and illness experience for the previous calendar year.
Posttensioned concrete
A type of concrete unit made by using wire or cable externally or internally. The wire or cable is tensioned to provide compressive stress to the concrete member after the concrete has hardened.
Potential
The force required to move electrons through a conducting medium; determines the quantity of electrons or current flowing through a specific conductor or device. Also known as voltage (V) or electromotive force (emf).
Potential energy
The energy stored in a system by reason of the position of its parts or the attractive forces existing among its molecules and atoms.
Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI)
A measure of pressure expressed in pounds of force exerted on a square surface area measuring one inch by one inch. In SI, most pressures are expressed in kilopascals (kPa).
POWER
The rate at which work is accomplished — the rate of energy consumption, symbolized by P.
Power and communications plan
An architectural construction drawing that shows the location, height, and orientation of all new power, telephone, and communications outlets, as well as existing outlets.
Power factor
The ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (kVA) expressed as a decimal or as a percentage. If an electric appliance has a high power factor (i.e., close to 1), it requires relatively little reactive power as compared to real power. Conversely, if an electric appliance has a low power factor (i.e., close to 0), it requires a relatively large amount of reactive power as compared to real power. A low power factor appliance uses valuable utility production capacity, requiring the utility to put additional investment into generation, transmission, and distribution facilities.
Power factor correction capacitors
Devices installed in distribution systems to eliminate the problems associated with low power factors and the resulting utility-imposed penalty charges.
Power factor penalty charge
The utility company's charge to customers who operate equipment with low power factors.
Power poles
Poles suspended from a ceiling that supply electricity via cabling run through the poles.
Power, data, and telephone plan
An engineering construction drawing that shows all outlets and circuitry.
PR
Proposed regulation. A draft of a standard that is published in the Federal Register so that all affected industries can submit comments.
Preaction system
A fire-suppression system in which smoke detectors are connected to fire alarms that signal the sprinkler pipes to fill with water.
Preaudit interview
The time when an auditor meets with the entire management and accounting staff of the company to be audited. At this interview, the auditor brings up issues of concern and establishes a good working relationship with the staff.
Preaudit letter
Establishes the date, location, and subject of an audit.
Prebid or preproposal conference
A meeting held before bids or proposals are submitted to brief prospective contractors on requirements for an upcoming contract.
Precast concrete
Standardized concrete units cast and hardened in precasting yards under controlled conditions and then shipped to the construction site.
Preexisting condition
A provision in health insurance that may exclude any claim arising from a current or prior medical condition for a certain period of time, usually one year. As an alternative, a dollar limit may be placed upon future claims arising from the preexisting condition.
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)
Health plans in which certain doctors and hospitals have agreed to participate. They are marketed to employer groups, and fees charged are usually reduced in anticipation of receiving additional patients.
Preferred stock
Stock that may have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of assets.
Pregnancy covered as any other illness
A provision in federal regulation that requires employers of fifteen or more employees to provide coverage for pregnancy-related expenses as they would for any other covered health claim. Such coverage for firms smaller than fifteen employees is optional for those employers.
Preliminary motions
Motions that are usually filed before the defendant's answer to a complaint and may raise defenses such as lack of jurisdiction over the person, improper venue, or insufficiency of service of process.
Preliminary pricing plan
Shows the detail required to develop realistic estimates, determines the general construction and installation costs associated with the build-out, and is based on the final space plan and notes that describe the level of build-out.
Preliminary project budget
Developed on the basis of preliminary drawings; based on either similar past project costs per square foot or industry-standard pricing adjusted for the type of construction, location, season, and other factors that impact the average numbers.
Preliminary Report (PR)
A report generated by a title company that shows liens and other encumbrances against a property. A PR is the first examination of a title that a company provides. A more comprehensive examination is completed prior to the title company providing a title commitment.
Premises liability
Tort liability of owners and possessors of land (such as tenants) to other persons who suffer losses or injuries on or off the land that are caused by some act on the land or some condition there.
Premises medical payments coverage
No-fault coverage for an injured person's medical expenses arising out of an accident. This accident must occur on the insured's premises or next to it, or be due to the operations conducted by the insured.
Premium
An amount over and above the face value or stated price.
Premium discount
A discount on workers' compensation policies based on the size of the premium.
Premium finance company
A company that finances the payment of an insurance premium over an extended period of time.
Prepayment
Payment of the principal amount of a loan prior to maturity of the loan.
Prepayment penalty
A fee charged by a lender to a borrower for the privilege of paying a loan prior to its scheduled maturity.
Prescriptive specification
A document that specifies exact results and the methods used to achieve them. See also Performance Specification.
Present covenants
Covenants of title that are representations as to the status of title at the time of the conveyance.
Present Value (PV)
The discounted value of a stream of future cash flows, computed at a specified rate of return.
Prestige cleaning
Regula
14 Dec 2009
16:05:29
Braun
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 5


Prestige cleaning
Regular cleaning of surfaces even if dirt is not visible.
Pretensioned concrete
A type of concrete strengthened by stretching steel cables in the molds before the concrete hardens.
Pretreatment chemicals
Chemicals developed to protect metal surfaces in water system equipment during the period of initial start-up.
Pretrial conference
A conference that is usually intended to achieve organizational and clarification objectives, such as resolving certain legal issues, stipulating facts, amending pleadings, and identifying witnesses and exhibits for the trial.
Preventive Maintenance (PM)
Work performed on operational equipment or building systems to ensure uninterrupted, continued, and efficient operation. Includes diagnosis and performance testing.
Primary cell
A battery that can be used only once. Having become discharged, it must be disposed of.
Primary colors
Colors that cannot be made by mixing other colors: red, blue, and yellow.
Primary loads
Loads that cannot be rescheduled to operate during off-peak demand periods.
Primary market
Securities that are purchased directly from the issuing authority at the point in time when they are originally issued.
Prime rate
The rate of interest charged by a financial institution on loans to its most creditworthy customers. It is often thought of as the lowest available interest rate and is used as a benchmark when setting interest rate levels for other borrowers.
Primer (also prime coat)
(1) A preliminary paint coating that, when applied to a bare surface, seals pores in the surface and improves paint adhesion. (2) Any coating of thin liquid bituminous solvent applied to a roofing surface to improve the adhesion of a heavier application of bitumen and to absorb dust.
Principal
One who entrusts and authorizes another (an agent) to act on his or her behalf.
Principle of indemnity
The principle that states that the insured will not profit from the loss, but rather will be restored only to the condition that existed prior to the loss.
Prior approval rate-filing method
The system of rate filing that requires that insurance companies in these states submit their proposed rates to the insurance commissioner for approval before the rates may be used.
Private insurers
Private-sector insurers that insure exposures not usually insured by the government.
Private nuisance
An interference with another's private use and enjoyment of land that does not involve trespassing.
Private office
Offices enclosed by floor-to-ceiling walls.
Private placement
An offering of stock for sale to a limited number of offerees who have access to important information about the issuing corporation and who intend to purchase the stock for investment purposes, rather than for immediate resale.
Private proprietary insurer
Private business that is operated by a private owner for profit.
Pro forma
A financial projection of income and expense for a future period. Proforma literally means "according to form."
Pro rata cancellation
The apportioning of premiums based on what proportionate share of the premium was used up and based on how long the policy was in effect.
Proactive
The planning process necessary to achieve success that involves looking ahead and anticipating the long-term to prepare for the future in the present. It addresses not only urgent matters, but also the important, emphasizing the important matters.
Probability of loss
The likelihood that a loss exposure may result in an actual loss.
Procedures
Specific directions for performing management, maintenance, and other property operations. May change frequently as needs require.
Process wastewater
Water used in the production process of converting raw materials into manufactured goods.
Product standards
Standards that set the quality and durability of scores of mostly perishable and disposable items ranging from the grade of paint used to the density and face weight of carpet selected.
Products and completed operations aggregate limit
Applicable only to products and completed operations claims.
Products liability
(1) A named insured's liability for claims alleging loss caused by a product sold, handled, or distributed by a named insured. (2) Term used to describe the legal liability of commercial sellers and manufacturers to compensate buyers, users, and bystanders for damages or injuries suffered because of a defective condition that makes their product unreasonably dangerous.
Professional
A person who uses a combination of specialized knowledge and expertise tempered with seasoned judgment gained from experience to perform his or her work.
Professional liability insurance
(Also known as malpractice or errors and omissions insurance.) Covers negligent acts of the named insured arising out of the named insured's profession.
Profit center
A product line or organizational unit that generates income for a company.
Profit-sharing plan
A retirement plan designed to provide a fund to pay for retirement income to employees. Such plans depend on varying profits invested from year to year to fund the plans.
Program
A set of commands, written in computer language, that instruct a computer to perform a task or series of tasks. In space planning, a document that defines user needs for space and facilities that will support their daily tasks.
Programmed work
Work done in annual 'slices', normally in all facilities.
Project close-out
Completion of all paperwork, final payments, assembly of operating instructions, and other administrative details at the end of a project.
Project implementation
Includes all stages of executing a project strategy; defining needs, identifying and acquiring space, designing the space, constructing the space, moving in, and occupying the space.
Project management
The organization, direction, and coordination of tasks accomplished to fulfill a chosen facilities strategy. Involves preparing facility plans, as well as planning and managing projects, facilities programs, design services, construction projects, and relocation projects.
Project management systems
A Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) application that organizes complex one-of-a-kind projects involving many steps on interrelated tracks. (e.g., a major construction job or the acquisition and renovation of leased space for a new corporate group).
Project manager
The person who leads and coordinates a project; may be an in-house employee acting on behalf of the facilities management department, an individual on contract to the company, or an employee of a firm retained to manage projects. In small facilities departments, the facilities manager may assume this role.
Project note
An interim security issued by a governmental agency for a specific project which allows the project to proceed while long-term financing is arranged.
Project strategy
A plan for executing a project with enough control to set a clear direction but enough flexibility to respond to events that affect project direction without losing control. Basic strategic questions often begin with "what if."
Project work
A service order that includes work over a specific dollar figure (such as $500), changes the form or function of the facility, or involves multiple trades or skills. See also Service Order.
Promissory note
A loan document that provides evidence of debt and sets forth the terms of repayment.
Promissory warranty
A condition that the insured promises will continue to exist during the life of the policy.
Proof-of-loss form
A document required by the insurer in which you detail the amount of the loss, the circumstances behind the loss, details concerning what property was lost or damaged, and documentation of its value.
Proper parties
The correct parties to a legal action. The first procedural issue necessary to start the judicial process in all civil litigation is to identify the proper parties.
Property
Everything that is capable of being owned by a person or a legal entity.
Property damage
Damage to property of others or the loss of use of that property whether it has been physically damaged or not.
Property management
The process of maintaining and creating value in real property consistent with the owner's objectives and in compliance with the highest standard of professional ethics. In real estate, the process of profitable operation and management of owned, leased, or subleased real property for a building owner, developer, or landlord.
Property manager
The person involved in many functions similar to those performed by an asset manager, such as recommending and implementing capital improvement plans designed to increase rental income; researching and identifying change-of-use opportunities for properties; and originating a remarketing plan on foreclosed real estate. Responsible for the day-to-day operations of a property and execution of the long-term strategic plan developed by the asset manager.
Property transfer
The act of transferring the ownership of property.
Proposal to lease
The landlord's response to the tenant's request for proposal by acknowledging the points on which the landlord and tenant agree and outlining other terms which may not have been included in the request for proposal or terms on which the parties may not yet agree.
Proprietary specifications
Specifications written to identify a particular brand name or source, rather than a generic type of item.
Proprietorship
A lone individual engaged in a for-profit business enterprise.
Protocol
Network software that determines how data will be transmitted, the order in which signals will be sent, and the priority assigned to signals from each computer.
Proton
The relatively large component of an atom with substantial mass and a positive (+) electric charge.
Provisional premium
A premium based on an estimated exposure basis such as sales or payroll that is subject to variation.
Proximate cause
An essential element of a tort, which requires that the defendant's tortious act bear some reasonable causal connection to the plaintiff's injury.
Psychrometrics
The techniques by which air temperature, moisture content, and pressure are related.
Public adjusters
Adjusters who are paid by the insured to help submit a claim properly, to provide advice on achieving the most equitable settlement, and to represent the insured's interest as a go-between with the insurance company. These adjusters often specialize in particularly large, difficult, or complex claims.
Public nuisance
An unreasonable interference with a right of the general public, including interference with the public health, safety, peace, comfort, or convenience.
Public policy
As a legal standard, the term public policy has no fixed definition. Nonetheless, courts find contracts to be against public policy if the contracts harm the interests of the public or violate a public statute, or otherwise are contrary to the interests of society.
Public stock offering
An offering of stock for sale to the investment public.
Published reserve
The minimum bid amount for a property to be auctioned, which is disclosed to all buyers.
Pulse gate control meter
An electric meter that converts the results of the analog electrical test to digital technology through the use of a fixed frequency oscillator, a variable interval gate, and a pulse counter.
Punch list
A list of deficiencies in construction compiled by the project manager or architect near the end of a job. The list should record all incomplete, missing, or substandard items and the action to be taken by the contractor to correct each problem.
Punching out
The process of creating a list of unfinished items and defects in tenant finish.
Punitive damages
(1) Damages usually assessed in cases where the conduct of the defendant has been adjudged to be so outrageous, excessive, and vicious that damages are awarded to punish the defendant and to warn others who might be thinking of emulating the defendant's actions in the future. (2) A monetary sum awarded to a plaintiff in situations where the defendant has acted in an outrageous or extremely egregious manner.
Purchase money loan
A loan that the borrower uses to purchase real property.
Purchase money mortgage
A mortgage given to secure a purchase money loan that is made to acquire the mortgaged property.
Purchasing power
The capacity to use money, either cash or borrowed, as a means to purchase goods.
Pure risks
Risks that are generally repeatable under similar circumstances, have only negative attributes, and present only a chance of loss and not of gain.
Purge
To remove volumes of groundwater from a monitoring well prior to sampling or to remove vapors from an underground storage tank.
Purlin
In roofs, a horizontal member supporting the common rafters; subpurlins may support purlins.
Putty
Any of a variety of pliable oil-base materials used to glaze window panes in sash frames, usually drying to a brittle, hard consistency.
Pyrophoric
A substance that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C or below).



Qualitative factors
Attributes that define the nature and character, but not the measurable effects, of a particular course of action.
Quality assessment
Includes evaluating the quality and effectiveness of facilities management services, benchmarking, managing governmental and corporate audits of facilities management services and projects, and developing innovative improvements in facilities management services.
Quality of an investment
An evaluation expressing the probability that the value of the investment will not suffer a sharp decline.
Quantitative factors
Attributes that define the measurable effects, but not the nature and character, of a particular course of action.
Quantitative measures
In cost-benefit analysis, factors that can be measured in terms such as dollars, square feet, or time.
Quarry tile
Hard unglazed tile made either by dry-press or extrusion method. The tiles are red, brown, and buff in color.
Quasi contracts
A remedy that is implied in law to avoid an injustice when neither an express nor implied contract exists.
Queries
Temporary searches for specific information.
Quitclaim deed
A deed that contains no covenants of title.



Rabbet
The channel or groove provided in a window sash to hold the pane in place.
Race statute
A type of recording statute that allows the first grantee who records to prevail over other grantees.
Race/notice-type statute
A type of recording statute under which the grantee, in order to prevail over a prior deed of the same property, must accept delivery of its deed without actual or constructive notice of the prior deed and must record its deed before the prior deed is recorded.
Raceways
Enclosed, accessible channels within systems furniture panels for communications, data, and power cabling. See also Cable Trays.
Racked-out
The removal of large circuit breakers from their panel to ensure that the circuit is deenergized.
RACM
Regulated asbestos-containing material. A term that defines when friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material is regulated under the 1990 EPA National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) revision.
RACT
Reasonable available control technology. The lowest emission limitation that a particular facility is capable of meeting by applying control technology that is reasonably available, considering technological and economic feasibility.
Radial distribution system
The most common electric distribution system. Power is received at the utility supply voltage level by a single, incoming substation. Through a series of step downs and splits, the power is converted for individual end-use equipment.
Radiation
The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves.
Radius restriction
A prohibition imposed by the landlord on a tenant to prevent him or her from opening an additional retail store within a prescribed distance from the shopping center location.
Radon
A naturally occurring chemical element in the form of an odorless, colorless, radioactive gas created by the disintegration of radium decaying beneath the earth's surface.
Rail
In a window assembly, a bar extending from one post or support to another; a structural member or support.
Raised flooring
See Access Flooring.
RAM
Random access memory. The part of a computer's memory used for most operations apparent to the user, such as word processing or spreadsheet software programs.
RAM disk
A technique for temporary data storage in memory using a portion of memory allocated as a virtual disk.
Ratable property
Personal or real property that is subject to taxation by local government.
Ratchet clause
A term used to describe the process by which a demand charge is assessed, based on actual levels for periods of time prior to the current billing period.
Rate adjustments
In leases, provisions for fixed-rate increases in the base (first year) rent usually influenced by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) set by the federal government.
Rate hedging
The purchase or sale of mortgage future contracts to offset cash market transactions to be made at a later date.
Rated softening capacity
Softener capacity rating is based on grains of hardness removed (as calcium carbonate) while producing soft water between successive regenerations and is related to pounds of salt required for each regeneration.
Rational method
A numerical equation used to determine the peak flow of a stormwater system.
Rationale
The reasons and justifications for a technology (or other) proposal.
Raw data
Data that has not been analyzed. See also Information and Knowledge.
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An EPA act that regulates the generation, transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste in addition to underground storage tanks.
Reactive maintenance
The act of maintaining equipment and facilities only when something breaks down or stops operating. See also Preventive Maintenance and Planned Replacement.
Reactive or unstable chemicals
Substances that, when under pressure, exposed to light, or subjected to friction or ignition, produce or release energy in the form of heat or an explosion; also substances that develop toxic or flammable vapors when mixed together or with water.
Reactive power
The power consumed in a purely inductive Alternating Current (AC) circuit; the current lags the voltage by 90°. Expressed in units of volt-amperes-reactive, abbreviated VARS.
Real estate
Includes the management of real estate assets and real estate portfolios, leasing, acquisition and disposition of properties, and due diligence.
Real estate function
The buying, selling, leasing, and management of a company's financial interests in real property to maximize its economic life, residual asset value, and effectiveness.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)
(1) A form of ownership in which typically smaller investors invest in shares of a trust that accumulates money and invests in real estate through mortgages, equity, or both. REITs can be publicly traded and are highly regulated. (2) A business entity that invests primarily in real estate or real estate mortgages and receives favorable income tax treatment under the Internal Revenue Code.
Real estate master plan
A plan that matches the company's real estate holdings to the company's real estate needs using the current business plan.
Real Estate Owned (REO) property
Property acquired by a lender through a trustee's sale (nonjudicial foreclosure), a judicial foreclosure, or a deed in lieu of foreclosure as a result of a borrower's default under the terms of the note and deed of trust.
Real interest rate
The annual percentage of purchasing power paid by a borrower to a lender for the use of money.
Real property
Land and improvements that are permanently attached to land, such as buildings, driveways, and sidewalks.
Real Property Administrator (RPA)
The most widely used designation in the asset and property management fields because of its application to overall management and administrative aspects of properties.
Real property management system
A Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) application that tracks data about buildings and land but not about who in the company is occupying them.
Rear-screen projection
Projecting an image from behind the projection surface, usually from within a projection room where the screen is mounted in a wall. See also Front-Screen Projection.
Reasonable care
The degree or level of care dictated by the particular circumstances.
Reasonable expectation
A court's opinion that coverage is provided, in spite of the fact that a careful and comprehensive review of the policy would show that the cause of loss was excluded because it could be reasonably expected by the policyholder.
Receiver
A person appointed by a court to take custody of a debtor's property for the purpose of preserving it and applying the property or its income to the claims of creditors.
Receiving stream
An existing water course/stream or drainage path.
Reciprocating compressor
A compressor that uses a piston to reduce refrigerant volume within a cylinder.
Recirculating hot water system
A type of service water heating distribution system that moves water from the heater to building fixtures and then back to the heater in a continuous loop. This system requires a circulation pump to ensure proper waterflow.
Reclaimed water systems
Systems developed for water conservation that deliver highly treated sewage effluent as irrigation water.
Reconciliation
The process of reviewing and analyzing the different estimates from the approaches to value.
Recordable cases
All work-related deaths and illnesses and those work-related injuries that involve loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment beyond first aid.
Recorded plat
A map of a specific land area that conforms to certain governmental requirements as to format and accuracy and locates individual parcels of land, or lots, by reference to larger parcels of land, known as blocks and subdivisions within a town.
Recording acts
Statutes enacted in every state that govern the conveyance of interests in real property and provide a system for recording such interests among public records.
Records
Subgroupings of data within files in database management programs. See also Fields.
Records management
Traditionally, the management of hard data in the form of paper or microfiche. Increasingly, the management of both hard and soft data.
Records management storage
Storage of records, usually remote from the primary work site, that will be accessed from time to time; less emphasis is placed on records preservation than on archival storage.
Recourse
The right to call upon a borrower to personally meet an obligation. Recourse is sometimes called personal guarantee.
Recourse loan
A loan for which the borrower has personal liability.
Rectifiers
Electrical devices used to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC); commonly classified as full-wave or half-wave rectifiers.
Recurring cost
A cost that occurs repeatedly during the life of an asset, such as for periodic cleaning, guard service, or preventive maintenance. Such costs are most closely associated with facilities operations.
Redevelopment Agency (RDA)
A publicly funded agency that helps property owners finance renovations to property affected by age, a poor location, or neighborhood considerations.
Redlining
A feature in some Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) systems that permits a user to electronically mark a drawing without editing the actual record drawing file.
Redundant power
An additional electrical power source that complements the primary source; may consist of a second generator or an entire duplicate electrical service (a second electric line, meter, and panel box) from the utility company. See also Clean Power, Continuous Power, Emergency Power, and Standby Power.
Refinance
Entering into a new mortgage loan transaction in order to pay off an existing mortgage loan covering the same real estate.
Refinancing
Modifying the existing terms of financing through change of amount, rate term, or loan covenant.
Reflectance
The ratio of light reflected from a surface to that which initially strikes it. Except for matt surfaces, reflectance depends upon how the surface is illuminated, the direction of the incident light, and the spectral distribution of the incident light. See also Footcandle.
Reflected ceiling plan
A construction drawing or architetural plan showing, in a reflected view, the ceiling treatment, ceiling grid, and placement of all new light fixtures as well as those to be removed and relocated. A light fixture legend and switch locations also are included.
Reflected light
Light redirected from an opaque object or surface. The amount of light reflected depends on the angle at which the light strikes the object, the smoothness of the surface, and the color of the surface.
Reflection
The property of light that is redirected from an object, allowing objects to be seen.
Reflector
The component of a light fixture that directs most of the light to the intended location.
Refrigerant
The fluid used for heat transfer by a heat pump; it absorbs heat at a low temperature and pressure and rejects heat at a higher temperature and pressure.
Regeneration
That part of the operating cycle of a water softener in which a sodium chloride solution is rinsed through the cation exchange bed to remove hardness ions and prepare it for a service run.
Regulation
A requirement established by a governmental agency and approved through legislative or administrative act, and having the effect of law.
Rehabilitation
The restoration of a property to satisfactory condition without changing the plan, form, or style of a structure.
Reinforced concrete
A combination of concrete and steel acting as a unit because of a bond between the two materials.
Reinsurance
The purchase of insurance by insurance companies.
Reinsurance company
An insurance company that agrees to assume portions of risks of another insurance company for a premium.
Relational
Used most often with database programs that link data from different files as opposed to linking data types within one file. See also Three-Dimensional Capability.
Release
A document that states the claimant agrees to accept payment return for closing out a claim.
Relocatable walls
See Demountable Walls.
Remanufacturers
Firms that acquire old furniture and dismantle, restore, recondition, warehouse, and sell it as remade.
Remedial action
A Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-defined response action categorized by a hazard ranking based on analyzing potential risks of a reported or confirmed release of a hazardous substance.
Remediate
Activities undertaken to reduce or eliminate contaminants so that property and groundwater are not in violation of applicable environmental standards.
Remediation
The physical process of reducing contamination.
Remodeling
Changing the plan, form, or style of a structure to correct functional or economic deficiencies.
Remote telecenters
Office centers providing technology and administrative support, located near customers and staffed by employees dedicated to that site or splitting their time between that location and another.
Remote-teaming computing
Electronically linking team members at several sites to work concurrently on a single computer file.
Removal action
A Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-defined, short-term response action that deals mainly with hazardous substance releases that present an "imminent and substantial danger" to public health or welfare.
Rent
(1) Payments for the services of land and its improvements. (2) The payment by the tenant to the landlord to occupy the leased premises.
Rent commencement date
The date on which the tenant is obligated to begin paying rent in accordance with the terms of the lease.
Rent roll
(1) A condensed statement of the actual lease agreement that lists the fundamentals of each lease, such as square footage, rent, expiration date, rental adjustment dates, and expansion/contraction/cancellation rights. (2) A list of all leases of property that also specifies the amount of rent and certain other information about each lease.
Rental reimbursement
Reimbursement for rental car use when the insured vehicle has been damaged.
Repeat violation
An OSHA infraction indicating that a compliance officer has noted the same violation at the same place of employment within the past three years.
Replacement
When discussing lead hazards, an abatement strategy in which components such as windows, doors, and trim with lead-painted surfaces are removed, and new lead-paint-free components are installed.
Replacement cost
The cost of construction, at current prices, of a building having utility equivalent to the building being appraised but built with modern materials and according to current standards, design, and layout. It is commonly used in the cost approach to value in an appraisal.
Reportable quantity
Under U.S. environmental law, the minimum quantity of environmentally hazardous material whose disposal or leakage must be reported by the owner or user of the material.
Reporting line
In an organization, the chain of all supervisors, from an employee's immediate supervisor to the most senior officer of a company.
Representative sample
A sample of a universe or whole (e.g., waste sample pile or groundwater) that can be expected to exhibit the average properties of the universe or whole.
Reproduction cost
The cost of construction, at current prices, of an exact duplicate, or replica, using the same materials, construction standards, design, layout, and quality of workmanship, and embodying all of the deficiencies, superadequacies, and obsolescence of the subject building. Similar to the replacement cost, this cost is also commonly used in the cost approach to value in an appraisal.
Request For Proposal (RFP)
A document in the form of a formal written request prepared by a prospective tenant (or the prospective tenant's representative on behalf of the tenant) for information regarding the lease and the building. Also, format used by some institutions to dictate what information they want from prospective management companies.
RES IPSA loquitur
A rule of evidence that equates to a plaintiff arguing that since the plaintiff could not have caused the injury, and since the thing causing the injury is solely in the hands of the defendant, the defendant should prove that he or she was not liable rather than the plaintiff having to prove that the defendant is liable.
Rescission
Cancellation of a contract.
Resellers
Telecommunications companies that sign up with long-distance carriers for volume discount plans and then pass those savings on to small companies; also, furniture brokers who purchase existing lots of furniture and sell it as is without any warranty.
Reservation of rights letter
A letter stating that the insurer may be investigating and even defending the claim initially, but that it reserves the right to deny the claim at a later date if it is determined that no coverage applies to the loss in question.
Reserve account
An accounting entry found on income and expense statements that shows the monthly cost or "reserve" that a property must realize in order for it to have adequate funds to replace or repair substantial items at a property, such as the roof and floor coverings.
Reserve amount
The minimum bid amount required by the seller.
Reserve requirements or reserves
A percentage of bank deposits placed with the Federal Reserve Bank to assure commercial bank liquidity.
Resident agent
The person who is authorized to accept service of process in a particular state on behalf of a legal entity so that the legal entity can be sued in such state.
Residual technique
A technique used to evaluate the income stream produced by a parcel of land and the improvements on it as separate entities.
Residual value
The value of an investment at the end of the holding period. Also known as terminal value.
Resilient flooring
Various smooth floor coverings that are similar in respect to their manufacture, installation, and general physical characteristics. Examples are linoleum, rubber, cork, asphalt, and a group derived from vinyl chloride resins. Resilience is a measure of the ability to recover or return to its original shape after an external load has been removed.
Resin
The term used to designate a synthetic, organic, ion exchange material (such as high capacity cation exchange resin) widely used in household water softeners.
Resistance
A characteristic of electricity measured in ohms and symbolized by "R." All material resists the flow of electrons. Conductors such as copper have low resistance. Insulators such as glass have high resistance.
Resistor
A device that limits or opposes the amount of current that can pass through the circuit based on the Electromotive Force (emf) applied.
Resolution
The degree of fineness of the image produced by an output device, usually measured in dots per inch (dpi) for printers or pixels (points of light) for monitor screens. The higher the resolution, the greater the precision and sharpness.
Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC)
The agency established by Congress to oversee the management and disposition of failed savings and loans and their assets.
Resource Conservation And Recovery ACT (RCRA)
(1) Legislation that governs the handling of solid and hazardous waste in the United States. Known as a cradle-to-grave regulation because it imposes technical requirements for the handling, packaging, transporting, treatment, and disposal of solid and hazardous waste from the origin of the waste until the disposal. (2) The primary federal statute under which the transport, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous wastes are regulated.
Respondeat superior
(1) Legal principle that states the defendant can be liable as a "principal" for the acts of another who is acting as an "agent" for that principal. (2) A legal doctrine under which an employer can be held legally responsible for his or her employees' torts committed within the scope of their employment.
Restitution
A remedy that attempts to restore the parties to the same status they had before the contract was formed or to compensate the injured party for the value of the benefit bestowed on the other party to the contract.
Restriction of work or motion
An action that occurs when an employee, because of a job-related injury or illness, is physically or mentally unable to perform all or any part of his or her normal assignment during all or any part of the workday or shift.
Restrictive endorsement
An endorsement that is conditional and affects the negotiability of the check or other instrument.
Restrike time
The time required between turn-off and immediate turn-on for most high intensity discharge lamps to achieve full brightness. The restrike time enables the lamp to cool and operate safely.
Restructure
The modification or change of the terms and conditions of a loan to meet altered market conditions.
Retention
Process by which a portion of a property or liability loss is absorbed by the business, typically in the form of a deductible, rather than being transferred to others, such as an insurance company.
Retrofit
Renovation of an existing space, building, or system, usually to update outmoded features to current standards of usability and code compliance.
Retrospective rating
A rating plan by which a business determines its own rates or ultimate premiums to a certain extent, based on the actual losses the business sustains during the policy period.
Return air
Air pulled from a space and returned to the central air-conditioning plant for reconditioning.
Return frequency
How often a storm is expected to return; for example, a ten-year storm is expected to occur only every ten years. Used in designing a stormwater system.
Return premium
The money owed to the policyholder because of a change in or cancellation of an insurance policy.
Revenue obligation securities
Money issued for projects intended to create an income stream from which the securities will be redeemed and interest will be paid. They are not guaranteed by the issuer.
Reverse polish notation logic
A strict, sequentially-based, mathematical logic system in which the operator is assigned after entering the numeric value.
Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (RULPA)
A model limited partnership statute that has been adopted by all states except Louisiana.
RICO
Racketeering, Influenced and Corrupted Organizations Act. A broad federal remedial criminal act designed to help prosecutors prosecute conspiracies.
Right
A short-term opportunity to purchase stock in a company for a specific price.
Rigid metal conduit
Once of the most common types of conduit used in industrial applications; closely resembles standard steel water pipe.
Rigid pavement
Reinforced concrete slab on grade.
Rinse
That part of the regeneration cycle of a water softener where fresh water is introduced to remove spent regenerant and excess salt prior to placing the softener into service.
Risc
Reduced instruction set computing. A type of computer chip design that uses programming language with shorter commands to process instructions more rapidly.
Rise
The vertical distance an elevator travels.
Riser
(1)The upright part of a step situated at the back of a lower tread near the leading edge of the next higher tread. (2) Vertical, primary cabling used to transmit data from one major section of a building to another; may also be run horizontally. (3) Primary supply lines for water and electricity.
Risk
The potential for injury or loss.
Risk control mechanism
Means of controlling loss exposures by reducing losses and increasing their predictability.
Risk financing mechanism
Means of paying for losses that occur.
Risk management
A systematic five-step process to identify, measure, and protect against the possibility of accidental damage, known as loss exposure, confronting us or our owned or managed properties.
Risk retention
See RETENTION.
Risk transfer
A process that causes property or personnel risks to be shifted from one party (the transferor) to another party (the transferee).
Rms (root mean square) values
The equivalent Alternating Current (AC) values (of effective values) used in calculations for AC circuits.
Roa
Return on Assets. The net profit after taxes divided by the total value of assets employed to generate income. This calculation does not consider interest paid to creditors and therefore works best for owned assets with no financing.
Roe
Return on Equity. The net profit after taxes divided by the net worth, yielding the total percentage of equity gained through an investment. This method shows the earning power of the shareholders' book investment and is frequently used to compare overall corporate performance when an investor is considering which stock to buy.
Roi
Return on Investment. The total profit divided by the total amount originally invested to gain a profit. This method gauges performance of an investment based on total money invested, including both direct capital contributions and borrowed funds.
Roll roofing
Coated roofing felts, either smooth or mineral-surfaced, supplied in a roll.
Roll-over
The reinvestment of funds in substantially the same investment when an obligation matures. The act of reinvesting in a similar investment or renewing a loan for an additional period of time.
Roll-up report
A report including all aspects of tenant property; such as monthly rent, lease term, security deposit, and any outstanding delinquent amounts.
ROM
Read-only memory. The part of a computer's memory that holds the most basic operating programs and commands; cannot be accessed or changed by ordinary programs.
Roofer
A roofing contractor.
Roofing system
An assembly of interacting roof structures and components designed to be weatherproof and normally used to insulate the building's top surface.
Rotor
The rotating component (armature) in an alternator that provides a rotating magnetic field. Also, the rotating core of an Alternating Current (AC) motor.
Router
An electronic connection between two or more networks that do not operate with the same line protocols.
Routine cleaning
Cleaning tasks performed regularly in occupied areas and common areas.
Run time
The actual number of hours that a piece of equipment operates (e.g., an HVAC system chiller).
Russell-ncreif property index
Stands for the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries and is highly regarded by the institutional investment community. It measures the historical performance of income-producing properties owned by commingled funds on behalf of qualified pension and profit-sharing trusts.
R-value
The ability of a material or system of materials to resist thermal transmission. The higher the R-value, the greater the resistance. See also Thermal Conductivity.



S corporation
A corporation that, by filing an election with the Internal Revenue Service, is not subject to federal corporate income tax.
Sacrificial anode
A zinc-rich primer in which the zinc in the paint corrodes instead of the iron or steel surface to which it is applied.
Saddle
A bend used when conduit must cross a small obstacle such as a pipe or other conduit; three or four bends of approximately 30° to 45° each are required.
Safety of principal
The likelihood that the original money paid for a particular investment will be returned to the investor. One motivation for an investor of real estate, which is based upon the desire not to lose the equity invested in a project. It is a defensive strategy.
Sagging
A paint defect that occurs when paint is applied too heavily to a vertical surface.
Sale-leaseback
A combination ownership-lease development method in which a company develops and completes a project and then sells it to a third party, usually a developer or property manager. The developer then executes a lease with the same company that it purchased the building from. The company, now the developer's tenant, rents and occupies the facility for the lease term.
Sally port
An armed fortification used by security personnel in very high security facilities.
Salt
High purity sodium chloride of a granular, rock, or briquette type used for regenerating a water softener.
Salvage program
A loss control method that attempts to minimize the amount of loss after it has occurred.
Sand filter packing
A sand layer between the outside wall of the monitoring well casing and the earth boring, in the area of the well screen, to allow access of groundwater or soil gas.
Sandy soil
Soil composed of large particles that are rounded rather than flattened.
Sanitary wastewater
All flows generated from a building or facility that result from the use of water; includes gray water and black water, but excludes process wastewater.
SARA
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. A U.S. federal law that added tougher cleanup requirements to the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and increased the funds available in Superfund.
SARA Title III
Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, synonymous with the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Lists 189 hazardous air pollutants for which the EPA must establish special standards for source categories of polluters.
Sash
The framework in which panes of glass are set in a window or door.
Satellite office
An office used by a company for employees who telecommute. It allows employees to reduce commutes by working at an office close to home for a few days a week.
Saturated felt
A roofing felt impregnated with bitumen having a low softening point, from 100°F to 160°F (38.1°C to 71.7°C).
Saturation point
The amount of a certain mineral that water can hold in solution at a given temperature and pressure.
Savings account
An interest-bearing account from which funds can be withdrawn after a waiting period of thirty days or less.
SBS
Sick building syndrome. Describes situations in which building occupants experience acute health and/or comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a particular building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified.
Scale
(1) The proportion that describes a representation of an object in relation to the object itself, e.g., a drawing on a scale of one-quarter inch to one foot. (2) Fouling or lining on interior surfaces of heat transfer and water storage equipment caused by water deposits. The rate of scale formation is affected by water temperature, flow rate, and water hardness.
Scanner
An input device that electronically reads an image as a series of thousands of small dots, each with a light value (and possibly a set of color values) and converts the image to digital data (1s and 0s).
Scarcity
The present or anticipated undersupply of an item relative to the demand for it.
Scenario
In strategic planning, a possible outcome based on a series of assumptions and variables.
Schedule of underlying insurance
The names of the insurance companies providing the underlying insurance under the umbrella, along with the promised limits and types of insurance.
Schedule rating
A means by which the underwriter can apply debits or credits to class rates in order to more accurately develop the premium appropriate to a certain risk.
Scheduling
The starting and stopping of building equipment based on the time of day or day of the week.
Schematic plans
Drawings to scale that show all basic design features of a space or building but no construction details or dimensions.
Schemes
In software, groups of information organized by specific parameters, such as information that describes a project's status.
Scientific management approach
A management technique that finds the best way to do each task and measures the cumulative effect of these improvements on increasing productivity. Efficiency studies are aimed at maximizing speed, accuracy, and quantity.
SCIF
Secured compartmented information facilities. See also Cold Sites and Hot Sites.
Scope
The extent, in contractual terms, of the time period, cost, and space required to perform a construction project.
Screeding
The process of fine-leveling a newly poured concrete floor to produce a smooth, flat finish.
Screen
(1) A freestanding panel that does not interlock with or generally support any other furniture components. (2) Usually an exterior covering over a window, the purpose being to reduce solar gain, protect against the entry of foreign matter or insects, or to protect window glass from such elements as hail and windstorm. (3) To use special equipment to detect possible contamination in the field prior to laboratory analysis.
Scupper
An opening cut through the wall of a building through which water can drain from a floor or roof.
Seal
A flashing strip made of bituminous materials, or rubber such as Hypalon or neoprene, and applied at the juncture of two elements.
Sealant
A resilient material used to prevent infiltration of air or water through curtain wall and window joints. Also called caulking.
Sealer
A material used to protect a floor surface for a longer period of time than a floor finish.
Seamless
Pertaining to software programs. The condition of having interfaces between programs to minimize differences between them and to facilitate the exchange of data and commands.
Secondary cells
Batteries that can be recharged, such as lead-acid or nickel-cadmium.
Secondary colors
Colors made by mixing two or more primary colors.
Secondary containment
In the case of an Underground Storage Tank (UST), the erection of a physical barrier completely around the primary product-containing underground storage tank. The containment may consist of a second tank wall, a vault, or a liner.
Secondary glazing
The addition of another pane of glass or window unit to convert single glazing to double glazing in order to reduce heat transfer.
Secondary loads
Loads that can be turned-off during peak demand periods and rescheduled to operate during off-peak demand periods.
Secondary market
The sale or resale of securities or other investments in the public marketplace. Secondary sales do not include initial purchases of the securities from the issuing authority (the primary market).
Section
A method of drawing an object as if it were cut at a given point to show materials and surfaces beyond that point.
Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC)
A federal agency that administers and enforces federal securities laws.
Securitization
The process whereby financial markets convert real estate into a security that can be readily traded by investors.
Securitization of real estate
The creation of ownership interests in real estate that are evidenced by an instrument that may be publicly traded in the capital markets.
Security agreement
A loan document that grants a security interest to the lender in personal property and fixtures in order to secure repayment of debt.
Security interest
A legally recognized interest in personal property or fixtures that secures the payment or performance of an obligation.
Sedimentation pond
A manmade pond that allows contaminants in collected stormwater runoff to settle out in a controlled area before water is discharged, to reduce contamination of waterways and streams.
Sediments
The smallest soil particles.
Segregated fund
A fund with only one investor and usually established for pension funds or other large investors who do not want their assets commingled with those of other investors. Values of the portfolios are usually worth at least $50 million dollars.
Seismic load
The stresses placed on a structural system by an earthquake.
Self-directed teams
A style of management in which a group is given authority and responsibility for a high degree of self-direction. Team members are versatile, have a wide range of skills, and perform their work relying heavily on collaboration with other team members.
Self-insurance
A separate fund, properly calculated on a sound actuarial basis, set up by a business to pay for its own estimated losses.
Self-storing combination storm and screen
A combination of sash and screen panels that can be moved in their frame to provide either thermal protection or ventilation by "storing" the panels in an appropriate position.
Seller's market
A real estate market where buyers outnumber sellers.
Selling agent
Any agent, other than the listing agent, who writes the offer that is presented to the seller.
Selvage joint
In roofing, a lapped joint detail for mineral-surfaced cap sheets, in which mineral surfacing is omitted over the transverse dimension of over-lapping sheets to get better adhesion with bituminous mopping between adjacent lapped cap sheet surfaces.
Semi-direct lighting system
A system of which 60 percent to 90 percent of the light from a luminaire shines down toward the working surface.
Sensible heat
Heat that when added to or removed from a particular substance results in a change in temperature but not a change of state.
Sensitization
The development of an adverse, allergy-like response to contaminant exposure.
Sensor
A device that mechanically, electrically, or electronically detects atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity, lighting levels, or smoke.
Separate property
Property that is owned prior to the marriage or that is received after the marriage in the form of gift or inheritance.
Separation
Dividing the loss exposure into parts to decrease the severity of loss.
Separator
A collection chamber for stormwater that discharges the water after oil contaminants have separated from it.
Series circuit
A circuit in which the current passing through any one resistor is the same as the current passing through the other resistors. Current has only one parth to follow.
Series motor or universal motor
A small motor that runs on Alternating Current (AC) or Direct Current (DC).
Serious violation
An OSHA infraction associated with a hazard that could cause death or serious physical harm but for which a complete disregard for the safety and health of the individual(s) affected is not apparent.
Servant
A person employed to perform a service for the master, and whose conduct in performance of the service is controlled by the master.
Service connection
The service drop, entrance conductors, and entrance equipment.
Service delivery
The process of organizing and accomplishing facilities work that meets a customer's stated needs.
Service drop
The overhead conductors that transfer electric power from the last utility company pole to the point of connection within a building.
Service elevators
Elevators used by maintenance and repair personnel and for moving light materials.
Service entrance
The electrical components between the service drop or lateral and the building's main disconnect.
Service evaluation
The overall evaluation of facilities management services in terms of customer service (effectiveness, efficiency, and responsiveness), financial performance, benchmarking, technical performance, space utilization, and overall business performance.
Service factor
A rating of the amount of horsepower above the stated horsepower that a motor can safely deliver.
Service income
Miscellaneous income.
Service industry environmental insurance
Coverage for third-party bodily injury, property damages, or cleanup costs arising out of the insured's contracting or consulting operations and caused by pollution conditions.
Service lateral
Conductors to a building that are routed underground.
Service maintenance
Maintenance that meets manufacturer's basic recommendations and requires a minimum level of skill.
Service of process
The procedure whereby a summons and copy of a complaint are served upon a defendant in a civil action.
Service order
A request by a facilities customer for either building services or project services. See also Building Services and Project Work.
Service run
That part of the operating cycle of a water softener in which hard water supply is passed through a regenerated and rinsed bed of ion exchange material, thereby producing soft water.
Service standard
A standard for the performance of facilities services, such as response times to service calls, operating temperatures, or specifications for cleanliness or the frequency of trash removal.
Service transformers
Transformers that step down utility-supplied voltages to voltages that can be used in buildings.
Service water heating
Building hot water used for applications other than space heating.
Settlement statement
An accounting of the receipt and disbursement of funds exchanged at closing.
Severity
The measure of the total dollars, present or future, that can be lost by the occurence of an adverse event.
Shade
The color produced by adding black to a hue.
Shaded-pole motor
An Alternating Current (AC) induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor and a special stator pole for starting torque.
Shared space
Two or more employees sharing a single, assigned workspace and work tools, either simultaneously or on different shifts.
Shared tenant services
Services provided by a building to allow tenants to share the costs and benefits of sophisticated telecommunications and other technical services.
Shareholder value
The monetary value of a company's stock.
Shares of beneficial interest
The equivalent of common stock; issued by real estate investment trusts.
Shear load
Stress resulting from applied forces that cause two touching parts of the building to slide in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.
Sheridan-karkow formula
A method to determine the pricing of space on any floor of an office building according to its desirability.
Shingling
In roofing, a pattern formed by laying parallel felt rolls with lapped joints so that one longitudinal edge underlaps the other adjacent felt. See also Ply.
Shock load
A load that is suddenly applied, as when equipment cycles on and off or equipment or material is dropped.
Shop drawings
Drawings and submittals from contractors that communicate the contractor's intent to supply products, as well as how they will be fabricated and, in many cases, installed.
Short
An electrical condition that occurs when a problem in the circuit (a fault) allows the current to bypass the design load or device. The result is a low-resistance circuit with a correspondingly high current.
Short-term
A time horizon of one year or less.
Short-term cancellation penalty
Financial penalty that can be assessed against a policyholder when the policyholder cancels the policy before its normal expiration date. The penalty is usually 10 percent of the normal return premium.
Short-term disability insurance
Disability insurance to cover the loss of income suffered by a disabled employee for a short period of time, usually not more than one year.
Short-term policy
A policy written for a shorter time period than is normally the case.
Shrinkage
Income that disappears or is unaccounted for.
Shunt capacitor
Shunt capacitors are used to supply capacitive power, measured in Volts-Amp Reactive (VAR), to the system at the points where they are connected. They supply reactive power to counteract the out-of-phase component of current required by an inductive load. They are either energized continuously or switched on or off during load cycles.
Shunt motor
The most common type of Direct Current (DC) motor with the field windings and the armature connected in parallel.
Shunt-type ammeter
An amp meter that must be connected in series in the circuit so the full current flow passes through the meter.
Shutter
Usually an opaque covering for a window, on the exterior or interior, used to block the view, to exclude sunlight, or to provide physical security.
Sick pay
A voluntary uninsured payment by the employer to the employee when the employee is unable to work because of an injury or accident.
Signaling speed
The speed at which data is transmitted through a computer's ports to an output device such as a printer. See also Throughput Time.
Signature tenant
The tenant by which the market identifies the building and its desirability; also called the anchor or cornerstone tenant.
Siliceous gel
A manufactured, granular, hydrated, sodium alumino silicate often called synthetic gel zeolite used in water softeners.
Sill
The horizontal member that forms the base of a window. Also, the threshold of a door.
Sill plate
In general construction, the lowest member of the frame of the structure, resting on the foundation and supporting the building frame.
Simm chips
Memory chips used to store RAM; used commonly in computers and peripheral devices such as printers.
Single-asset corporation
A corporation that is established for the purchase of real property where the assets of the corporation are limited to the property being purchased.
Single-duct/single-zone
A type of air circulatory system in which a single air handling unit supplies a single location. This type of system is typically used in small buildings.
Single-leaf door
A single door in a frame (as opposed to a double-leaf, French door, which includes two doors in one door frame).
Single-line diagrams
Drawings that use standard symbols to represent each component and provide more information about an electrical circuit than a block diagram does.
Single-net lease
A lease in which the lessor is exposed to greater financial risk if operating costs increase during the lease term. The tenant pays for all items included in a double-net lease except taxes.
Single-phase current
Alternating current from a generator producing a single sine wave.
Single-phase motors
Low-capacity drive motors, those below 1 hp, running on single-phase power, often referred to as fractional horsepower motors.
Single-service providers
Local, national, or international service providers that typically offer a limited range of facilities services, such as housekeeping, architectural and design services, or project management, although they may also provide related services.
Sir
Savings-to-investment-ratio. A comparison of an item or proposal's projected cost savings to the initial investment in it.
Site assessment
A limited, multiphase environmental investigation focusing on identifying whether a subject property is contaminated from past and current uses.
Situational analysis
Capturing information about each external element that can have a significant influence, negative or positive, on the facilities department in the coming year.
Sketch system
A Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system that produces unstructured line drawings or simple collections of objects from which information cannot be extracted; no intelligence or meaning is attached to objects. Data is stored as the pattern of lines and dots that constitute the images. See also Drafting Systems.
Skin designations
From the Occupational Saftey and Health Standards Z-tables, a substance that can be absorbed through the skin.
Skip cleaning
Vacuuming carpeting in low-traffic areas on a schedule less frequent than daily.
Slab-to-slab
Extending from the finished surface of one (concrete) floor to the underside of the floor on the next floor above; used in reference to partitions that penetrate a ceiling grid rather than stop at the height of a suspended ceiling.
Slag
(1) Fouling or lining on interior surfaces of vessels in contact with the hot gases from combustion. (2) Grayish, porous cinder material left as the residue from blast furnaces and used as a surfacing component.
Slander
(1) A spoken offense concerning another, which that party considers to be injurious to his or her reputation, good name, or character. (2) A defamatory statement that is spoken.
Slip
The difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor; is expressed as a percentage of the synchronous speed.
Slippage
In roofing, the relative lateral movement of adjacent felt plies in built-up membranes which occurs mainly in sloped roofing membranes, sometimes exposing lower plies, or even the base sheet, to weather.
Slope
The tangent of the angle between an inclined roof surface and the horizontal, measured in inches per foot (centimeters per meter). The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers' Association ranks slopes as follows:
Small Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC)
An agency of the United States federal government that insures individuals' brokerage accounts up to $500,000.
Small-quantity generator
A facility that produces more than 100 kilograms but less than 1,000 kilograms of waste per month.
Smooth-surfaced roof
A roof covered with a surface layer of hot-mopped asphalt or cold-applied asphalt-clay emulsion or asphalt cutback, or sometimes with unmopped, inorganic felt.
Soft costs and benefits
Costs and benefits related to the management of construction, leasing, and maintenance and upkeep, such as overhead, fees, and management time.
Soft data
Data stored electronically on hard disks, floppy disks, tape, or other electronic media.
Soft insurance market
An insurance market characterized by ease of obtaining coverage and by low premiums.
Soft market
A market in which demand for properties and leased space is weak.
Soft water
Water containing less than 1 gpg of dissolved calcium and magnesium salts as calcium carbonate equivalent.
Softening point
In roofing, the index of bitumen fluidity. An asphalt softening point is measured by the "ring-and-ball" test (ASTM D2398). The coal-tar pitch softening point is measured by the "cube-in-water" test (ASTM D61).
Software applications
Computer programs written for specific types of work, such as word processing, spreadsheets, and graphic design. Also called software programs.
Softwood Wood
from conifers (trees that have needles rather than leaves and that bear their seeds in cones). Not necessarily an indication of the relative softness of that particular wood.
Soil
A mixture of mineral particles combined with living and dead organic matter, air, and moisture.
Soil boring
The physical means of drilling through the earth to collect samples or to erec
14 Dec 2009
16:09:28
Braun
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 6

Soil boring
The physical means of drilling through the earth to collect samples or to erect monitoring equipment.
Soil gases
Gases (e.g., radon, volatile organic compounds, pesticides) that enter a building from the surrounding ground.
Soil strength
The quality of soil, based on the ability of the soil composition to support a foundation.
Soils report
A useful resource material that indicates composition of soils, shape of the land, and topography.
Solar chimney
A design technique using the radiant energy from sunlight radiated through a skylight to heat air and induce it to rise.
Solar collector
A device designed to capture solar energy by heating water, air, or another heat-transfer fluid.
Sole proprietorship
A form of ownership in which an individual is solely responsible for the success or failure of a business.
Sole source
In procurement, only one source is approached. Corporate officers (COs) consider this method a last resort, because the customer usually gives up all negotiating advantage.
Sole-source procurement
A procurement awarded to a single vendor without competition.
Solid mopping
In roofing, continuous mopping surface with no unmopped areas.
Solid waste
Any discarded (e.g., abandoned, disposed of, recycled) material. Includes hazardous as well as nonhazardous waste.
Solid wire
A conductor made of a single strand of wire.
Solvent
The volatile substance in paint that dissolves or disperses the binder, then evaporates after the paint is applied.
Solvent-type paint
A paint in which the binder is dissolved in solvent.
Sound masking
The use of solid-state sound generators to produce a continuous, broadband, random-sound signal that masks other sounds, especially in the treble frequency range, making some human speech unintelligible.
Source selection
In this type of contracting, a vendor is selected by competitive negotiation. The drawback to this method is limited ultimate control of price.
Space allocation
The practice of assigning space to company departments on the basis of either functional need or rank. See also Space Standard.
Space delivery
The process of outfitting a defined block of space to be occupied primarily by a particular tenant or occupant. That is, identifying needs, planning a strategy, acquiring space, designing and building space, and move-in and occupancy.
Space demand reset
A control that uses the temperature of the conditioned space to adjust the temperature of the air being supplied to heat or cool that space.
Space management
In Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) systems, a database application that imports square footage numbers from the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system (e.g., departmental space assignments), houses them in a database, and produces alphanumeric reports, such as departmental space allocations and analyses of space utilization efficiency.
Space planning
A process that captures supply and demand data, prepares space allocation plans, and implements the plans.
Space programming
The process of defining the functional needs of building occupants and translating them into physical requirements for space, furnishings, and equipment.
Space standard
A company policy that defines the amount of space, degree of enclosure, type and specific pieces of furniture, finishes, electrical support, lighting, and acoustical control normally provided to a particular type of worker or job. Also referred to as a space guideline.
Space/furniture plan
A plan that shows where walls and furniture will go. Locations and sizes of all workspaces, as well as furniture standards, should be agreed on before this plan is approved.
Spalling
A defect that occurs when pieces of masonry or brick split or flake off a wall surface.
Span of control
The extent of functions overseen by an individual manager; the number of people supervised directly by a manager.
Spandrel
Usually the ornamented surface covering of space between the upper and lower floors of multistory structures and right and left exterior curve of an arch and an enclosing right angle.
Spare
An unused port in a telecommunications system.
Spatial designation
In software, similar to an attribute but instead refers to a specific geographical or spatial location, such as room boundaries, equipment locations, and HVAC ductwork.
SPCC
Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure. A plan required of facilities that store oil, which could reasonably be expected to be discharged in harmful quantities to navigable waterways.
Special agent
An agent who is engaged by a principal for a particular purpose under limited and circumscribed powers.
Special agent
One who is engaged by a principal for a particular purpose under limited and circumscribed powers.
Special damages
Damages awarded for losses that can be specifically itemized and measured, such as medical bills, lost wages, property repair costs, etc.
Special form
Property form in which all causes of loss are covered unless specifically excluded or limited in the policy.
Special space
Space built to standards that exceed those for office-type space; used for facilities such as laboratories, exercise rooms, and cafeterias.
Special warranty deed
A deed that limits the scope of covenants of title to title defects caused or created by the grantor personally.
Specialty company
Insurer that specializes in one basic area of insurance.
Specialty investment
Applies to niche-markets, which may include: mobile-home parks, mini-warehouses, triple-net leases with restaurants, etc.
Special-use property
A property that has only one highest and best use because of some special design, i.e., an airport or hospital.
Specific heat
The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body one degree to that required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of water one degree.
Specific insurance
Property insurance with a specified limit of coverage for property at each location covered by the policy.
Specific performance
The court's order to specifically do something.
Specific rate
Insurance rate that applies to a single, particular risk.
Specific stop-loss insurance
Insurance typically purchased by self-insured companies to cover the loss amount that exceeds the predetermined maximum individual claim amount.
Specified peril form
Property form in which the causes of loss are enumerated in the coverage form and all other causes of loss are not covered.
Spectrum XRF Analyzer
An instrument that provides the operator with a complete radiation spectrum, which improves the accuracy of the measurement of lead.
Specular reflection
Reflection without diffusion, in accordance with the laws of optical reflection.
Speculative development
The construction of a building without commitment from a user, but with the belief that demand exists for the space and that the space will be rented within a reasonable time after the building is completed.
Speculative risk
A risk that may or may not be repeatable under similar circumstances and that has positive and negative attributes and a chance of either loss or gain.
Speech privacy
Rendering human speech unintelligible by making high-frequency consonant sounds with background/ambient noise. See also White Noise.
Spill and overfill protection
Prevents the product being pumped into a storage tank from being released to the environment at the conclusion of filling operations.
Split
A membrane tear resulting from tensile stress.
Split samples
Duplicate, homogeneous portions (aliquots) of the same sample, which can be analyzed separately to compare results for quality control/quality assurance.
Split-phase motor
A single-phase motor equipped with two stator windings — the main field winding and an auxiliary or starting winding.
Sporicide
A disinfectant that kills spores. Spores are reproductive cells encased in shells which make them hard to destroy.
Spot mopping
In roofing, a mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in roughly circular areas, generally about 18 in. (45.7 cm) in diameter, with a grid of unmopped, perpendicular bands.
Spot relamping
Replacing individual lamps when they burn out.
Spray buffing
A floor-care technique using a mixture of water and floor finish lightly sprayed on the floor and buffed with a special pad.
Spray cleaning
The application of disinfectant with a pressurized sprayer to all fixture, partition, wall, and floor areas in a rest room.
Spread
The difference between the interest paid to borrow money and the rate of interest received when the money is reloaned, or the difference between a security bid and asked price.
Spreadsheet software
A software application based on the manipulation and calculation of data contained in discrete cells of a grid; used extensively to process financial and numeric data.
Spread-spectrum radio system
The only truly wireless signal-transmission system developed thus far; transmits signals between 902 MHz and 928 MHz using network adapter cards housing multiple antennas, installed at each Personal Computer (PC).
Sprinkle mopping
In roofing, a random pattern of dropping heated bitumen beads onto the substrate from a broom or mop.
Square
A roof area of 100 ft2 (9.29 m2).
Squeegee
A rubber-bladed tool with a handle, used for moving water on a floor by wiping action.
Squirrel-cage motor
An induction motor in which the conductors cast in the motor rotor resemble a running wheel for squirrels.
Stack
A boiler's exhaust pipe.
Stack effect
An air infiltration pattern in a building where air enters lower floors, rises within the building, and exits from upper floors, due to the natural rising of warmer air.
Stacking charts or plans
Charts showing multiple floors of the same building, the departments occupying space, and the spaces they occupy.
Staff function
A group or employee that serves a particular manager but does not have any direct authority over any groups or employees that the manager supervises. See also Line Authority.
Staging area
Space for uncrating, assembling, and temporarily storing tools, supplies, and equipment during a project.
Stain
A thin paint that gives color to wood without hiding the wood's surface.
Stand-alone
A computer not linked electronically or physically to any others.
Standard company
Insurer that issues policies for risks that have average or above-average loss exposures.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)
A statistical unit of a population area designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget. An SMSA must contain one city with a population of at least 50,000 and any contiguous area that is economically or socially associated with the city.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
Manual A document that establishes policies and procedures for a management company to use in operating a building.
Standby commitment
An agreement by a lender to make a loan in the future with the understanding that the loan will be made only if other committed financing becomes unavailable.
Standby power
Emergency electrical service dedicated to sustaining business operations as opposed to building operations. See also Emergency Power, Continuous Power, and Uninterruptible Power Supply.
Stare decisis
Legal principle stating that courts should follow the legal precedents set forth in their prior rulings and in the rulings of higher courts.
State set-rate filing method
The rate method that basically sets out what rates the state has determined the insurance companies operating in those states shall use.
Statement of values
A listing of the insurable property, loss of income, and extra expense values per insured location that is used to calculate a blanket insurance limit.
Static electricity
Electricity generated by friction.
Static Pressure (SP)
The static pressure of a fan is the total pressure diminished by the fan velocity pressure. It is measured in inches of water (Pa).
Station
A telephone handset, fax machine, videophone, or other communications device in a telecommunications system.
Statistical sample
A group of results or outcomes that are used to make comparisons.
Stator or stator core
The stationary windings in an alternator's main frame or the stationary windings of a motor.
Statute of frauds
Laws, in effect in most states, that require certain contracts for the sale of property to be in writing to be enforceable.
Statutes
Laws passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by the president into law, or by state legislatures and signed into law by their respective governors.
Statutes of limitations
Statutorily prescribed time periods in which a party must assert its legal rights by bringing legal action in the courts.
Statutory law
Law written by the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.
STC
Sound transmission class. A measure of how well a sound barrier prevents sound from passing through it.
Steam cleaner
A machine that consists of a steam generator, a gun or nozzle attached to the machine by a flexible hose, and a solution tank for the detergent. Used to clean heavy soils from equipment and floors.
Steam trap
A device that allows condensate (condensed water) from steam to flow into a holding tank, but which does not allow steam to flow through.
Steel beam
A steel horizontal member lighter than a girder, carrying less load, and supported at its ends by girders, walls, or columns.
Steel girder
A heavy steel horizontal member spanning columns or walls and serving as the support for beams and joists.
Stel
Short-term exposure limit. A maximum concentration of an airborne toxic material in the workplace that should not be exceeded in any fifteen-minute period.
Still images
Motionless images such as photos, slides, and flip charts.
Stock
Evidence of ownership of equitable rights in a company.
Stone aggregate
A mixture of sand, gravel, and crushed stone.
Stop-gap liability endorsement
Provides employers' liability coverage in monopolistic states. This endorsement only provides liability coverage, not workers' compensation benefits.
Storm window
A sash placed outside/inside an ordinary window as insulation and additional protection against severe weather.
Stormwater management
Collecting precipitation and routing it to areas that will not create a nuisance for an owner's or manager's facility, neighboring properties, or the environment.
Stovepiping
The practice of dividing (facilities) information into separate, incompatible systems purchased without regard for potential compatibility.
Stranded wire
Wire normally constructed of a number of thin strands woven together to form a single conductor, used when flexibility is required.
Strategic facilities planning
The process of developing strategies, options, scenarios, and contingencies to enable facilities to support corporate business objectives. See also Corporate Strategic Planning.
Strategic functions
Strategy-related facilities management activities that require a long time to develop, have long-term effects, and make a major impact (primarily financial) on the company.
Strategic plan
A plan that projects programs five to ten years for most business functions. Some strategic facility management plans project three to five years.
Straw man theory
A negotiating technique whereby you take an unimportant issue and make it seem important.
Strict liability
Liability without fault.
Strict or absolute liability
Liability without fault, when circumstances or activities that have generated an injury or harm are deemed so inherently dangerous that negligence does not have to be proved for there to be a judgment against the defendant. The plaintiff need only show that the defendant was involved in an inherently dangerous activity and the plaintiff was injured as a result of it.
Strip flooring
The most popular wood floor. Usually used in strips 25/32 in. (2.0 cm) thick and 2 1/4 in. (5.7 cm) wide. Most strip flooring is tongued, grooved, and end-matched for snugness. Square-edge strips are also available.
Strip mopping
In roofing, a mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in parallel bands, generally 8 in. (20.3 cm) wide with 4 in. (10.2 cm) unmopped spaces.
Stripping
(1) The technique of sealing a roofing joint between metal and a built-up membrane with one or two plies of felt or fabric and hot-or-cold-applied bitumen; (2) the technique of taping joints between insulation boards.
Strong room
A highly secure, temporary restraining area.
Structural steel types
Standard I beam: A beam shaped like an "I" and designated by nominal depth measured across both flanges and weight per foot (meter). Wide-flange (WF or H) shape: A beam shaped like an "H" with wider flanges than an I beam. A wide-flange section is almost square in cross section and is excellent for building columns. The flange has a slight taper. Channel: A flattened U-shaped section designated by depth and weight per foot (meter) used in building for such miscellaneous metal as stringers for steel stairways. Hollow structural shape: A section used for carrying both loads and utilities. Common shapes include square and round. Structural T (WT or ST): A section produced by shearing or flame-cutting one flange from standard beams or wide flange sections; may be hot-rolled. Angle: An L-shaped section designated by the length of both legs and the thickness of metal in the legs. Angles are used for miscellaneous metal in buildings such as lintels. Plate: A flat steel product that measures 3/16 in. (0.5 cm) or more
Structurally unusual space
Space with structural characteristics such as beam size and span, floor loading, and floor-to-floor height not typically found in office buildings.
Stucco
A type of plaster made with portland cement that is applied to exterior surfaces to form a finish coating.
Stud
Lumber used in wall construction as upright framing to which paneling, laths, or sheathing are fastened. Window openings may be structured by omitting or shortening studs.
Subchapter s corporation
A form of corporation that is administered for tax purposes in such a way that income is not subject to double taxation.
Subcontractor
(1) Refers to a specialist trade company usually under contract with a contractor. (2) Someone who does work for the insured, but who is not an employee of the insured and who has his or her own business and is not directly controlled by the insured.
Subfloor
An unfinished supporting floor, architecturally designed to carry a load. Wood and concrete are the principal materials used.
Subgrade
Existing soil or fill material that has been leveled and compacted.
Subject matter jurisdiction
The ability of a particular court to hear a case because it falls within the class of cases over which the court has authority.
Subject to
An offer to purchase that is "subject to" means that the offer is contingent upon certain stated conditions or contingencies being satisfied or removed. Typically, the earnest money as well as the requirement to close is unenforceable until the conditions and contingencies have been satisfied.
Sublease
A transfer by the tenant of its leasehold interest either for a shorter period than the entire remainder of the lease term or of less than the entire leased premises.
Sublease space
Space that is currently leased but not being utilized by the prime lessee. Normally put on the market at rates lower than the overall market value. The term of the sublease will run concurrently with that of the prime lease.
Subleasing
Leasing of space by a tenant to a subtenant, usually in accordance with most or all terms of the base lease. In most subleases, the tenant is still legally responsible for conformance to the lease contract.
Subleasing rights
Gives the tenant the right to sublease all or part of its space to someone else.
Submittal
A written recommendation to an ownership entity requesting specific approval for a major property event.
Subordination
A contractual arrangement in which a party with a claim to certain assets agrees to make his or her claim junior, or subordinate, to the claims of another party.
Subpanel
From the main circuit breakers, power is distributed to one or more subpanels. Each subpanel also has a number of breakers or fuses, which control the flow of current to the various branch circuits.
Subrogation
The right of an insurance company to take over the rights or "stand in the shoes" of an insured and then recover its loss from the party responsible for the loss.
Substation
A place where power is taken from the high voltage transmission line and reduced to lower voltages. House step-down transformers and switches are required for local distribution.
Substitution
The appraisal principle that states that when several similar or commensurate commodities, goods, or services are available, the one with the lowest price will attract the greatest demand and widest distribution.
Substrate
(1) A surface on which paint or varnish has been or may be applied. Examples include wood, concrete, plaster, metal, and drywall. (2) The surface upon which roofing membrane is placed. (3) A structural deck or insulation.
Substrate-effect lead
The returning of backscattered radiation from the paint, substrate, or underlying material to an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer. This radiation, when counted as lead X-rays by an XRF, contributes to substrate-effect lead or bias.
Subsurface sewage disposal system
An on-site sewage treatment system.
Suites
Collections of interrelated software applications in compatible formats, such as a word processor, spreadsheet, and graphics between which data can be exchanged relatively easily.
Sunk costs
Funds already invested in a project that cannot be recovered even if the project components are salvaged.
Super lien
A lien that is granted to the government. It has priority over all other liens that may be present on a property and provides that the government can be reimbursed for the cost of cleanup of environmental violations on a property.
Superfund
See Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).
Superfund, or cercla
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, a federal statute that imposes liability on a wide variety of potentially responsible parties for cleaning up hazardous substances released or posing a threat of release into the environment.
Superliens
Liens that are authorized by law to encumber contaminated properties (or other properties of the owner) in order to provide compensation for clean-up costs.
Super-saturation
A condition that occurs when the concentration of a mineral in water exceeds the amount of mineral that the water can hold in solution.
Supervening illegality
Contract performance is excused if performance becomes illegal after the parties have entered into a contract.
Supply
The quantities of a good that can be produced under constraints of capacity and price.
Support area
Includes computer centers, mail rooms, reprographics and copy center, library space, training rooms, communication centers, auditoriums, conference rooms, security areas and shipping and receiving area.
Support space
Space allocated to administrative support functions such as meetings, libraries, research, storage, and reception — space not assigned to one worker.
Supporting lines of insurance
The lines of insurance that might make it agreeable for the underwriter to write more marginal areas of insurance.
Surface
The skin or face of an object or building.
Surface water
Water that travels along the earth's surface prior to permeating or being collected by various physical means.
Surface-mounted wraparound fixtures
Lamp fixtures enclosed by plastic lenses on the bottom and the two long sides.
Surge protection
A mechanical means of protecting computer equipment from sudden, large fluctuations in voltage or current that might cause damage.
Survey
A map or drawing of property that shows the property's boundaries, measurements, contours, and area.
Suspended ceiling
Ceiling panels placed within a metal grid suspended below the overhead structural slab or from the structural elements of a building and not bearing on the walls.
Sweeping compounds
Mixtures of oily or waxy materials that attract and hold particles of dust and soil, with granular materials such as sawdust and sand to provide a carrier and surface for the oil or wax.
Sweetener
An additional monetary incentive to a lender to make the funding of a loan more attractive.
Swing space
Space in which occupants of space under construction can temporarily reside.
Switch
An informal name for a telecommunications system, especially the computer that links local outgoing calls with an outside circuit.
Switched access
The use of local trunks provided by a local exchange carrier to complete long-distance telephone calls. See also Dedicated Access.
Synchronous condenser
A synchronous motor operated without any load; used to correct power factor only.
Synchronous motor
An Alternating Current (AC) motor designed to operate with no slip or at synchronous speeds.
Synchronous speed
The speed at which the magnetic field of a motor revolves; measured in rpm.
Synchroscope
An instrument designed to measure both the frequency and the relative phase angle of two different alternating voltages.
Syndicate
Group of insurers or reinsurers involved in joint underwriting to cover major risks that are beyond the capacity of a single insurer.
Syndication
An ownership form in which an individual, called a syndicator, identifies or creates an investment opportunity and attracts investors to provide equity for the project.
System 7
An operating system used by Macintosh computers.
System administrator
Usually a full-time, in-house staffer who can take care of all customization and interfaces not done by system vendors; this person sets up most of the protocols, designs system reports, ensures that backups are made, and makes certain that the system operates smoothly.
System circuit packs
Circuit boards that contain the logic, memory, and switching circuitry for a telecommunications system.
Systems
A concept of design in which components combine and connect, according to certain rules, with a specific degree and type of compatibility. Can also refer to computer or other technological systems (e.g., systems furniture).
Systems furniture
Modular, component furniture that has interlocking panels that form stable, self-supporting structures. Components are hung from the panels, and raceways can be provided for electrical and signal cabling. See also Modular Furniture.
Systems maintenance administrator (sma)
The title designating building engineers and others dealing directly with the mechanical systems and miscellaneous operations of a project.
Systems operator
A person designated to maintain computer hardware and software in operating condition, perform system maintenance functions such as tape backups, and assist users in system operation.





T-1.5 Service
Telecommunications service on a bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps.
Tactical function
A facilities function or action taken in response to a strategy or decision. In the context of the corporate mission, tactical facilities functions carry out these decisions. A tactical process is a series of progressive, interdependent steps that achieve a goal when completed. A tactical procedure usually implies a set method for accomplishing something.
Take-off
A process of preparing a preliminary bid or cost analysis by a tenant finish contractor from a preliminary set of drawings.
Tangible property
Property that has a physical existence and is capable of being touched.
Tank tightness testing
A nondestructive method of determining the integrity of an existing storage tank system.
Target market
The segment of purchasers from which the seller will realize the greatest number of prospective buyers. Also includes specific tenants a building desires to attract in order to create an ideal mix of tenant types.
Task lighting
Lighting designed to illuminate a specific work area (e.g., a work surface) for one worker. See also Ambient Lighting.
Task switching
Keeping one application at a time active in memory, but switching back and forth from one or more dormant applications while the one application is running. See also Multitasking.
Taut-band meter
A type of meter movement in which the coil is suspended in a frame by thin metal ribbons, which are kept taut. A tension spring maintains an even pressure on these ribbons.
Tax credits
Credits for certain eligible expenses that directly reduce tax liability. See also Deductions.
Tax liability
The actual tax a person or company is required to pay a government.
Tax shelter
A creation under governmental regulation which allows an investor to delay or avoid payment of taxes upon income.
Tax-deferred exchange
A transaction in which property is exchanged and the resulting gain is not taxed. Property acquired is considered to be substantially a continuation of the taxpayer's investment in the first property. Tax on the gain is deferred until a future taxable disposition (transfer of ownership) takes place.
TCLP
Toxic characteristic leaching procedure. One test to determine whether a solid waste is classified as a hazardous material.
Team cleaning
The performance of similar tasks by specialized cleaning personnel working as part of a group.
Technical support
The provision of expert guidance, diagnosis, and advice regarding computer hardware and software problems.
Telecommuting
Communicating with a physical workplace via computer and phone lines instead of actually traveling there. See also Hotelling.
Teleconferencing
Conferences of participants held at several sites, all linked by telephone. See also Videoconferencing.
TEM
Transmission electron microscopy. A method of microscopic analysis used for airborne (filter) or bulk samples to definitively identify and quantify asbestos presence and concentration.
Temperature
A measurement expressing the intensity of heat possessed by an object.
Temporary closure
The temporary decommissioning of an underground storage tank system from use.
Tenancy
Real estate multiple ownership forms that typically occur among related parties.
Tenancy by entirety
A special joint tenancy between a lawfully married husband and wife, which places all title to property (real or personal) into the marital unit, with both spouses having an equal, undivided interest in the whole property.
Tenancy in common
A form of concurrent ownership of property between two or more persons, in which each has an undivided interest in the whole property.
Tenant
An organization that commits contractually to occupy leased space, according to the terms of a lease contract. This term is sometimes used informally to describe an organization occupying corporate-owned space managed by a facilities department, but it is more accurate to refer to such groups as customers rather than tenants.
Tenant build-out
Construction and/or alteration of tenant space as defined in a lease.
Tenant build-out level
A project planning level in which basic building systems, especially utilities, are extended into tenant space and configured to meet the needs of a specific tenant.
Tenant estoppel certificate
A written certificate issued by a tenant to the mortgage lender in which the tenant represents the material terms of its lease agreement and any claims or rights of offset against the landlord under the lease.
Tenant finish coordinator
A person charged with the responsibility of coordinating all aspects of the construction of a tenant's suite with the tenant finish contractor. Also called the construction manager.
Tenant mix
A phrase used to describe types of tenant, by business category, in a property to keep duplication of goods and services to a minimum as to ensure complementary uses.
Tenant representative
The firm or individual who has an agreement to represent a tenant in real estate transactions.
Tenant/occupant improvements
Leasing, design, and Construction, either new or alterations, plus furnishings, required to make a space habitable and serviceable for its occupants. See also Tenant Build-out.
Tender
In a contract of mutual promises, the offer, or tender, of performance by one of the parties showing a readiness, a willingness, and an ability to perform under the contract satisfies that party's requirement and thereby makes the other party's obligation to perform absolute.
Tentative rate
Estimated rate that will be subsequently finalized.
Term insurance
Life insurance that is designed to provide death benefits exclusively, rather than any investment features.
Terminal box
A box that regulates airflow from the variable air volume system to the interior space based upon current space conditions.
Terminal reheat systems
A type of air handling system (commonly integrated with Constant Air-Volume (CAV) and Variable Air-Volume (VAV) systems) that maintains comfort in a building by cooling the air at the air handling unit and then reheating the air near its point of use.
Termination by operation of law
When the lease term expires and the tenant redelivers the leased premises to the landlord.
Terrazzo flooring
A type of ground concrete floor finish which results in a smooth surface with a mottled appearance. Good terrazzo is a mixture of 70 percent or more coarse aggregate and 30 percent or less portland cement.
Test fit
A hypothetical space layout of a small part of an organization (a branch or section) drawn to show how the projected space requirements might be accommodated in a given space.
Thermal bow
Deflection induced in the exterior members of aluminum windows or curtain walls when the members are heated by solar radiation but the ends of the members are confined. When straight-line expansion of the member is restricted, the member must bow to accommodate the dimensional change.
Thermal break, nonstructural
A vinyl or polyurethane insulating spacer between members of an interlocking aluminum window frame or sash, providing insulation while allowing aluminum members to carry all necessary structural stress and load. This method limits the stress to the insulating spacer. Its function is to resist heat flow in an otherwise highly conductive structure.
Thermal break, structural
A vinyl or polyurethane member serving both as structural connector and thermal insulator between the interior and exterior metal members of an aluminum window. Its function is to resist heat flow, carry the structural stress and loads of window or curtain wall assemblies, and bond the inner and outer members together.
Thermal conductance (c)
The number of Btus per hour conducted through one square foot of a material or materials for a 1°F temperature difference between the faces. Units are measured by the following formula: Btu/hr-ft2°F or, in SI, W/m2 °C.
Thermal conductivity
A material's ability to conduct heat.
Thermal conductivity (k)
The measurement of heat transmitted through a material. A low k factor indicates that the material is a good thermal insulator. Units of k are Btu-in./hr-ft2-°F or, in SI, W/m °C.
Thermal energy
Energy associated with the movement of molecules and measured as heat.
Thermal insulation
Material that is used to cover surfaces to reduce heat loss or gain by retarding heat flow through the material. Effectiveness is measured by R-value in units of hr-ft2°F/Btu or, in SI, m2°C/W. The higher the R-value, the more effective the thermal insulation. For roofs, the maximum thermal conductance (C value) is 0.5 Btu per hr-sq-ft°F (2.8 W per m2 per°C).
Thermal overload relays
Devices that open an overloaded circuit using the principle that different metals expand or contract at different rates as their temperatures change. These rates are known as the coefficient of expansion.
Thermal overloads
Protection devices found in magnetic motor starters; also known as heaters.
Thermal resistance (R)
The reciprocal of thermal conductance. Units are measured in hr-ft2-°F/Btu or, in SI, m2°C/W. Sometimes called R-value.
Thermal resistivity
The reciprocal of thermal conductivity. Units are hr-ft2°F/Btu-in. or, in SI, m°C/W.
Thermal shock
In roofing, a stress-produced phenomenon resulting from sudden temperature changes in the roof membrane, when, for example, a cold rain shower follows brilliant sunshine.
Thermal stress
Structural stress placed on a material or structures as the result of relative expansion or contraction caused by temperature differentials.
Thermal system insulation
Asbestos-containing material applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts, or other interior structural components to prevent heat loss or gain or water condensation.
Thermocouple
A device that can convert heat into an Electromotive Force (emf), which can then be used to generate a current flow; constructed of two dissimilar metals joined together at each end.
Thermosiphon losses
Heat losses induced by the differences in densities of cooler fluids in the system or surrounding atmosphere.
Third-Party Administration Firm (TPA)
An outside firm hired by the insured to administer the payment of claims for the insured.
Third-party beneficiary
One who may receive the benefits of a contract but who is not a party to the contract.
Third-party claim
Damage or injury that others (a third party) claim you have caused to them or their property. The third party makes a claim against your policy.
Third-party complaint
A claim brought by a defendant against a person not presently a party to the suit alleging that the third person may be liable for some or all of the damages that the plaintiff may win from the defendant.
Third-party market
A substantial base of vendors that develop accessories, such as font packages or memory boards, for widely used primary products, such as popular brands of Personal Computers (PCs) and printers.
Third-party pollution coverage
Covers pollution-related damage or loss which has injured or damaged other people (third parties) or their property.
Three-dimensional capability
Storing mathematical coordinates in three dimensions; the ability to link data in one file with data in another file and to combine the data in one output report or display. See also Relational.
Three-phase current
A type of current involving three separate windings, each generating its own single-phase waveform for each 360 electrical degrees. Each of the three sine waves is separated by 120 electrical degrees.
Threshold planning quantity
The exposure level determined by the EPA at which a chemical is known to be harmful to health, safety, or the environment in an uncontrolled release.
Throttling range
A range of acceptable interior air temperatures that includes the deadband and the temperature ranges on either side of a predetermined temperature setting. It causes the air handling system to vary its operation from providing minimum heating or cooling to providing maximum heating or cooling.
Throughput time
The elapsed time required to process all aspects or steps of a related series of tasks, such as logging, printing, and dispatching a work order or writing, generating, and issuing a purchase order. See also Signaling Speed.
Tightness testing
A nondestructive method of determining the integrity of an existing storage tank system.
Tilt-up panel
A concrete wall section cast in a position that enables erection or rotation above the base. Used mainly in one-story industrial and commercial buildings.
Time standards
Estimates of the time required to perform each cleaning task.
Time value of money
The concept requiring that a rate of return be assigned to capital invested over a period of time.
Time-delay fuses
Fuses that allow for a temporary current overload during motor starting.
TINT
The color produced by adding white to a hue.
TIP Speed
Also referred to as the peripheral velocity of wheel. It is determined by multiplying the circumference of the wheel by the revolutions per minute.
Title
Legal ownership of property.
Title commitment
(1) A written agreement by a title insurance company to issue a title insurance policy. (2) The title company's promise to provide title insurance to the buyer of a property as well as to the lender making the loan in order to facilitate the purchase. A title commitment ensures to the buyer that clear and marketable title can be delivered by the seller at closing.
Title report
A document showing current liens against the property and any encumbrances or easements.
TLVs
Threshold limit values. Exposure values assigned by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to be used as guidelines for controlling health hazards.
To make whole
To restore a nonbreaching party to a contract who has suffered damages resulting from the contract breach.
Token-ring
A method of data transmission in which a wiring hub at the center of a Local Area Network (LAN) puts all nodes in series electrically. The electrical impulses literally go from node to node instead of being broadcast into the cabling.
Toll fraud
Illegal use of telecommunications services; theft of such services.
Ton of refrigeration
A means of expressing cooling capacity. One ton equals 12,000 Btu/hour of cooling.
Tone
The color produced by adding gray to a hue.
Top loan
A portion of a loan that will only be advanced when a prespecified income or cash flow objective is met.
Topology
Basic wiring configurations for Local Area Networks (LANs), usually of two types — bus topology (components are linked to an electronic spine) and star topology (components are linked to a central wiring hub).
Torque
(T) A rotating or twisting force at a given radius in foot-pounds (ft-lb).
Torrens system
An alternative system of recording title to real property, available in some states, under which the state issues a certificate of title to real estate that represents conclusive proof as to who owns title.
Tort
A civil or private wrong for which the law allows a remedy for damages.
Tort liability
Civil wrongs not arising from contracts.
Total architectural construction cost
On a project cost estimate, the total of a general contractor's work, subcontractors' work, and the overhead, profit, and material handling cost.
Total Pressure (TP)
The total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure within a duct system. Total pressure represents the rise of pressure from fan inlet to fan outlet.
Towing And Labor (T&L) insurance
Towing and labor (T&L) coverage pays the cost of towing the covered automobile or providing service at the place of disablement.
Toxic
Any atmospheric concentration of any substance for which OSHA has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) that could result in an employee being exposed to more than the established dose or PEL of that substance.
Toxins
Substances that elicit a poisonous response, for example, the microbes that cause botulism.
TQM
Total Quality Management. Meeting or exceeding customer expectations, not simply providing more or the best of everything; includes three components: input, process, and output.
Tracer gases
Compounds used to identify suspected pollutant pathways and to quantify ventilation rates. May be detected both by their odor and by air monitoring equipment.
Tracking
Referring to data, the process of maintaining and editing data, especially for transactions such as work orders.
Traction elevators
Elevators that depend on cables driven by electric motors to pull the elevator car up the shaft.
Trade fixtures
Personal property affixed to real property by a tenant specifically for use in the tenant's particular trade or business.
Trade secret
Something of economic value to an employer because it is generally not known to other persons and cannot otherwise be ascertained by proper means.
Trade-off
Consideration of both the advantages and drawbacks of several options.
Traditional workplace
Workspaces consisting of freestanding furniture and a predominance of full-height partitions.
Transactional leaders
Leaders who can develop a consensus among people with diverse needs.
Transactions
In software, groups of activities, such as receipt or allocation of inventory items, work requests, and performance logs, that change attributes in a database.
Transdisciplinary profession
In facilities management, a profession that cuts across and draws on the theories and principles of engineering, architecture, design, accounting, finance, management, and behavioral sciences.
Transducers
Devices that convert a signal from one form to another (e.g., acting as an interface between electric and pneumatic signals).
Transferability
A characteristic of real estate requiring some orderly method by which it can be transferred.
Transformer
A device that transfers electric energy from one Alternating Current (AC) circuit to a second AC circuit, with no direct electrical connection. Transformers use electromagnetic energy to either increase (step up) or decrease (step down) the input voltage that is supplied as an output value appropriate for the load.
Transforming leaders
Leaders who can contribute to change.
Transient voltages
A high-amplitude, short-duration pulse superimposed on the normal voltage.
Transmission medium
The path that carries data from one device to another (e.g., a cable connecting two computers on a network).
Transparent
Pertaining to software, linking different programs so smoothly and effortlessly that the procedures for doing so are unnoticed by program users.
Transportation environmental insurance
Coverage for pollution releases that occur during transit or when loading or unloading a vehicle.
Treaty reinsurance
A reinsurance agreement set up in advance of loss that sets out in a contract which amounts and types of losses will be contractually accepted by the reinsurance company.
Trespass
The entry of someone or something onto the property of another without the possessor's permission.
Trespass to chattels
Intentional interference with another's chattels.
Trespass to land
An intentional act that causes physical invasion of another's real property without privilege to do so.
Trespasser
A person who without consent or privilege enters a property.
Triple-net lease
A lease in which the tenant pays for property taxes, insurance, repairs (sometimes even major ones), site maintenance, building upgrades, (possibly even to meet local codes) routine maintenance, and all operating expenses; usually done only for unique single-tenant buildings and long-term occupancies. See also Double-Net Lease and Single-Net Lease.
Troffer
A light fixture, especially a standard recessed fluorescent fixture in a suspended ceiling.
Trophy property
A piece of real estate that is known by name throughout the nation/world. An example: Rockefeller Center in New York City.
Troubleshooting
The diagnostic process used to determine the cause of abnormal operating conditions in equipment.
True power
The power consumed in a purely resistive Alternating Current (AC) circuit measured in watts.
Trunks
Telephone lines from a building to the local exchange carrier or long-distance carrier.
Trust
An arrangement whereby legal title to property is transferred by the grantor (or trustor) to a person called a trustee, to be held and managed by that person for the benefit of another, called a beneficiary.
Trustee's sale
A sale held by the trustee wherein the property has been acquired by the trustee after a default has occurred under the terms of the note and deed of trust.
TSCA
Toxic Substances Control Act. Directs EPA to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and use of toxic chemicals in commerce.
TSD (Treatment, Storage, and Disposal) facility
A facility that treats, stores (for more than ninety days), or disposes of solid wastes on-site as defined by Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA).
TSR
Telemarketing service representative or, in computer terminology, a terminate-and-stay-resident software program (one that resides in memory even if not used).
Tuned filter
A circuit element that can be adjusted to pass certain frequencies and block others to eliminate distortion.
Tungsten-halogen lamp
A form of incandescent lamp that combines a tungsten filament and halogen gas to produce a clean, white light with very few lost lumens during the life of the lamp.
Turnaround time
The time from the original space planning meeting to the delivery of a preliminary space plan.
Turnkey
An approach in which the developer handles all aspects of project development and execution and then turns the keys over to the customer upon completion.
Turnkey build-out
A tenant build-out for which a landlord agrees to provide all components and labor.
Twa
Time-weighted average. Varying concentrations of a contaminant averaged over the duration of the work activity.
Twisted pair
Two or more pairs of twisted copper wires; traditionally used for telephone systems and some computer networks. Available as shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP).
Two-bottle spot-cleaning kit
A kit used for carpeting maintenance that consists of one bottle of solution for removing water-soluble soils and another for removing oil-soluble soils.
Two-dimensional capability
The ability to link different data fields within the same file. See also Three-Dimensional Capability.
Two-step bidding
A variation on formal bidding used when price is the dominant but not the only award factor. The first step is to establish technical acceptability. In the second step, bids reveal the lowest-priced, technically acceptable offer.
Type s fuse
A tamper-resistant fuse using different thread sizes based on the amperage or protection required.



U.S. Longshoremen and Harborworkers endorsement (U.S.L&H)
Provides coverage for employees on navigable waters.
U.S. savings bond
An obligation of the United States federal government, sold at a discount in face amounts of $100 to $10,000.
U.S. treasury bill
A full faith and credit interest-bearing obligation of the United States government issued at a discount to mature at par value after a term of ninety days to one year.
U.S. treasury bond
A full faith and credit interest-bearing obligation of the United States government issued at approximately par value for a term of approximately eleven to thirty years.
U.S. treasury note
A full faith and credit interest-bearing obligation of the United States government issued at approximately par value for terms of approximately one to ten years.
U.S. treasury strips
Zero-coupon bonds issued by the Treasury.
UCD
Uniform call distributors. Telephone systems that distribute incoming calls according to a preprogrammed pattern.
UFL oR UEL
Upper flammable limit or upper explosive limit. With a chemical liquid, the highest concentration or percentage of vapor in the air that will produce a flash of fire when ignited.
Umbrella liability insurance
A catastrophe liability policy to provide excess liability coverage over that of underlying liability policies and also to provide liability coverage in some situations excluded by underlying liability policies.
Umbrella self-insured retention
A deductible that the insured must pay before the umbrella liability policy starts to pay. However, note that this deductible or self-insured retention only applies when there is no applicable underlying insurance coverage provided by the underlying automobile, general liability, or employer liability insurance coverage.
Unbounded media
Air through which data is transmitted via electromagnetic waves. See also Bounded Media.
Unbundling
An insurance company's way of offering a menu of claims-handling services to clients. The clients can pick and choose from the menu of services without being required to buy insurance.
Uncertainty
When a possible occurrence is so unpredictable that its outcome is pure chance.
Under contract
This means that all terms and conditions regarding the sale of the property are mutually agreed upon by the buyer and seller, and the contract (reflecting the same terms and conditions) has been executed between the parties.
Undercoat
The layer or layers of paint that cover the surface, build up film thickness, and furnish an even surface for the final coat.
Underfloor
Anything placed below the finished floor surface of a space. In reference to access flooring, usually cabling, electricity, and air distribution; in reference to conventional poured concrete floors, usually ducts (small shaftways) built into the floor that carry electrical and telephone cabling.
Underground Storage Tank (UST) insurance
Insurance that meets federal and state financial responsibility requirements for owners and operators of underground storage tanks containing petroleum products. Covers pollution releases from scheduled tanks.
Underlying insurance
Required valid and adequate liability insurance coverage provided by the policies underlying the umbrella policy.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
An organization that disseminates test data on a wide scope of equipment it has tested to determine whether the equipment meets the UL's high safety standards.
Underwriting
The process of determining the risks to be accepted or declined, the terms and conditions of the coverage to be offered, and the cost of insurance.
Undue influence
Another means of overcoming a party's free will.
Unearned premiums
That portion of the insurance premium that has not been used up or earned and which is due to the policyholder upon policy cancellation.
Unencumbered
Free of all liens, debts, and claims.
Unenforceable contract
A contract that may have been enforceable at some point in time but, because of some intervening occurrence, no longer has legal effect or force.
Unfunded reserve
Basically a paper entry or accounting liability entry on the books of the company from which losses would be credited or debited.
Uniform lighting
A system in which the entire area is lit at about the same level, using any method from direct to indirect.
Uniform Partnership Act (UPA)
A model partnership statute that has been adopted, with relatively few changes, by all states except Louisiana.
Unilateral contract
A contract in which a promise is exchanged for an act or forbearance.
Uninsured motorist coverage
An endorsement to a personal automobile policy that covers bodily injury or property damage caused by a third party who either has no insurance, has inadequate insurance, or is a hit-and-run driver.
Uninterrupted Power Source (UPS)
A generator and/or battery system that, in the event of a power failure, provides power to life-safety systems (e.g., fire alarms, emergency exit lighting, and elevators). Also called Emergency Power System.
Unit cost
A method of assigning a cost to each unit of a commodity; usually used with large quantities, such as gallons of paint, numbers of outlets, or square feet of partitions.
Unit pricing
A schedule of prices for tenant finish of individual units of construction, e.g., light fixtures, doors, cost per lineal foot of drywall, etc.
Unitary cooling system
A cooling system comprised of multiple, self-contained cooling plants (including through-the-wall and ceiling-mounted air conditioners) located throughout a building.
United states constitution
The document that creates the basic organization of our government and sets forth certain fundamental rights, rules, and principles by which all U.S. citizens are governed.
Universal agent
(1) An agent who is vested with authority to do all that a principal may personally do, and can transact all of the business of his or her principal of every kind. (2) An agent vested with the authority to transact all of the business of his or her principal.
Universal precautions
An approach to infection control that treats all human blood and certain human body fluids as if they were known to be infected with HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens.
Universal slot
A telecommunications system carrier slot for the port circuit packs designed to accept any type of port circuit pack.
UNIX
A 32-bit operating system developed by AT&T Bell Labs; primarily for workstation minicomputers that use engineering, scientific, and graphic applications.
Unlicensed or nonadmitted insurance companies
Insurance companies that do business in those states in which they are not admitted or licensed through excess and surplus lines brokers.
Unprogrammed costs
Costs not anticipated or included in a budget but incurred, such as for an emergency repair.
Unpublished reserve
The minimum auction bid amount that the seller will accept that is not disclosed to buyers.
Unqualified opinion
Usually referred to as a "clean audit letter." All companies strive for this evaluation.
Unscheduled maintenance
Maintenance required to repair a failure or impending failure.
Upflow
A term applied to designate the direction (up) in which water flows through the ion exchange bed during any phase of the operating cycle.
Upgrades
New, improved versions of previously written software programs; also, enhancements to hardware components, such as a math coprocessor added to an existing computer chip to speed up numeric processing.
Upper memory
The portion of a PC's memory between 640 and 1,024 kilobytes. See also Conventional Memory and Extended Memory.
UPS
Uninterruptible power supply. A system of batteries that supply continuous current to computer and other mission-critical components during a power outage and ensure brief periods of a few minutes to shut down these components without data loss.
Usable area
That area of a space that may actually be occupied by a user. [Equation: Usable area = Rentable area - Common area]
Use
The approved business use as defined by local codes or as identified in the lease agreement.
Use value
The value a specific property has for a specific use.
User
The generic definition of the occupant of a space. This may be a tenant, a company or a department. A given space may have more than one user for each tier of definition.
User-friendly
The characteristic of being easy to understand in layperson's terms, especially by those unfamiliar with computer terminology and procedures. See also Intuitive.
Usury
Charging interest at a rate greater than that permitted by law.
Utilities
In computer terminology, a group of software programs used for file management, disk maintenance, file transfer, and other general computer-support functions. In building terminology, the services and systems that supply HVAC, electrical, plumbing, and related energy and resources.
Utility
A characteristic of real estate investment indicating that it has the power of an economic good. It fills a human need or provides a desired service.
Utility power main
The point at which the power company delivers usable electric power to the customer. Also associated with converting higher voltage down to lower voltage.
Utilization Review (UR) programs
Health insurance plans in which the employee may be required to seek a second opinion before having specified surgical procedures performed, to ensure they are medically necessary.
U-value
The measure of heat conductivity of a material or structural unit, expressed as Btus per square foot (kilojoules per square meter) per degrees difference per hour. Lower U-values provide greater resistance to heat transmissions.


Vacancy
A state of being unoccupied and not containing enough business or personal property to conduct business. Such a state restricts or eliminates coverage for property losses.
Vacancy permit
A policy endorsement that will allow you to have a vacant building without penalty if a loss occurs.
Vacancy rate
The current vacant square footage or meters in a facility divided by the total usable area and multiplied by 100. For example, if the facility currently has 12,000 square feet vacant and the usable area is 200,000 then the vacancy rate is 6 percent.
Valence
The outermost electron shell or subshell of an atom.
Valid consideration
Consideration is something given in return, ie., money, a promise, or anything that is an inducement to keep the agreement. There must be valid consideration given by each party to the contract.
Valuable papers insurance
Coverage for loss to such documents as leases, contracts, blueprints, etc., which covers such costs as labor, copying, and employing outside services to assist in reproducing these papers.
Valuation
The process of estimating the market value, insurable value, investment value, or other properly defined value of an identified interest or interests in a specific parcel or parcels of real estate as of a given date.
Value
The monetary worth of property, goods, services, etc. When utility, scarcity, demand, and transferability are present in any economic good. Also, the present worth of future benefits that accrue to real property ownership.
Value engineer
The process or individual used to review designs or specifications to achieve cost savings through substitution or modification, without sacrificing design intent or performance.
Value engineering
Evaluation of construction methods and/or materials to determine which have the net result of reducing costs, consistent with specified performance, reliability, maintainability, aesthetic, safety, and security criteria.
Value-added
The gain, usually corporate profit, sales, or market share, that an activity produces.
Valued policy laws
A law that requires the insurer to pay the full insured amount even in cases of overinsurance on the theory that the insurance companies had a duty to inspect the insured properties to determine if overinsurance existed.
Vapor
The gaseous form of a liquid.
Vapor barrier
A barrier designed to restrict passage of water vapor through a wall or roof. In the roofing industry, barrier material should be rated at 0.2 perm or less. A covering of metal foil or plastic that inhibits the transmission of moisture or vapor through it; used in conjunction with building insulation. See also Permeance.
Vapor density
The weight of a gas or vapor compared with air.
Vapor migration
The movement of water-vapor molecules from a region of higher vapor pressure to a region of lower vapor pressure, penetrating building roofs and walls.
Variable Air-Volume System (VAV)
A system giving a building greater flexibility in providing conditioned air to various spots on a floor based on outside air temperature, solar load, and internal heat-generating equipment. A type of air-handling system that maintains comfort in buildings by varying the quantity of air supplied.
Variable expenses
Expenses influenced by occupancy levels and the quality of professional management. Management skill and knowledge greatly affect the level of these expenses. See also Fixed Expenses.
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Motor speed control devices that changes the normal 60 Hz line voltage supplied to an Alternating Current (AC) induction motor to another frequency to vary its synchronous speed.
Variable payment mortgage
A mortgage that requires periodic payments in varying amounts during the term of the loan.
Varnish
A colorless coating that protects a surface without hiding its appearance.
VDT
Video display terminal. The monitor screen on which the video data associated with computer systems, especially Personal Computers (PCs), is displayed.
VDT standard (ANSI/HFS)
An ergonomic guideline developed by the American National Standards Institute and the Human Factors Society for video display terminal (VDT) work.
Vehicle
The binder and solvent combined together in a paint.
Veiling reflection
A light source perceived as an image within the surface on which a task is being performed. Also reduction in contrast between a task and its background caused by the reflection of light rays. Sometimes called reflected glare.
Velocity
The speed in feet per minute at which air is moving at any location (e.g., through a duct, inlet damper, outlet damper, fan discharge point, etc.). When the performance data for air-handling equipment is given in feet per minute, conversion to cubic feet per minute can be made by multiplying the feet per minute by the duct area.
Velocity of money
The average number of times that a given unit of money is spent annually to purchase goods and services.
Velocity Pressure (VP)
Velocity pressure results only when air is in motion and is measured in inches of water (
14 Dec 2009
16:12:17
Braun
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 7

Velocity Pressure (VP)
Velocity pressure results only when air is in motion and is measured in inches of water (Pa). One inch water gauge corresponds to 4005 fpm (standard air) velocity. To determine velocity pressure use the following formula:
Vendor
The seller of property.
Vent
A stack designed to convey water vapor, or other gas, from inside a building or building component to the atmosphere.
Venue
The proper place or locality where a suit should be tried, taking into consideration the convenience of the parties.
Vermiculite
A material used for its insulating characteristics in lightweight insulating concrete. Vermiculite is formed by heating mica rock, resulting in great expansion. See also Perlite.
Vertical Transportation Systems
Elevators, escalators, and moving walks and ramps that facilitate movement within large structures.
Vesting
A term that defines how much of an employee's pension benefits are owned by the employee at any point in time.
Vicarious Liability
Being responsible for that which someone else has done or failed to do. (2) A tort law concept that generally refers to the legal liability that certain people may have for the actions of others.
Video Phone
A telephone with a built-in video display screen; transmits both auditory and visual data over high-capacity lines.
Videoconferencing
Conducting a meeting via closed-circuit television broadcast to several sites. See also Teleconferencing.
Viewing-Distance Factor
A ratio of the width of a projected image to the maximum acceptable distance of a viewer from the image.
Vinyl Plastic
A resilient flooring composed of vinyl resins, plasticizers, fillers, stabilizers, and coloring matter, with good wear surface and durability.
Virtual
A physical object or place simulated electronically—for example, a virtual disk (simulated data storage in a computer's memory) or a virtual office (a physical workplace simulated by computers and telecommunications devices). Also, in telecommunications, networks in which carriers require dedicated access only to their point of presence (POP).
Virtual corporation
Businesses that are composed of independent individuals and/or businesses that provide the physical resources of the corporation. There is no physical headquarters from which the enterprise is run.
Virucide
A disinfectant that kills viral organisms that cause diseases like viral pneumonia or influenza.
Virus
A computer program that disables other programs, contaminates or destroys data, or renders computer components inoperable.
Vision
An element of leadership that outlines where the organization should go and what it should become; focuses on strategic advantages, inspiration to deliver those advantages consistently, and clarity as a decision-making criterion.
Vision Panel
A window on most modern buildings that cannot be opened or adjusted.
Vital Records
Records essential to resuming or continuing the existence of an organization; those necessary to re-create the company's legal and financial position; and/or those necessary to preserve the rights of the company, its employees, its customers, and its stockholders.
VOCs
Volatile organic compounds. Compounds that evaporate, are gaseous at room temperature, and are released from products being used and stored. Typically found in newly manufactured building products such as carpet and upholstery. See also Offgassing.
Voice mail
An automated message delivery, storage, and retrieval system incorporated into many telecommunications systems.
Voice response system
An automated telecommunications system that responds to voice commands to guide calls; especially useful for callers with rotary-dial phones.
Voidable contract
A contract that may be fully enforceable against one party but legally voided at the option of the other party.
Voir dire
The process by which potential jurors are examined in order to elicit grounds for disqualification of those deemed undesirable.
Voltage
The force required to move electrons through a conducting medium; determines the quantity of electrons or current flowing through a specific conductor or device. Also known as electromotive force (emf) or potential, abbreviated V and symbolized by E. The potential difference in electric charge between two terminals of a source of electrical energy, measured in volts.
Voltage drop
That portion of the voltage used or "consumed" by each device in a circuit.
Voltage indicator
A pen-like pocket tool used to check for the presence of Alternating Current (AC) voltage over 50 V.
Voltmeter
A meter that is connected across the terminals of either a source of applied emf or a circuit component to measure the Electromotive Force (emf) or voltage.
Voluntary compensation endorsement
Provides coverage to various classifications of employees who might be otherwise exempted from workers' compensation coverage. Such classifications might include domestic or agricultural employees.



Wainscoting
An extra covering installed on wall surfaces for added protection at and below the chair line.
Waiting period
A certain period of time that must elapse before payment of a loss begins.
Waiver
The voluntary relinquishment of a known right.
Wallfield
An area of wall space in a telecommunications wiring closet used for attaching equipment, terminal racks, etc.
Warrant
A certificate that gives the holder a right to purchase a specified number of shares of stock in a company at a specified price at any time during the term of the warrant.
Warranty
An expressed condition in an insurance policy where the insured promises (or warrants) that certain conditions do exist at the inception or beginning of the policy, or that the conditions will continue to exist during the life of the policy coverage.
Warranty deed or general warranty deed
A deed that expressly includes one or more covenants of title.
Warranty of habitability
The requirement imposed on landlords to deliver livable premises when the lease term begins and to maintain the premises in a habitable condition throughout the term.
Waste
A deliberate or voluntary destructive act committed against property or the act of neglecting or omitting to do what could have prevented damages.
Water infiltration
Leakage of water into a building or building component, usually through wall pores and expansion joints, and around windows.
Water resistant
Any substance that resists the passing or joining of water or water vapor (for example, caulking materials that are used to seal cracks around windows, or silicone-type treatments of brick surfaces and joints).
Water side
The side of a boiler's heat transfer surfaces in contact with water or steam.
Water-reactive substances
Chemicals that react with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.
Watershed
See Drainage Basin.
Water-soluble paint
Paint that can be thinned with water and remains water-soluble on the surface, so it cannot be washed without removing the film.
Water-thinnable emulsion paint
Paint that can be thinned with water, but that becomes insoluble in water and can be washed after the paint dries.
Watertube boiler
A boiler in which water or steam passes through tubes surrounded by the hot gases from combustion.
Watt
The measure of electric power; abbreviated W. Electricity is consumed at a rate of one watt when an Electromotive Force (emf) of one volt causes a current of one ampere to flow in a circuit. This formula is known as Watt's law: Power (watts) = emf (volts) x Current (amps).
Watt-hour meters
Electric meters that measure the amount of electric energy consumed over a specific length of time.
Wattmeter
A meter installed in a circuit to determine power consumption.
Weather stripping
Metal or plastic material used in thin strips to ensure a weather-tight seal (for example, where sashes and jambs or sills come together). Weather stripping is considered to be only moderately successful in preventing water infiltration.
Weep hole (closed)
A closed weep is a hinged flap that drains moisture but then closes to prevent air infiltration.
Weep hole (open)
A small hole or slot designed to drain water from a window or wall system. An open weep is a cutout section without moving parts.
Weighted Average Cost Of Capital (WACC)
A model that evaluates the cost and tax implications of borrowed funds. It is also capable of calculating the cost of using equity funds and the impact of flotation costs upon the firm or a specific project.
Well development
The removal of at least three times the well volume of groundwater prior to sample collection.
Wet shampooer
A single-disc floor machine with a shower-feed and solution attachment.
Wet sprinkler system
A sprinkler system in which water is always kept in the piping. See also Dry Sprinkler System.
Wet-Bulb (WB) temperature
Temperature measurement that takes into consideration the moisture content of the air.
Wetlands
Transitional land between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the land surface or the land is covered by shallow water.
White collar
Human labor based on the use of knowledge and information.
White noise
Background noise generated by a random-frequency noise generator to mask high-frequency sounds, particularly consonants in human speech. See also Sound Masking.
WHMIS
Workplace Hazardous Material Information System. In Canada, a standard system of labeling products in the workplace to provide workers with the basic information to work safely with the product. Works in conjunction with the material safety data sheets provided by the manufacturer and is maintained on hand by the employer.
WHO
World Health Organization.
Will
A written instrument that complies with the formalities of a state's statute and that directs the distribution of a person's property at death.
Willful violation
An OSHA infraction in which death or serious physical harm results from an uncorrected hazard; these violations carry the highest penalties. Also results when no fatality or serious injury occurs but documentation exists that a manager was aware of the hazard that created a potential for serious physical harm but took no corrective measures.
Wind loading
The force (positive or negative) exerted on a building by pressure of wind, proportional to the square of the wind speed component perpendicular to the building.
Window assembly
A fully constructed window, including the frame and all other components.
Windows
A graphically oriented operating system, used on many Personal Computers (PCs), that runs highly graphic software applications.
Wire
The most common type of electrical conductor; used to conduct electricity and constructed of one or more strands of cylindrical metal.
Wire gauge and sizes
Wires are classified by their diameters or cross-sectional areas. The two systems used to measure the cross-sectional area of an electrical conductor are American Standard Wire Gauge (AWG) and circular mils.
Wire nuts
The preferred way to splice conductors is to use solderless connectors, which are threaded onto the stripped ends of the wires.
Wired
In telecommunications systems, the wired capacity of a system is based on the number of slots available in the installed carriers; refers to how many ports can be added by adding port circuit cards only.
Wiring diagrams
Electrical drawings intended to guide equipment installation; often, they are also useful during maintenance and troubleshooting.
Word processing
A software application that emulates the functions of traditional typewriters and most typesetting operations for a wide variety of applications based on printed alphanumeric text.
Work areas
Offices, conference rooms, and utility areas.
Work environment
The area and equipment assigned to people doing work.
Work letter
The list of tenant allowances for standard and above-standard items -- such as partitions, outlets, and carpeting -- to be provided under the terms of a space lease.
Work management system
A Computer-Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) application that provides a higher level of control for multifaceted work than building management systems do. For example, it can be used to generate several work orders and then assign them to one project.
Work physiology
The study of energy expenditure during work.
Work reception center
The facilities department unit responsible for receiving, organizing, and prioritizing work requests. It is the place customers contact when they need a facilities service. This center, accessible by phone and fax, is staffed by facilities personnel who are skilled in listening to customers' requests and complaints and then analyzing each situation to determine where to refer the call.
Workers' compensation
Insurance for employee injuries, sickness, or disease arising out of their employment and liability coverage (for employers) for such occurrences.
Workers' compensation acts/employers' liabilities acts
Statutory plans of compensation to employees for injuries received in their employment, which replace the need for the employee to resort to personal injury litigation.
Workers' compensation systems
State/provincial systems that provide medical benefits and/or indemnity compensation to victims of work-related injuries and illnesses.
Working drawings
A complete set of scaled drawings with keyed notes detailing the work required and types of materials to be used in constructing the improvements; synonymous with construction drawings.
Workmanship
The level of accuracy, refinement, durability, appearance, and finish required.
Workplace standards
Guidelines used to allocate workspace on a corporate-wide basis according to set criteria, such as position, title or seniority.
Workstation
In reference to computers, powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)-based Central Processing Units (CPUs) similar to minicomputers; in reference to furniture and space planning, the furniture and equipment required by one worker (sometimes shared by two or more). See also Support Space.
Workstation level
A project planning level in which furniture and other factors that contribute to the support of individual workers are considered. See also Base Building Level and Tenant Build-out Level.
Workstations
Any space for which a function is accomplished. This may be an enclosed space or a space in an open area. A workstation does not necessarily require that a person or persons be assigned to that particular space.
World wide web
A vast and growing collection of Web sites used for online communication and information.
Worm drives
Write once, read many drives. Optical-reading data-storage devices with data-storage densities and capacities higher than those found on hard disks.
Wound-rotor motor
An induction motor with a rotor winding added to gain some control of speed and a higher starting torque.
Wraparound loan
A form of loan used for additional financing. Provides a much higher return to the second lender while offering the borrower a way to borrow money at less than current rates.
Wrongful detention
Holding someone against his or her will.
Wye-connected transformer
A transformer with an internal connection point, called a tap, common to all three-phase windings.


Xeriscape
A landscape design concept that uses locally grown, native plants that require little supplemental irrigation beyond normal rainfall.
XRF (X-RAY Fluorescence) analyzer
An instrument that determines the lead concentration in milligrams per square centimeter (mg/cm2) using the principle of X-ray fluorescence


14 Dec 2009
16:14:00
Braun

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