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Startseite - Facility Management Forum - Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 2

Deadband control
A control device that monitors and operates the deadband range and, when necessary, activates the building heating system below a predetermined temperature and the building cooling system above a second predetermined temperature.
Deadly force
Force that is likely or intended to cause either death or great bodily harm.
A general term applied to all forms of unsecured, long-term indebtedness.
A meeting held with an unsuccessful bidder or proposer to explain why the winning contractor was selected and what the unsuccessful bidder can do to improve future proposals.
Debris removal clause
Provision in property insurance that excludes coverage for the cost to extract pollutants from land or water or to remove, restore, or replace polluted water.
An amount of money owed by one party to another through a transaction in which value passes to a debtor. A debt is a pecuniary obligation of the debtor.
Debt coverage ratio
The ratio of the projected net income to debt service.
Debt financing
(1) Raising money through borrowing and the issuing of a mortgage, bond, note, or debenture. (2) DEBT FINANCING. Financing a purchase of real estate by taking out a loan.
Debt rating service
A firm that evaluates and reports on the creditworthiness of firms and governments that issue debt securities. These services include Dun and Bradstreet, Moody's, and Standard & Poor's rating services.
Debt service
Periodic payments made under a mortgage loan. Each payment normally includes an amount for interest accrued since the last payment plus a principal amount that ultimately amortizes the loan. Scheduled payments made to retire principal and interest on a debt.
Debt-to-equity ratio
The relationship between the total amount owed to the lender and the investment of the owner. Also called the leverage ratio.
A measure of the intensity of a sound in terms of the air-pressure change caused by a sound wave.
Deciduous tree
A tree that loses its leaves at the end of the growing season — typically in the fall — often showing great color while doing so.
The so-called headline page of an insurance policy that lists such important facts as the policy period, policy premium, policy number, types of coverages provided, and the named insured.
Declaratory Judgment
A judgment whereby a judge renders an opinion on the meaning of the disputed contract language or the obligations arising from it.
Declaratory Remedies
Remedies that permit a party to have a court resolve a contract dispute based on a disagreement concerning contract language.
Dedicated access
Private telephone-line facilities installed by a company directly from their location to the local exchange carrier's central office or Point of Presence (POP). See also Switched Access.
Dedicated Circuit / Line
An electrical circuit or telephone line reserved exclusively for one appliance or occupant.
Dedicated heat pump
A heat pump devoted to a single task such as providing service water heating.
The amount or portion of a loss that must be paid by the policyholder before the insurance company is required to pay.
Deductible (Health Insurance)
The agreed-upon amount of medical expenses paid by the insured before benefit payments begin. The deductible usually applies annually to each covered member of the family. It is sometimes waived if medical expenses result from accident.
Eligible operating expenses that may be used to reduce the annual gross income subject to taxation.
A written instrument that is signed by the owner of real property and conforms to certain formalities specified by state law in order to convey the real property to another person.
Deed of trust
A legal instrument, similar to a mortgage, that grants a lien on real property to secure the performance of an obligation, usually the payment of debt. Unlike a mortgage, a deed of trust involves a third party trustee who acts for the benefit of the lender.
Deep Rot
A problem associated with fungal attack on wood in cooling towers.
A statement that harms the reputation of a person so much as to lower such person in the estimation of the community or to deter third persons from associating or dealing with him or her.
An act or omission that constitutes the failure to meet a promise, discharge an obligation, or perform under an agreement with other parties.
Deferred maintenance
A formal or informal listing of unaccomplished maintenance tasks. Such situations arise because of shortages of funds, personnel, or specific management practices.
Deficiency judgment
A term that provides that if loan documents do not contain an exculpatory clause and the lender still has not recovered its losses, it has the right to sue the borrower personally for any remaining unpaid debt after foreclosure.
Defined benefit plans
Retirement plans that are basically the opposite of defined contribution plans in that the benefit is fixed, but the necessary funds needed to pay for those fixed benefits at retirement are not specified in amount.
Defined contribution plans
Retirement plans that specify what the periodic contribution to the plan is, but not the retirement benefits the plan will provide. Those benefits are determined by the investment success of the funds set aside.
The process of rearranging files on a hard disk so that all portions of a file are located together in one or more adjacent sectors on the disk.
Degree days
The absolute difference between the outdoor mean temperature and a base temperature over a 24-hour period (typically 65°F) (18.3°C). (For example, a mean temperature of 30°F (1.1°C) yields 35 (19.4) heating degree days; a mean temperature of 90°F (32.2°C) yields 25 (13.9) cooling degree days.) Degree days are roughly proportional to the weather loading on a structure.
The separation of felt plies in a built-up roofing membrane, sometimes resulting in wrinkling and cracking.
Any person, corporation, or other entity that tests, removes, reduces, covers, contains, and disposes of any material containing dangerous levels of lead.
Delegated Contracting Authority
The act of a contracting officer giving the authority for certain contracting actions, such as signing change orders up to $5,000, to other qualified individuals.
Delta-connected transformer
A transformer with the internal taps configured so that the positive end of each phase winding is connected to the negative end of a subsequent phase winding.
The desire and ability to purchase or lease goods or services. The amount of a type of real estate desired for purchase or lease by buyers or tenants in the marketplace.
Demand charge
A utility company charge based on the highest average or peak power consumed during a given time interval (generally 15 or 30 minutes). It is designed to help a utility recover the fixed costs of generating, transmitting, and distributing a certain amount of electricity at one time.
Demand control device
A monitor that is connected to a current transformer in order to track electricity consumption. When the device's logic indicates that a preset demand limit will be exceeded during a demand interval, the secondary loads are dropped to reduce demand and cost. The load is restored when the demand interval is over.
Demand deposits
Money in checking accounts; called demand deposits because you can get the money on demand, through checks or withdrawals.
Demising book
Sometimes referred to as a stacking plan. It lists floor plans, tenants and their lease expirations, square footage, and delineated expansion rights.
The study of the statistics of populations, such as births, marriages, and population movements and concentrations.
Demolition insurance
Coverage to pay for the cost of demolishing undamaged portions of buildings that are required by ordinance or law to be demolished following major damage to the insured building.
Demolition plan
A construction drawing that delineates all partitions, doors, and power/communications outlets to be demolished.
Demountable partition
A prefabricated modular wall assembly that can be installed, removed, and reinstalled.
Demountable walls
Full-height, prefabricated panels manufactured as a system, with specific methods of being attached to ceilings, floors, and each other.
Density (air)
The actual weight of air in pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter). At 70°F and 29.92 in. barometric pressure, air density is 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.2 kg/m3).
Dental Insurance plans
Health insurance plans specifically designed to cover dental and/or orthodontic care.
Odor-controlling chemicals.
Deposit premium
An estimated policy premium based on an exposure basis such as sales or payroll, which is subject to variation.
(1) The recorded, out-of-court, oral testimony of a witness under oath. (2) Oral testimony under oath taken outside of the courtroom.
In the economic sense, depreciation is the physical wearing out or obsolescence of an asset. The loss in value of a capital asset over its economic life.
Depreciation schedules
Tables showing the rate at which a capital asset will lose fancial value, as well as the amount of the loss, over the useful life of the asset.
Legal means by which real property of an intestate is distributed.
A substance that absorbs water vapor from the environment in which it is placed.
Design storm
The expected return frequency of a storm event. Determined by the design engineer and used to lay out a stormwater system.
A development approach in which the developer hires design professionals as well as all construction trades.
Design-intent drawings
Drawings that show the intent of the approved design — where everything is supposed to go and how it will look. They also show the location of all construction elements but do not include engineering calculations or construction details.
Desk audit
A process in which an employee's work is monitored over several days to verify that the actual work warrants a requested upgrade.
A term for a Personal Computer (PC), which often is located on top of a worker's desk.
Desktop publishing
A type of software designed to accomplish the tasks associated with producing text and graphics for newsletters, flyers, reports, and papers with integrated graphic design.
A device that recovers waste heat from hot refrigerant vapor in the condenser of an air conditioner or heat pump for use in service water heating.
Detail books
Bound collections of details, usually for building standard conditions and typical construction, such as interior wall connections to suspended ceilings and the connection of door frames to walls.
In the context of construction, enlarged sections indicating the precise assembly of building components.
Detention ponds
Manmade ponds designed to collect excess stormwater runoff and discharge it at a controlled rate to prevent flooding and erosion. Also called retention ponds.
Deviated rates
Rates that are different from Insurance Services Office (ISO) suggested rates.
Device drivers
Files containing instructions on how the computer must configure itself to accommodate various peripheral devices such as a mouse, monitor, printers, tape backup drives, and scanners.
The transfer of real property by will.
Dew point
The temperature at which air with a given amount of moisture is fully saturated, so that condensation occurs.
Diagnostic Control
A management technique that focuses on measurement against predetermined targets and does not encompass the scope of management competencies.
DIC (Difference-In-Conditions) policy
A special form property policy that supplements a specified peril property policy and usually includes flood and earthquake insurance.
Direct inward dialing. Offered only by a local exchange carrier, this process allows someone to dial each extension in a company directly from the outside without an operator transferring the call.
The material placed between the two plates of a capacitor.
Diffuse (or general) lighting system
A system in which light is distributed equally to both the upper and lower areas of a room—50 percent upward and 50 percent downward.
Digital meter
An electric meter that converts analog electrical measurements into a digital medium.
Digital signal
A control signal that is either on of off (e.g., fan start/stop).
An input device consisting of a pen and tablet that detects the position of the pointing device on the tablet surface and converts it into x,y coordinates within a fixed space.
Dimension string
A line on a drawing showing the length of an object.
Diminimus rule
When low-dollar items may qualify for capitalization and can be expensed to eliminate the additional record keeping.
Devices that reduce the output of light from lamps, either with or without reductions in the energy supplied to the light fixtures.
Direct contribution
The ability of an organizational unit to generate corporate sales and income. See also Indirect Contribution.
Direct current (DC) generators
Devices that convert mechanical energy into DC electricity through electromagnetic induction.
Direct digital control
System control performed by electronic microprocessor-based controllers that use digital signals for monitoring analog sensor inputs and controlling analog actuator outputs.
Direct glue-down
The use of glue to apply carpet tile directly to concrete floor slabs.
Direct lighting system
A system in which 90 percent to 100 percent of the light from a luminaire shines down toward the working surface.
Direct sales comparison approach
Compares characteristics of a subject property with those of sold properties that have closed within the last 180 days.
Direct selling method
A method of selling through advertising without personal contact between the policyholder and a sales representative of the insurance company.
Direct writing method
A sales system in which the insurance companies use employed salespersons to make direct personal contact with prospective policyholders. The insurance company owns the business produced by the salesperson.
Direct-billed premium
Insurance premium billed by the insurance company.
Direct-expansion refrigerator
A refrigeration machine that uses mechanical energy to generate cool air.
A group of computer files found in one location with a common name.
Direct-read XRF analyzer
An instrument that provides the operator with a direct readout of the lead concentration in paint.
Any filthy or soiling substance, such as dust, soil, grime or mud.
Something purchased or sold for less than the face value or stated price. Discounting is the calculation of the reduction of future payments to present worth.
Discount rate
(1) An income rate used to discount future cash flows back to a present value. Discount rates are generally higher than cap rates because they include a factor for inflation as well as a risk factor. (2)The interest rate that the Federal Reserve Bank charges member banks to borrow money from the discount window. The discount rate is sometimes referred to as the "rediscount rate."
Discount window
An activity of the Federal Reserve Bank wherein member banks borrow money to meet reserve requirements.
Discounted cash flow (DCF)
A technique that gives the present value of an investment, and is used for calculating comparable evaluators for investments with future cash flows.
(1) Pretrial information-gathering by both sides engaged in a lawsuit. (2) The pretrial procedure by which the parties to litigation obtain facts and information pertinent to the case from the other party in order to prepare for trial.
Discretionary account
An account for which the portfolio manager has complete control to approve budgets, and buy, sell, lease, and improve properties.
An agent that inhibits, neutralizes or destroys potentially harmful bacteria. May contain synthetic phenols, quaternary ammonium chemicals (quats), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or iodine.
Disk compression
A special software program that enables more data to be stored on a disk than is otherwise possible.
Dissolved solids
Any minerals that may be present in the water supply as a result of the water's ability to dissolve almost any substance.
Distributed / Decentralized processing
Data processing done in several locations rather than in a single, central location.
Legal means by which personal property of an intestate is distributed.
Distribution circuits
The way in which electric power moves through an electrical system to the end-use loads.
Devices located at the top or bottom of a water softener to distribute or collect the water and to retain the cation exchange material in the units.
Diurnal temperature variations
Temperature changes that occur on a daily, cyclical basis.
Divergent organization
A type of organization in which support functions and related facilities are located away from company headquarters and regional offices, closer to the customers, the market, and the competition.
Profits from corporations that are distributed to the stockholders in accordance with their proportional shares of the corporation's stock.
Doctrine of merger
Under the legal doctrine of merger, all covenants as to title in the sale contract, including the implied covenant of marketable title, are merged into the deed so that, from that time forward, the buyer's rights are dictated solely by the covenants and warranties expressed or implied in the deed, if any.
In software programs, collections of information; objects created for presentation, such as word processing textual documents, spreadsheet and business graphics, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) files, and voice mail messages.
Domestic insurer
An insurer organized under the laws of the state in which it is domiciled.
Domestic water system
The building water system that provides drinking water and sanitary water supplies.
Disk Operating System. A computer operating system originally designed to manage the basic functions of IBM-based personal computers.
An amount of a substance received over a specific time period.
Double glazed (or dual glazed)
Two panes separated by a dead air space to provide a thermal barrier. Each pane is independently movable in a system with two sashes (that is, one prime and one storm window). A double-glazed system within a single sash is commonly referred to as "insulating glass."
Double glazed, Acoustic barrier
This term describes two panes separated by a dead air space of at least 2 in. (5.1 cm) in order to provide an acoustic barrier as well as a thermal barrier. Glass panels are usually of different thickness for increased sound attenuation.
Double-net lease
A lease where rent payments cover triple net plus building insurance premiums. The tenant pays for everything except taxes.
Dower rights
The part of or interest in the real estate of a deceased spouse given by law to the surviving spouse during the deceased's life.
A term applied to designate the direction (down) in which water flows through the ion exchange during any phase of the operating cycle of a household water softener.
Downside leverage
Reduction of cash flow that occurs when debt service payments are greater than the return from an investment.
A reduction in the workforce.
The length of time that a system is not operating and thus impairs the work process.
Draft authority
The delegation of authority to the agent to make payment on small claims.
Drafting systems
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that create and measure drawing constructions using standard drafting conventions. Drafting systems assign mathematical values to the points that define all lines and geometrical shapes, enabling the computer software to electronically calculate and measure lengths and areas. See also Modeling Systems.
A line used to carry backwash water, spent regenerant, and rinse water to the household water system.
Drainage basin
A small stormwater drainage area. Also known as a watershed.
A device that holds and spins hard or floppy disks; retrieves and alters data by electromagnetically changing the configuration of the iron oxide coating on the disk(s). See also Floppy Disk and Hard Disk.
Drive-other-car (DOC) coverage
Personal auto insurance for those persons who do not have a personal auto policy and depend on a commercial auto policy for their auto insurance coverage.
Drop inlet
See Catch Basin.
Drop-down menu
A detailed list of choices that appears below a main topic; usually located on a graphic bar at the top of the software application screen.
Dry closing
A mortgage loan closing that takes place prior to the funding of the loan.
Dry sprinkler system
A sprinkler system in which pipes are filled with water only when a fire emergency develops. See also Wet Sprinkler System.
Dry-Bulb (DB) temperature
The temperature of air as measured by an ordinary thermometer.
Dry-foam shampooer
A machine that sets up a lather from a liquid detergent solution and brushes it into the pile. Removed with a vacuum cleaner.
Dual agency
An agency relationship in which an agent acts for two different principals.
Dual-duct system
A type of air circulatory system that conditions the air in a central air handling unit and then distributes the air through two ducts. One duct carries cold air and the other carries hot air. A mixing box in the space to be conditioned then mixes cold and hot air to maintain predetermined space temperatures.
Due Diligence
(1) A type of facilities survey taken before a major acquisition is initiated. Such surveys may include investigation of building condition, environmental hazards, regulatory compliance, financial value, and other factors. (2) The activities performed in advance of a transaction in order to uncover environmental risks and to assess potential environmental liability.
Due on encumbrance
A loan document clause which provides that the entire mortgage debt becomes due upon further encumbrance of the mortgaged property by the borrower.
Due on sale
A loan document clause which provides that the entire mortgage debt becomes due upon sale of the property by the borrower.
Dumb terminal
A terminal with no computer processing capabilities that is connected to a mainframe system.
An investment's vulnerability to inflationary pressures and the fluctuation of interest rates, as well as its potential physical or economic obsolescence.
A legal defense used when an otherwise criminal act is committed under threat of imminent death or serious bodily harm to the defendant or to his or her immediate family.
Dust-mop treatment
Substances applied to the yarn of dust mops so that they will pick up and hold dry soils more easily.
Duty cycling
Shutting down HVAC fans and pumps for short periods each hour during the day to reduce consumption and demand.
Dynamic link libraries
Software routines that permit more than one application to use a file (e.g., a dictionary).

Earned premiums
Those premiums that have been used up either through the passage of time during the policy period or by the amount of payroll, sales, or other auditable premium basis that has been generated during the policy period.
Earnest money
Funds committed to the seller by the buyer to purchase real property. The funds are at-risk and nonrefundable if the buyer successfully completes and complies with issues relative to the purchase of the property prior to closing.
Earnest money deposit
A sum of money deposited by the purchaser of real estate with the seller or broker, in accordance with the contract of sale, in order to show the intent and ability of the purchaser to complete the transaction.
(1) A nonpossessory land interest held by another. An easement places a burden or cloud upon the property interest. A right of one party to use the land of another for a special purpose. (2) A right of one party to lawfully use the land of another for a beneficial purpose.
Easement appurtenant
An easement that benefits one property and burdens an adjoining property.
Easement in gross
An easement that burdens one or more properties but does not necessarily benefit any particular property.
Economic profit
Excess revenues above the opportunity costs of resources expended.
Economic rent
Surpluses received by owners of property or resources in excess of the minimum necessary to supply the property or resource.
Economizer cycle
An energy-saving process that discontinues the operation of the cooling system when the outdoor temperature falls below a predetermined temperature setting, normally between 50° and 60°F (10° to 15°C). At such a time, cooler outdoor air is then brought into the system and used to reduce indoor temperatures.
Edge venting
The practice of providing horizontal escape outlets through the insulation to ported or grooved edge boards and/or parapet walls.
Edison-based fuse
An older-type fuse, often referred to as a plug fuse, in which the thread size is the same as on a standard, or Edison-based, lightbulb and socket.
Effect lighting
Also known as accent lighting or highlighting; can be used to achieve a certain design effect.
Effective rental rates
Rental rates that include landlord concessions to a tenant to induce the signing of a lease. These concessions include free rent, paid moving expenses, and similar costs paid by the landlord.
A saltlike deposit on a surface, usually caused by moisture in masonry.
The water or solution that emerges from a water softener during any phase of the operating cycle.
The act of going out of a building.
See Environmental Impairment Liability Insurance.
Excursion limit. The OSHA standard fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) worker exposure limit to asbestos, averaged over a sampling period of thirty minutes (currently 1.0 f/cc).
EL (electronic) ballasts
Ballasts that operate arc discharge lamps using high-frequency electronic components; more efficient than Electromagnetic (EM) ballasts.
The ability of a material to return to its initial state after being deformed or stressed by an outside force.
Having elastic properties, capable of expanding or contracting with the surfaces to which the subject material is applied without rupturing.
Elbow or ell
A 90 degree bend used when a conduit run must make a right angle.
Electric boiler
A boiler that heats water or steam using electric resistance heating coils.
Electric distribution system
The equipment and conductors that carry electricity from the electric utility's main power source to the individual panelboards within a building.
Electrical / lighting plan
An engineering construction drawing of all lighting fixtures, switches, and circuitry.
Electrical Circuit
Consists of at least three components--a source, a load, and a complete path. Also normally includes some type of control device, such as a switch.
Electrical cover sheet
A construction drawing of all electrical specifications, notes, and electrical panel schedules. It also specifies supplemental electrical panels, if required.
Electrical drawings or blueprints
Drawings in which the architectural plans for a structure are used to show the physical location, wiring connections, and types of electrical devices to be installed.
Electrical energy
Energy associated with the flow of negatively charged electrons.
Electrical schematics or ladder diagrams
Drawings that show all components in a circuit and how they are connected.
Electrical service
The connection of a building to the power supplied by a local utility company.
Electrical Symbols
A type of shorthand used to identify particular components of a circuit and to show how they are connected. Each type of drawing and its related symbols is selected on the basis of its intended purpose.
The flow of electrons through a conducting medium (a solid, liquid, or gas).
Electrochemical reaction
The transfer of electrons between two areas along a metal surface in contact with water capable of carrying an electric current.
(1) A substance that transfers the ions being emitted during corrosion from the anode to the cathode. When referring to underground storage tank corrosion, the substance is typically moist soil. (2) The chemicals in a battery. When connected to an electrical circuit, the chemicals in the electrolyte react to produce an excess of electrons at the negative terminal and a deficiency of electrons at the positive terminal.
Electrolytic solution
Water capable of carrying an electric current.
Electromagnetic forces
Magnetic forces created by the electric charges of the protons and electrons.
Electromagnetic spectrum
An orderly arrangement of radiant energy by wavelength or frequency including all kinds of electric and magnetic radiation, from gamma rays and X-rays to long waves and the visible spectrum (light). In the visible spectrum, the eye is sensitive to radiant energy between 380 nanometers (violet) and 780 nanometers (red).
The most common source of electricity. Mechanical energy is used to move a coil through a magnetic field to create electricity by the process of electromagnetic induction.
The study of muscle response to electrical stimulation. Particularly useful in quantifying ergonomic stresses associated with mechanical forces.
Electron Shells
The layers in which electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom. The specific radius of each electron shell is determined by the energy level of the electrons in that shell.
A component of an atom that is substantially smaller and has far less mass than either protons or neutrons. The electrons of an atom exhibit a negative (-) electric charge exactly equal to but opposite the positive (+) charge of protons.
The use of electrical energy to magnetically charge (and thus attract) dust particles to a filter.
Enclosed compartments that transport people and goods between floors within a building.
EM (electromagnetic) ballasts
A traditional ballast for arc discharge lighting that uses the principles of the electromagnet.
E-mail (Electronic Mail)
An online communication tool that enables a person to send and receive text messages via the Internet.
Emergency power
Electric power dedicated to operating the equipment needed to protect life and ensure safety during an emergency; not necessarily continuous. See also Standby Power, Continuous Power, Clean Power, and Redundant Power.
Emergency response
A response effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or by other designated responders to an occurrence that results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance.
Electromotive Force. The force required to move electrons through a conducting medium, EMF determines the quantity of electrons or current flowing through a specific conductor or device. Also known as voltage (V) or potential.
Electromagnetic fields. Fields of magnetic flux density (or lines of force per unit area) found wherever electricity is used and resulting from electric current passing through wires or other conductors.
Eminent Domain
The right of a government or properly authorized entity to take private property for public use.
Eminent Domain
The power of a government to take private property for public uses without the owner's consent.
A person who works for and is subject to the control of the employer.
Employee benefit liability
Coverage for claims involving administration of employee benefit plans.
Employee representative
Anyone designated by the employee to be able to access the employer's log of occupational injuries and illnesses.
Employee right-to-know
Hazard Communication Standard. OSHA Regulation 29 CFR 1910.1200. Mandates that a written chemical hazard communication program be developed and implemented in the workplace.
A person who employs another to perform a service and who has the right to control the physical conduct of the other in performing the service.
Employers' liability insurance
The liability coverage provided under workers' compensation insurance to protect the employer from employees' employment-related liability claims involving bodily injury or disease.
Employment practices liability insurance
Coverage for claims involving allegations of sexual harassment and wrongful termination and discrimination in terms of race, age, sex, and disability.
Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974
A federal law that lays out the parameters that pension plans must observe. One of the most important reasons that ERISA was enacted was to set certain standards for employee pension plans nationwide and to prevent employer abuse in arbitrarily or capriciously withholding or restricting pension benefits to employees
Energy management system. An automated HVAC control system that regulates the flow and conditioning of air to a space to optimize the use of energy. See also BAS (Building Automation System) and IBS (Intelligent Building System).
Electrical metallic tubing. A very popular metal conduit for nonwatertight applications. Also known as thin wall.
(1) A dispersion of minute droplets of some material (such as wax) in water. (2) In roofing, a mixture of bitumen and water, with uniform dispersion of bitumen globules achieved through the addition of a chemical or clay emulsifying agent. See also Latex-type Paint.
A material that will form a durable coating or covering when applied to surfaces and components that contain hazardous substances such as asbestos or lead.
The construction of airtight walls and ceilings around hazardous materials to reduce the chance that the materials will be released.
Enclosure classification
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has approved over twenty motor classifications based on the type of cooling and physical protection the motor enclosure offers.
A physical intrusion, overlap, or trespass upon another's property.
Any claim, right, or interest in real property that is held by a person other than the fee simple owner and that diminishes the value of the property without preventing title to the property to pass from the owner.
End plates
That part of a motor that supports the bearings, which allow the rotor shaft to move freely.
End run
A deliberate attempt to bypass someone in the chain of command to withhold information or speed up a decision-making process. See also Chain of Command.
Energy dissipater
A construction, usually of broken stone (riprap), placed near a pipe outlet to reduce the velocity of stormwater and prevent a stream channel from eroding.
Energy Management Control System (EMCS)
A system that monitors, controls, and manages a building or group of buildings, thereby maximizing building efficiency.
The act of assuring compliance with applicable laws by persons of whom such laws require compliance.
Engineering and work controls
Physical or mechanical equipment used to isolate or eliminate hazards at their source, and procedures that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the way in which a task is performed. [BOMI Institute source]
Engineering approach
An approach to loss control that focuses on the mechanical or physical causes of loss.
Engineering scale
Scales based on tenths, hundreds, tens, and hundreds of feet; commonly used by mechanical, structural, plumbing, electrical, and civil engineers. See also Architectural Scale.
The total heat content of air, measuring its sum total energy and consisting of dry-bulb temperature plus wet-bulb temperature.
Enthalpy economizer cycle
An energy-saving process that stops the operation of the mechanical cooling system when the enthalpy of outdoor air is less than the enthalpy of return air so that outdoor air can be used for cooling interior spaces.
A legal defense that can be used when the idea of the crime arises from the law enforcement officer, rather than the defendant, and the defendant was not in any way predisposed to commit the crime.
In roofing, the continuous edge formed by folding the edge base felt over the plies above and securing it to the top felt or, if above-deck insulation is used, to the top surface of insulation. The envelope produced thus prevents bitumen drippage through the enclosed or covered edge joints of laminated, built-up roofing membrane. It also prevents any lateral water infiltration into the insulation.
In computer terminology, a combination of a computer platform and software applications.
Environmental Assessment
Evaluation of the risks associated with a particular location and their potential environmental impact on the surroundings due to operations, processes, and exposure pathways.
Environmental Impairment Liability (EIL) insurance
Liability coverage for pollution-related claims.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
A U.S. federal agency that reports to the executive branch and enforces regulations to protect the environment.
Environmental report
A listing of all environmental problems or issues within a property and its surrounding area.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. An EPA regulation that provides citizens with information about chemicals stored, used, and released in their communities.
Equipment floater
A property policy to cover equipment that moves from one place to another.
Equitable conversion
Legal doctrine in effect in many states that for some purposes treats property under contract of sale as though title has already been conveyed to the buyer.
Equitable title
Title to property that includes the right to ultimately receive the income and proceeds from the property.
Stock or certificates of beneficial interest which evidence ownership in a business firm.
(1) An owner's right in a property after all claims against the property have been settled. An equity is also called a stock, which provides evidence of actual and partial ownership in an issuing group or corporation. (2) The value of real property less the amount of any debt that is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on such property.
Equity financing
(1) Raising money through the issuance of stock or monetary contribution by investors, who receive a share of ownership in the company raising the funds. (2) Financing the purchase of real estate from the purchaser's own funds.
Equity law
The body of law concerned with fairness and relative positions of the parties.
Equity participation loan
A loan made at a rate below the current fixed-market rate, but including a payment to the lender of some form of appreciation. This loan is also known as an equity kicker.
Equity security
When an investor owns a certificate that evidences actual, partial, and undivided ownership of the issuing group or corporation. An equity is also called a stock.
Equity yield rate
An annual rate of return on equity capital, as distinguished from the rate of return on debt capital or interest; the equity investor's internal rate of return.
Equity-divided ratio
The ratio of the annual dividend to the original equity investment. This ratio is the same as cash-on-cash ratio.
Equivalent value AC voltage
The amount of Alternating Current (AC) produced through one cycle compared to Direct Current (DC) through the same resistance circuit. 1 V of AC measured at its instantaneous peak will produce, through one complete cycle, the same amount of current as 0.707 V DC through the same resistance (heating) circuit.
The study of the interaction between humans and the work environment.
The study of equipment design in order to reduce operator fatigue and discomfort.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. In regard to real estate management, the law establishes ethical standards that prevent a fiduciary from doing business with other related companies for a client.
The destruction of metal by the velocity of the fluid in a line and the presence of sediment in the fluid.
Erosion corrosion
Metal loss from a surface due to the combined effects of corrosion and the erosive effects of the waterflow.
Errors and omissions insurance
Insurance taken by design professionals to protect themselves from liability claims arising from mistakes made in design and construction documents.
A moving stairway that carries passengers from one floor to another continuously.
The reversion of property to the state when the owner dies intestate (without a will) and without lawful heirs, or abandons the property.
A single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed.
Estimated premium
A premium based on an estimated exposure basis, such as sales or payroll, which is subject to variation.
A legal principle that prevents one party from claiming to have a certain right when that party has previously acted in a manner implying lack of any interest in that right. (2) A legal principle that bars a person from denying the truth of a matter that has been either conclusively determined in a prior law suit, or previously claimed, asserted, or otherwise represented by such person as being true.
Estoppel by deed
A legal principle that precludes the grantor under a deed from denying the truth of the matters contained in the deed.
Estoppel letter
A document that briefly restates the terms of the lease and further specifies that the lease is in full effect and has no defaults or agreements except as stated in the lease document.
A contention-type line-transmission protocol that will stop the sending of data from two sources if a data "collision" occurs; both stations will be instructed to wait a random amount of time before resuming.
ETR plans
Employer trip reduction plans. An EPA program designed to meet federal air quality standards by asking employers in large metropolitan areas to develop plans to reduce the number of trips that employees make when commuting to work.
United States dollars held outside the United States by their owners.
Eutectic salts storage
An ice cool storage system that uses salts packaged in sealed containers.
Evaporative condenser
A heat exchanger that cools refrigerant vapor by using a combination of water and air.
A heat exchanger that adds heat to a liquid, thereby changing it to a gas. The component of a refrigeration system that absorbs heat.
Evergreen tree
A tree with foliage that remains green through more than one growing season.
The legal act of expelling a person from real property, most often for breach of lease terms.
Excess and surplus line (E&S)
A method of marketing in which nonstandard or nonadmitted insurance companies sell their products through certain designated brokers who represent them.
Excess liability insurance
Extra liability coverage over and above the underlying policies but which does not provide broader coverage than the underlying policies.
This area of an insurance policy describes the limitations of coverage under the policy and states specifically what the policy does not cover.
Exclusive agency method
A sales system in which an insurance agent is regarded as an independent business person and is compensated on the basis of the commission revenue generated by the business produced. The exclusive agent generally has no ownership right in the business produced, and is paid a relatively lower commission rate than the independent insurance agent.
Exclusive use
A right granted by a landlord to a single tenant to engage in a particular retail sales activity within a shopping center.
Exculpatory clause
A clause in a contract or agreement that holds a party harmless in the event of a default. (2) Lease term that limits the liability of landlords and tenants.
Exculpatory lease clause
A lease provision that usually seeks to limit the liability of a landlord to a tenant.
Exculpatory loan clause
A clause found in investment loans. It refers to a provision in the loan document that relieves the borrower of personal liability for a deficiency judgement if the sale of the mortgaged property does not provide enough funds to repay the loan. It is commonly referred to as a nonrecourse clause.
Excuse of performance
Circumstances that relieve a party from a contractual obligation or enable the party to invalidate the contract.
The uncontrolled leakage of conditioned indoor air out of a building.
Exhaust ventilation
Mechanical exhaust of air from isolated special-use areas such as toilets, maintenance shops, copying rooms, and smoking rooms.
Exit interview
An interview conducted at the completion of an audit. Includes an informal discussion during which the auditor reviews concerns that have developed through the audit process.
Expanded memory
Additional memory, obtained through a software program, that switches portions of data between extended memory and a hard disk.
Expansion valve
Valve for controlling refrigerant flow to a cooling element (evaporator).
A rational understanding of the variables that shape the economic conditions affecting an individual's life.
Funds used to secure a benefit or bring about a result.
Expense budget
See Operating Budget.
Expense caps
Lease clauses that require a tenant to pay for expenses beyond a fixed, predetermined amount, such as extra electric power or natural gas consumption.
EXPENSE PASS-THROUGHS Expense pass-throughs
Lease clauses that require a tenant to reimburse the landlord for expenses such as insurance and taxes beyond a fixed amount; common in single-net and double-net leases.
Expense stop
A measure of operating expenses paid by the landlord.
Experience modification factor
An adjustment applied to a workers' compensation premium that reflects the insured's past loss history.
Experience rating
System of rating in which the actual past experience of the risk is instrumental in determining its future rates.
Substances that can cause a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, or heat.
Transmitting a file formatted in one application to another application with a different format.
Exposure Monitoring
Sampling the air in an employee's breathing zone to determine the amount of contaminant (e.g., lead) to which he or she is exposed.
Express Condition
A contract condition that is specifically stated in a contract. An action by one party or the occurrence of an event, specifically required by the agreement, that triggers the other party's obligation to perform and that, if not fulfilled, may preclude recovery on the contract.
Express Contracts
Contracts that are explicitly set out either orally or in writing.
Express Warranty
A promise that is specifically stated in product literature, guarantees, or warranty brochures.
Extended bodily injury liability coverage
Extends the definition of bodily injury liability to include coverage for the use of reasonable force to protect persons or property.
Extended memory
The portion of a computer's memory above 1,024 Kb (1 Mb). See also Expanded Memory.
External communication channels
Any communication with organizations outside your company.
External customers
Stockholders, constituencies, or stakeholders, such as government agencies, community groups, and the general public. See also Internal Customers.
Extra expense insurance
Pays the necessary expenses incurred during a period of restoration that would not have been incurred if there had been no direct physical loss or damage. In other words, the coverage pays for the expenses that are above the ordinary and expected expenses you would have incurred if no loss had happened.
Extremely flammable liquids
Liquids with flash points below 20°F (-6.7°C).


Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which include an extensive set of policies and procedures that establish standards to be used in the recording and treatment of accounting transactions.
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards. Similar to GAAP and consisting of a detailed set of policies and procedures governing auditing standards.
Gantt chart
A form of bar chart used extensively to show schedules, time frames, and time sequences. See also PERT Chart.
Garagekeeper's insurance
Insurance for those in the business of selling or servicing automobiles, which covers them for bodily injury, property damage, or destruction resulting from vehicles in their care, custody, or control and for which they are legally liable.
A primary care physician who determines whether an insured employee needs additional medical care or should see a specialist.
A software program that enables Personal Computers (PCs) to access mainframe systems, and vice versa.
General agent
An agent vested with the authority to transact all of the business of his or her principal within the limits of the granted authority.
General aggregate limit
Represents an annual total for bodily injury, property damage, personal injury and advertising injury, and medical expense claims.
General conditions
A list of cost items attributable to a given construction project and not delineated in the plans and specifications. They are usually items not associated with general overhead or administrative costs of a contractor. Project cleaning, trash removal, permits, blueprint costs, design costs, direct labor, and site supervision are some examples.
General contractor
The entity contracted with to construct improvements usually in accordance with a fixed set of contract documents, using some mix of in-house trade labor and subcontractors for a price determined by the construction contract. See also Lump-Sum Contract.
General damages
(1) Damages that may be awarded by the courts for losses that may not be measurable in dollars and cents, but for which monetary payment is allowed. (2) Damages that arise directly from the default of the party under the contract.
General detergent
A synthetic cleaning chemical that enhances the cleaning properties of water.
General obligation
A commitment to repay indebtedness of a governmental entity by levying additional taxes, if necessary.
General partner
A partner in a general partnership or a limited partnership who is personally liable for the partnership's legal obligations.
General partnership
A form of ownership in which more than one entity is involved, usually formed by agreement, in which all entities are, to degrees stipulated in the agreement, responsible for the success or failure of a business.
General permit
A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit used for certain categories of wastewater discharges that occur within a certain geographic area.
General-use property
A property that is readily adaptable to the uses of a variety of tenants.
A disinfectant that kills bacteria, or germs, which cause disease.
A coat of paint with a thin appearance, caused by improper priming of walls.
A voluntary transfer of property by one person to another made gratuitously and without any consideration or compensation.
Gift causa mortis
A gift made by the donor in contemplation of death.
A pure asphalt found mainly in Utah.
Giving notice
Advising the insurer of an incident that may give rise to a claim as soon after the incident's occurrence as reasonably practical. Failure to do so can result in denial of the claim.
An undesirable property of light; any brightness from a light source within the field of vision that causes viewer discomfort. This problem is sometimes referred to as direct glare. [
(1) The top layer of asphalt in a smooth-surfaced built-up roofing assembly; (2) a thin protective coating of bitumen applied to the lower plies or the top ply of a built-up membrane, when top pouring and aggregate surfacing have been delayed. See also Phased Application.
The glass panels in window frames; the process of installing glass or other translucent or transparent materials.
Used in reference to software programs, a change that is made once will automatically apply to all data fields in a file or to an entire database.
Laminated wood beam created by bonding pieces of lumber or veneer into a single piece, using adhesives and keeping the grains parallel.
A statement defining a desired end result; quantitative statements translated into measurable tasks. See also Mission and Objective.
Going concern value
The value created by a proven property operation. It is considered as a separate entity to be valued with an established business.
Good faith deposit
A sum of money deposited by a borrower with the lender and returned to the borrower only if the loan is funded or if the loan commitment is terminated for reasons other than the borrower's breach of the loan commitment.
Personal property that is governed by Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code and that consists of movable, tangible personal property. The term also includes growing crops and other identified things that are attached to real property but can be removed for purposes of sale.
A value attributed to the overall business entity because of its location, reputation, and specialized site features.
The method or system by which a legal entity is managed and governed.
Government insurers
Governmental entities providing insurance for exposures deemed to be for the public good or too hazardous or broad in scope for the private sector.
Government survey system
A system of legal descriptions adopted by Congress in which land is divided into sections measuring approximately six miles square, called townships, and townships are divided into smaller sections containing approximately 640 acres.
Grace period
A period of time for which a borrower is permitted to rectify a breach of a loan document.
Graduated amortization mortgage
A mortgage in which the amortized payments are changed during the term of the mortgage.
A common basis of reporting water analysis in the United States and Canada. One grain per U.S. gallon equals 17.1 milligrams per liter or 17.1 ppm. One grain per Imperial gallon equals 14.3 milligrams per liter or 14.3 ppm. One grain is 1/7000 pounds or 0.0647 grams.
Graphic data
Information in the form of drawings, graphics, or visual images.
Shallow-rooted perennials that can be grown in mass (lawn grasses) or grown as individual specimens (ornamental grasses).
A collection of loose, rounded fragments of rock, such as pebbles.
Gravel stop
A flanged device, made of metal or plastic, designed to prevent loose gravel from being washed off a roof, and to provide finished edge detail for a built-up roofing assembly.
Gray water
Sanitary wastewater associated with kitchens, baths, and showers; excludes black water.
Green board
Moisture-resistant gypsum wallboard.
Green machines
Personal Computers (PCs) with power-conserving features such as automatic shutoff of hard disk rotation and screen illumination during inactive periods.
Green programs
Voluntary conservation efforts that reduce the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted, while saving money for those companies that adopt such programs.
Gross area
The sum of floor areas within the outside faces of the exterior walls for all building levels which have floor surfaces.
Gross income
Includes all receipts from both active participation (e.g., sales of human labor, production, services, or products) and passive participation (e.g., receipts from interest-bearing accounts or stock dividends, where the income recipient does not perform anything to earn the income but is paid for letting some other party use the money).
Gross lease
A lease that vests all responsibility for operating costs with the lessor, who assumes the full risk of any increases in these costs. The tenant's payments cover all expenses except those specifically excluded or named as above-standard services.
Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM)
A rule of thumb method frequently used by some individuals that arrives at an estimate of fair market value by multiplying gross rental income by a factor that varies with the type of property and its location.
Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
The weight of a vehicle plus the weight the vehicle is designed to carry.
A wire that ultimately transmits unwanted electrical current harmlessly to the earth to prevent damage to electrical components.
Ground covers
Single low-growing plants planted in mass in an area for a carpeted appearance and to cut down on maintenance.
Ground fault
An electrical condition in which a short circuit develops between an energized conductor and a ground potential, such as the frame of a motor.
Ground fault circuit interrupter
A device that stops the flow of electricity by opening or breaking the circuit when a flow of current to ground is detected.
Ground lease
A lease in which a tenant leases a parcel of vacant land and pays for all improvements made on the side.
The conductor, normally a white or gray wire, that carries the power back to the power source. White or gray wires shall never be used as phase, current conductor, or hot wires.
Grounding conductor
More properly called the equipment grounding conductor. This green or uninsulated wire is used to connect equipment such as motors, switches, and boxes to earth or a ground source.
Water in the zone of saturation below the earth's surface.
Group address
designated group or team workspace for a specified period of time.
Group disability insurance plans
Insurance to cover the loss of income suffered by an employee because of a covered disability.
Group medical underwriting
The process by which groups of ten employees or larger are underwritten on a group basis. In other words, the insurer accepts or rejects the group as a whole, based on such characteristics of the group as age, sex, location, and industry.
Group relamping
Replacing all bulbs in all fixtures at the same time, at planned intervals.
Team-oriented computer software packages, desktop videos and electronic conference boards that are applicable to facility planning and management needs. Facilitates the rapid sharing of data, text and e-mail among a variety of users.
A contract in which the signer engages the promise of a third party to pay in the event the debtor is unable to perform under terms of the contract.
Guard tours
Routine patrols by security personnel through a property.
Graphic user interface. Software that presents users with decisions, instructions, and choices in the form of boxes, charts, and tables; makes use of software programs easier and more visually-oriented.
A rope, chain, rod, or wire attached to something as a brace or guide.
Gypsum wallboard
Material used for the interior surfaces of walls and ceilings. Also called drywall or sheetrock.

Halogen lamps
Electric lamps constructed of a heat-resistant quartz tube filled with halogen gas.
A substance made with Chlorofulorocarbons (CFCs) formerly used in fire-suppression systems.
Hand benders
Tools used to bend Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) with a diameter of 1 1/4 in. or less. Hand benders provide a radius that supports the conduit during bending to avoid crimping or flattening it.
Hard copy or hard data
Data or information printed on paper. See also Soft Data.
Hard costs
Costs that can be specifically and concretely identified as direct reductions (preferred) or savings in production. See also Qualitative Factors and Soft Costs and Benefits.
Hard costs and benefits
Costs associated directly with actual construction, leasing, maintenance, and upkeep. Hard benefits are savings on revenues generated directly from these activities. See also Soft Costs and Benefits.
Hard disk
A system of rigid, electromagnetically imprinted platters on which computer data is stored. Usually installed permanently in a hard disk drive; used to transfer information from memory to permanent storage. See also Floppy Disk.
Hard insurance market
An insurance market characterized by rising premiums and difficulty in obtaining coverage.
Hard water
Water containing calcium and magnesium salts in concentration of 1 gpg or more as calcium carbonate equivalent.
A measure of the calcium and magnesium content of water.
The physical mechanical components of a computer (processing chip, circuit boards, memory chips, rectifiers, transformers, disk drives, cables, etc.).
Hardware schedule
A table indicating precise types of hardware (such as hinges, hooks, closers, etc.) required for doors, windows, cabinets, and other features.
Wood from deciduous trees (trees with broad leaves that are normally shed in the fall). Not necessarily an indication of the relative hardness of that particular wood.
Harmonic distortion
The ratio of the root-mean-square value of the harmonics to the amplitude of the fundamental component.
Distortion of voltage and/or amperage in an electrical circuit.
Distortion in an electrical distribution system.
Hazardous waste
Broad term encompassing waste from industry and commercial establishments that has the potential to cause increased risk of illness or death. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines hazardous waste by listing specific wastes and including other wastes that display the hazardous characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
Hazardous waste manifest
A legal document that identifies the type and quantity of hazardous waste, as well as the transporters and facility to which it will be shipped.
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.120, designed to protect employees who are expected to respond to releases of hazardous substances.
epatitis B virus. A disease that damages the liver and is transmitted by bloodborne pathogens.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Ozone-depleting chemicals regulated under the U.S. Clean Air Act.
Hazard Communication Standard. OSHA Regulation 29 CFR 1910.1200. Also known as Employee Right-to-Know. Mandates that a written chemical hazard communication program be developed and implemented in the workplace.
See Front-End.
The horizontal structural piece over a window or door opening.
Health and safety plan
A written plan required by regulations and prepared by consultants and contractors addressing the potential health and safety concerns that may be encountered on a specific project or property.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
A prepaid group health insurance plan organized by an insurance company, Blue Cross plan, or corporation that entitles members to services of participating hospitals, doctors, and other providers of medical care. HMOs can be either for profit or nonprofit. In the typical HMO, physicians and other health care professionals are employees of the HMO, and hospitals are either owned by or under contract with the HMO.
Heat exchanger
A device specifically designed to transfer heat between two physically separated fluids.
Heat gun
An apparatus that emits enough heat to soften paint, which can then be scraped from a surface.
Heat pump
An electric device that uses a compressor to drive refrigeration cycles to move heat from one medium to another. A device capable of providing heating or cooling by reversing its operation.
Heat sink
The thermal reservoir to which energy can be added through heat transfer.
Heat source
The thermal reservoir from which energy is withdrawn through heat transfer.
Heat transmission
The movement of heat through material.
Heating, Ventilating, And Air-Conditioning (HVAC) System
The mechanical system of the building that heats, ventilates air from the buildin
14 Dec 2009

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