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Startseite - Facility Management Forum - Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 3

Heating, Ventilating, And Air-Conditioning (HVAC) System
The mechanical system of the building that heats, ventilates air from the building, and provides fresh or conditioned air.
The measurement of inductance; abbreviated H. A component or circuit has an inductance of one henry when a current changing at a rate of one ampere per second induces a counter Electromotive Force (emt) of one volt.
High efficiency particulate air. Filtration equipment that forces air through high efficiency filters designed to remove a high percentage of hazardous substances such as asbestos fibers.
A small hand tool intended for use in bending small rigid conduit.
HID (High-Intensity Discharge) lamps
Types of arc discharge lamps, including mercury vapor, metal-halide, and high-pressure sodium, used for general lighting. These lamps generate light in a quartz arc tube normally sealed in an outer glass bulb.
Hierarchy of human needs
A behavioral theory that holds there are five basic levels of human needs: safety, physical needs, love and belonging, esteem or status, and self-actualization.
Highest and best use
The reasonable, probable, and legal use of vacant land or an improved property, which is physically possible, appropriately supported, financially feasible, and results in the highest value. Four criteria for establishing the highest and best use are legal permissibility, physically possibility, financial feasibility, and maximum profitability.
High-frequency radio system
A Local Area Network (LAN) in which signals are transmitted through antennas at frequencies of 18 GHz to 19 GHz through Ethernet devices with coaxial cable. The system's use of a licensed frequency band protects it from electrical noise.
High-involvement organization
An organization in which higher levels of staff involvement are required in all aspects of a company's operations than are usually present in traditional hierarchical structures.
Highly Protected Risk (Hpr) insurers
Property insurance companies or groups of property insurance companies that specialize in providing coverage for the very best property risks.
High-pressure sodium lamps
The most efficient high-intensity discharge (HID) white light source, producing a warm, golden color.
Hired auto liabilty insurance
Liability coverage in excess of that carried by the owners of hired, rented, or borrowed autos.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A disease that destroys the body's immune system and is transmitted by bloodborne pathogens.
See Health Maintenance Organization.
Hold-harmless agreement
An agreement in which one party consents to protecting the other from loss and to paying for the other party's losses.
The crime that involves any killing of a person by the act, culpable omission, or procurement of another person.
A material that is evenly mixed and similar in appearance and texture throughout.
The rate at which work is accomplished over time. One horsepower equals 33,000 ft-lb/min.
Hoskold premise
A discounting concept that holds that there are two component interest rates involved in discounting. These are (1) a safe rate that will return the invested capital at the maturity of the investment, and (2) a speculative rate that is a fair rate of return for the risk taken in making the investment.
Host liquor liability coverage
Incidental liquor liability coverage for people serving alcoholic beverages who are not in the liquor business and who do not charge for providing it.
Hot lead
A power conductor connected to the power source, normally colored black, red, blue, brown, or yellow for identification.
Hot site
A Secured Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF) kept active all the time. See also Cold Site.
Hot spot
An area where light is most concentrated. Caused by luminaires that do not emit light evenly.
Workspace that is reserved on a first call basis and not dedicated to any specific worker beyond a specified amount of time.
Time-sharing in an office environment; space is shared much the same as it is in a hotel (it is "booked" or reserved for specific, limited time periods).
Hot-water (or steam) extractor
A cleaning machine that injects a hot water solution into the carpet and then removes it by vacuuming.
A worker who performs domestic tasks, as in hotels and hospitals, where cleaning functions are combined with domestic tasks.
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments. Legislative amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that authorized the EPA to promulgate requirements that regulate underground storage tanks.
Huddle room
A non-scheduable meeting space for three to four people. This space may be used for a brief meeting or can be assigned for the length of a project. Usually utilized by those who are housed in open workstations.
A basic color.
Human and environmental factors
Encompass worker health and safety, workers' compensation regulatory practices and procedures, emergency preparedness, and disaster planning and recovery.
Human approach
An approach to loss control that focuses on human errors or practices.
Partially decomposed organic matter.
HVAC System
See Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system.
A telephone system with features midway between key systems and larger PBX systems. Hybrid systems can serve up to 100 telephones and can usually support longer distances between the control unit and the telephone than key systems can.
Hydraulic elevators
Elevators that depend on the pumping of fluid into a cylinder beneath the elevator car to raise the car.
The transfer of heat using a circulating fluid such as water or water vapor.
Readily absorbing and retaining moisture; the process of absorbing moisture by the use of a desiccant.
A synthetic rubber (chlorosulfonated polyathylene), often used in conjunction with neoprene in elastomeric roof coverings. (Hypalon is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company.)
Hypersensitivity diseases
Diseases characterized by allergic responses to antigens.
To pledge intangible property as security for a debt.


See Indoor Air Quality.
Intelligent building system. An integrated BAS for the physical plant that is electronically linked with corporate mission-related business systems. See also BAS (Building Automation System) and EMS (Energy Management System).
A graphic symbol for a software program, file, or task used in a Graphic User Interface (GUI).
Incident command system. An organized approach to effectively control and manage operations at an emergency incident involving hazardous substances, headed by the senior official responding to the incident.
Invitation for bids. A detailed prescriptive specification, including bidding procedures, and an invitation to contractors to submit bids that meet the lowest cost outlined in the specification.
International Facility Management Association. A professional association headquartered in Houston, Texas, dedicated to the support of the facilities management profession and its practitioners.
Ignitable waste
A waste that can cause a fire under certain conditions.
The quantity of light at a point on a surface. Expressed in footcandles (U.S.) or lux (metric).
Impact noise
Any noise in which the interval between peak sound levels is greater than one second.
The relationship of resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance in a circuit; abbreviated Z.
Implied condition
A contract condition that is inferred from the circumstances of a contract.
Implied contracts
Contracts that are deemed to have arisen as a result of the actions of the contracting parties.
Implied warranty
A promise that is not specifically stated but is implied to exist.
Retrieving a file generated in one program into another program (e.g., bringing data from a spreadsheet program into a word processing program).
Impossibility of performance
A defense that is raised when the promisor commits to doing something that becomes impossible through no fault of his or her own.
The Uniform Commercial Code and the Restatement (Second) of Contracts (section 261) excuse the promisor if performance becomes impracticable because of some extreme or unreasonable difficulty, expense, injury, or loss that was not foreseen when the contract was made.
Alterations and additions to buildings that increase their asset value. See also Custodial Housekeeping and Maintenance.
In lieu of foreclosure
A negotiated sale of the property to the lender for the amount of a loan, bypassing the need for judicial action, and shortening the foreclosure process.
In rem jurisdiction
The power of a court to determine rights in specific property that will be binding against all persons wherever they are located.
Inactive records
Records accessed less frequently than once a month. See also Archival Records and Vital Records.
Inbound service
Telecommunications services for calls coming into a company. See also Outbound Service.
Incandescent lamp
A device that produces light when a fine tungsten wire (a filament) is heated by passing electric current through it.
Inchoate offenses
Crimes that are committed prior to, and in anticipation of, another crime. Under the Model Penal Code, inchoate offenses include the crimes of solicitation, attempt, and conspiracy.
Incidental malpractice liability coverage
Insures against liability when an insured renders aid to an injured person and is later accused of performing that medical aid in an incorrect manner.
Incidental release
A release of a hazardous substance that can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise controlled by employees in the immediate area.
The return received by a person or firm from any source.
Income loss
Financial loss caused by direct damage to property.
Income stream
The sum of all sources of income from a property.
Income tax
A percentage tax levied by the federal government on earnings of both individuals and corporations.
Increased cost of construction insurance
Coverage for the increased costs of rebuilding or repairing damaged buildings due to laws or codes that require upgrading to new building codes or laws that require expensive modifications to the building.
Incremental funding
Developing funding requests for only those items different from the preceding year, rather than a request for each item each year. See also Zero-Base Funding.
Incurred loss amount
The amount that the insurance company has already paid with respect to a claim, plus the additional amount the insurance company estimates it will have to pay in the future relating to that claim.
Indemnification provision
An agreement by one party (the indemnitor) to act as insurer of another party (the indemnitee) and to substitute the first party's liability for that of the second party by agreeing to reimburse or make whole the second party for losses he or she suffers.
To compensate or reimburse a person for a loss.
Independent agency companies
A method of marketing insurance through agents who represent various insurance companies and operate as independent business people in selling and servicing their clients.
Independent agency system
A sales system in which agents own companies.
Independent claims adjusters
Independent contractors who adjust claims for different insurance companies. They are typically hired by an insurance company when it does not have enough claims activity in a certain geographical area to justify having its own personnel or when a claim requires an adjuster with particular expertise in claims of that type.
Independent contractor
A person who contracts to perform a job or service for a party who does not control the methods or the conduct of the person in performing the job or service.
Independent contractor liability
The named insured's liability for claims alleging loss caused by independent contractors performing work for the named insured.
Indirect contribution
A contribution by an organizational unit to a company's profitability that saves or reduces costs rather than generates income or sales.
Indirect lighting system
A system in which 90 percent to 100 percent of the light from a luminaire shines upward.
Indirect property loss
Collateral damage caused by direct damage to property.
Indirectly attributable costs
In facilities management, items such as maintenance of common space and lobbies or the cost of providing minimal maintenance for vacant space. Such costs are usually allocated pro rata to all customers in a facility. See also Attributable Costs and Nonattributable Costs.
Individual medical underwriting
The process of underwriting health insurance for small employers in which each individual employee or department is accepted or rejected for coverage.
Individual permit
A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for facilities that do not qualify for a general permit and have stormwater flows that come into contact with contaminants.
Indoor air contaminants
Include tobacco smoke; volatile organic compounds; combustion gases; emissions from material and furnishings, appliances, and office equipment and supplies; and biological organisms.
The overall quality of air in an enclosed space, accounting for factors such as temperature, humidity, odor, clarity, and absence of toxins or other agents that impair human health. See also BRI Building-Related Illness and SBS Sick Building Syndrome.
Indoor air quality profile
An organized body of information that assesses the impact of indoor air quality maintenance efforts and upgrades of ventilating systems to determine the overall indoor air quality of a building.
Indoor parking facility
A parking garage located within a structure.
The process of creating an Electromotive Force (emf), and subsequently an electric current, by causing a conductor to cut through the lines of force of a magnetic field; abbreviated L.
Induction motor
A motor with no direct electrical connection between the stator and the rotor. Moving magnetic fields created in the stator induce an electromagnetic field in the rotor.
Industrial Revenue Bond (IRB)
A government or agency will set up a business venture for the purpose of providing development or employment within the government or agency's jurisdiction. Industrial revenue bonds will be issued on behalf of the government or agency to support the business venture. Repayment of the bonds is directly dependent upon the success of the venture, unlike the general obligation, which can repay the bonds by levying additional taxes.
Inert gases
Gases that do not mix readily with other gases.
The uncontrolled leakage of unconditioned outdoor air into a building.
A prolonged and continuous increase of average price levels.
Pertaining to data processing, raw data manipulated to extract patterns, trends, and inferences that explain relationships between the events that constitute the data. See also Knowledge.
Information management
The traditional term for managing computer systems, mostly centralized processing.
Information superhighway
A merging of the telecommunications, television, computer, and cable industries that will enhance connectivity on a very large scale.
Infrared line-of-sight
A method of transmitting signals over a network using the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Infrared scanner
A device that highlights temperature differences between elements in the field of view; newer scanners can be programmed to show the actual temperature.
Infrastructure maintenance
Maintenance performed on a building's structure, core, exterior walls, plumbing system, and finishes in public areas.
An order of the court directing a defendant to act or to refrain from acting in a specified way.
Innocent purchaser defense
A legal defense taken to avoid liability imposed by Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act/Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA/SARA) regulations. It implies that a buyer may be relieved from liability "if all appropriate inquiry into previous ownership and uses of the property consistent with good commercial or customary practice" was made.
In-place management
An abatement strategy that reduces the chance of exposure by leaving a substance in place by enclosing, encapsulating, or covering it.
Data or signals entered into a computer or peripheral.
Input devices
Devices used to enter or alter data in computer memory (e.g., a keyboard, mouse, bar-coders, and scanners).
A approach in which FM executives look to outside FM service firms as process experts who are hired as consultants to measure operations against the commercial benchmark and make recommendations for improvement.
Installation floater
Insurance against loss to property while in transit and at the job site until the job is completed and accepted by the owner.
Installed equipment
Equipment affixed to the owner’s buildings that is maintained by the facility manager, not the functional operator or line manager.
Installment land sale contract
Financing the purchase of real estate by agreeing to pay the purchase price to the seller in installments over a period of time.
Installment sale
(1) Purchasing real estate by making payments over time to the seller. (2) A sale of property in which the seller transfers title to the property and receives periodic payments from the purchaser until the unpaid balance is retired.
Instantaneous water heater
A water heater with little or no storage capacity. Water is heated when needed as it flows through the unit's heating apparatus.
Institute Of Real Estate Management (IREM)
An institute founded in 1933 as part of the National Association of Realtors to "improve and promote the professional development and stature of those individuals and organizations engaged in the field of real estate management."
Institutional lender
A financial institution that invests in mortgages and holds the mortgages in its investment portfolio.
A willful, deliberate, or purposeful refusal to follow an employer's reasonable directions.
Insulating glass
Two panes in a single sash separated by a dead air space hermetically sealed to provide thermal insulation. The glass panels are held apart by metal separating channels (filled by desiccant) and the edges are sealed to exclude moisture. See also Double Glazed.)
Material whose primary purpose is to confine the electric current flowing through a conductor. A secondary purpose of insulation is to protect a conductor from the effects of its surroundings.
See Thermal Insulation.
Material through which electricity or electrons do not flow easily. Substances with filled or nearly filled valence subshells (those with seven or eight electrons) do not give up their electrons and thus are good insulators. Insulators also provide protection for both electronic conductors and personnel.
Insurable interest
A principle that states one may not collect more than one's own financial interest in the property damaged or destroyed.
Insurable value
That portion of the value of an asset or asset group that is acknowledged or recognized under the provisions of an applicable loss insurance policy.
A means by which the financial consequences of potential accidental losses are transferred from an insured business, person, or family to an insurer by payment of an insurance policy premium.
Insurance binder
A temporary insurance policy, which provides coverage until the actual policy can be issued by the insurance company.
Insurance brokers
Insurance brokers who do not represent insurance companies directly and, therefore, do not have the authority to bind coverage with insurance companies. Brokers offer to shop for their clients among a number of insurance companies and, as compensation, typically receive a portion of the agent's commission or a portion or all of the usual commission paid by the insurance company.
Insurance company staff adjusters
Claims personnel who are employed directly by the insurance company, as opposed to the insurance agent who may be an independent business owner.
Insurance policy endorsements
Printed forms attached to the insurance policy which amend the basic policy in some way.
Insurance Services Office (ISO)
An insurance industry service organization that collects statistical data for numerous insurance companies and disseminates the information to its members.
Insurance specifications
The data provided by the insured to all participants for the preparation of insurance proposals.
Insuring agreement
The part of the policy that describes what the insurer promises to cover in the policy.
Intangible property
Property that has no physical existence but consists of legally recognized rights.
The process by which all parties to a contract accept the writings of the contract as the full and final agreement.[BOMI Institute source]
Intelligent buildings
Buildings that are designed with a flexibility to accommodate change.
Requires that the defendant intended to bring about, through an act, the consequences that form the basis of the intentional tort, or that the defendant knew that the consequences would occur.
Intentional misrepresentation
A tort, sometimes known as fraud or deceit, that involves a deceitful or fraudulent misrepresentation or false statement knowingly made by the defendant resulting in monetary loss to the plaintiff.
Intentional tort
(1) An intentionally committed wrongful act for which the law provides a remedy in the form of an action for damages. (2) Deliberate wrongful act or omission, which may have unintentional consequences.
Inter vivos gift
A gift of property not made in contemplation of the donor's death. The recipient, or donee, becomes the absolute owner of the gifted property.
Interactive control systems
Cultural norms that help focus on strategy and its accompanying uncertainties, opportunities, and appropriate responses for changing competitive conditions.
Fee paid for the use of money. Interest may also be viewed as rent paid for the use of money.
Interest in land
In the context of a statute of frauds analysis, generally means some or all of the title or right of possession to real estate.
Interest-only loan
A loan on which only interest is paid until the maturity date, at which time the entire principal of the obligation is payable.
Software programs that permit dissimilar devices and software programs to work together to import and export data successfully; also refers to the text line or graphic image used to transmit text or graphics-based instructions to a computer.
Interior design program
The project phase in which the furniture, finishes, and color families and fabrics are selected, and the design of custom furniture and millwork is determined.
Intermediate colors
Colors made by adding a secondary color to a primary color.
Internal customers
People who work in or visit the facility, such as employees, managers, and executives of the organization; contractors; and business customers who come to the facility to conduct business. See also External Customers.
Internal Rate Of Return (IRR)
A measure of investment performance; the rate of return on capital that is generated or capable of being generated within an investment or portfolio over a period of ownership; similar to the equity yield rate. A rate that equates the present value of the future benefits to the present value of the capital outlays by ownership. It is frequently used as an investment criteria for acquisition purposes and is expressed as a percentage rate.
International Council Of Shopping Centers (ICSC)
An organization founded in 1957 to provide specialized assistance to its members in the areas of site management, legislative affairs, and education.
The ability to program and operate one Building Automation System (BAS) manufacturer's controls from another manufacturer's system. See also Connectivity.
Written questions that are usually answered in writing under oath.
The space between two occupied floors of a building. Similar to a plenum, but usually high and strong enough to walk in; used extensively in ultrahigh concentrations of building utilities (e.g., hospitals and laboratories).
Interstitial monitoring
Checking the space between the primary and secondary layers of containment when secondary containment is required for Underground Storage Tank (UST) systems.
Intervening force
A force that actively produces harm after a defendant's negligent act or omission has already been committed.
A person who dies without a valid will.
Intestate law
Law governing the distribution of a person's property when the person dies without a valid will.
Intestate succession
The legal method by which the property of a person who dies without a valid will is distributed.
The common area between departments, sections, etc., used for corridors, aisles, or walkways.
In computer terminology, software programs designed to emulate what users would naturally or habitually do and to lead them to the next tasks without their having to refer extensively to reference guides. See also User-Friendly.
Invasion of privacy
Infringement on one's right to be left alone.
Any use of capital with the expectation of producing income, appreciation in value, and return of the principal invested.
Investment philosophy
An approach used by property owners in making acquisition and disposition moves.
Investment value
The specific value of an investment to a particular investor or class of investors based on individual investment requirements; as distinguished from market value, which is impersonal and detached.
(1) A person who is expressly or by implication invited to enter upon the premises for the benefit of the owner or occupant. (2) A person who enters property upon the express or implied invitation of the property's owner or possessor.
Involuntary (assigned-risk) market
That segment of the insurance marketplace designed to provide coverage for substandard risks.
Inwood coefficient or premise
A concept which holds that an income stream has a present worth based upon a single discount rate.
A very small particle dissolved in water carrying a positive or negative electrical charge.
Ion exchanger
An insoluble reactive material capable of interchanging ions combined with the material for ions in the solution.
Iron is an element often present in ground waters in a soluble form (such as ferrous bicarbonate) in quantities usually ranging from 0.5 to 10 ppm. Iron may exist in surface waters due to natural causes or pollution. Iron in solution is susceptible to oxidation, precipitating as a reddish-brown floc when contacted by air (causing staining and discoloration). Iron can be removed by aeration or chlorination followed by filtration. Iron in solution can be removed by ion exchange. Oxidizing filters such as manganese treated zeolite are used for removing large amounts of iron from household water supplies.
Iron depositing bacteria
A type of bacteria that uses soluble iron for energy, creating insoluble iron deposits.
Iron filter
Usually refers to a manganese zeolite filter which removes iron by oxidation and filtration.
Integrated systems digital network. Standards for how hardware and software will be used when they are connected.
See Insurance Services Office.
Isometric drawing
A method of drawing an object such that it is shown at the same scale in all three dimensions. No effort is made to indicate foreshortened distances, as in perspective drawing.
Itemized deductions
Cash and noncash operating expenses and interest payments that are deducted from annual gross income on tax returns.

A blind with adjustable horizontal slats admitting light and air while excluding sun and rain. A window made of multiple, adjustable glass louvers that control ventilation.
An upright piece or surface forming the side of an opening, as for a window or door.
A worker who cleans and maintains a building.
Using publications and other media to influence expectations.
Joint and several liability
A situation in which more than one party is liable for repayment of a debt or obligation and a creditor can obtain compensation from one or more parties, either individually or jointly.
Joint tenancy
An estate or unit of interest in real estate that is owned by two or more natural persons with rights of survivorship. (2) Property owned by two or more persons at the same time. The law views the owners not as separate and independent but as one single owner.
Joint venture
A form of ownership in which partners bring different attributes to the venture; typically, the partner who holds the majority ownership is in control of the venture and bears the greater burden of responsibility in its success or failure. An association typically formed between institutions and developers for the development of real estate.
Joisted masonry construction
Buildings usually constructed with exterior walls of concrete block, brick, or some other type of stone, with interior framing or roof joists composed of wood.
Judgment rates
Rates individually determined by the underwriter based on his or her own knowledge and judgment.
Official announcement of the results of litigation.
Junior financing
Generally, any financing that does not have first claim upon the borrower's assets.
Junk bond
A debt security issued by an entity whose ability to repay the debt entails the taking of speculative or imprudent risk by an investor.
Refers to the power of a court to hear and decide a case.
Just-in-time services
A combination of extensive computer support and networks of reliable suppliers that enable manufacturers to deliver goods directly from the production line to the consumer, eliminating shipping transfers and warehousing costs.

Kilobits per second.
Kelvin (K)
Unit of measurement used to determine color temperature. The Kelvin's temperature scale has its zero point at -275.15°C.
Key plans
Small-scale floor plans designed to show room locations, occupant room numbers, and occasionally telephone numbers.
Key systems
Telephone systems designed for small to medium-sized offices with five to forty phones.
Key variables
In strategic planning, those factors that may change and create a major difference in the outcome of any given scenario.
A small, single bend that makes a minor change in direction of a conduit run.
A bonus or additional payment made to a lender over and above fixed or periodic payments. A kicker increases the yield to the lender and becomes an inducement for the lender to make the loan. An additional payment or amount paid to a lender, typically in the form of a percentage of gross receipts or cash flow.
The unit used to measure the power that is available for work. A kilowatt measures real power. One kilowatt equates to one thousand watts.
The unit of measurement upon which the utility company bases its charges for the amount of electricity consumed.
Kinetic energy
The energy of motion.
Kirchhoff's voltage law
In a complete series circuit, the sum of the voltage dropped across each element is equal to the Sum of the electromotive Forces (emf's) applied.
Information put in the context of experience. See also Information and Raw Data.

Term indicating National Electrical Code/Canadian Electrical Code (NEC/CEC) classifications for equipment or products that have been evaluated and the methods used to produce them have been reviewed for compliance with the appropriate manufacturing or performance standards.
Lack of capacity
Insufficient capacity to understand the terms, conditions, and ramifications of a contract.
Lack of covering or hiding
A paint defect commonly caused by not stirring the paint or enamel properly.
Laminated timber
Several layers of wood, suitable for building, glued together to make a thick beam.
Local area network. The system of cabling, signal converters and other equipment, and software that links electronically compatible computers and enables them to exchange data and commands.
Land residual
What money remains after income attributable to the improvements is deducted from the property's net operating income.
Land use control measures
In real estate management, plans and capital improvements budgets, zoning ordinances and master land use plans, subdivision regulations, mandatory dedications and development or impact fees, and construction codes.
One who leases rights of use of real property to a tenant; informally, a party, such as a facilities department, that manages and controls space occupied by other corporate departments, whether that space is corporate-owned or leased from another party.
Software for operating local area networks (LANs).
A crime consisting of the taking of valuable personal property of another with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of the property.
Large-quantity generator
A facility that generates more than 1,000 kilograms of waste (approximately 2,200 pounds or five 55-gallon [209-liter] drums) per month.
Large-scale alliances
In outsourcing, a limited contractual relationship, established among the contractors, whose limits are defined by the type of work for which the alliance has been formed and by the amount of liability to be assumed by each party on behalf of the other(s). One company in the alliance typically assumes a lead management role for the customer.
Laser printer
The most prevalent type of printer for most professional business applications; laser technology is used to produce very crisp, sharp images.
Last clear chance
Legal doctrine that negates defense of contributory negligence where defendant had the last opportunity to avoid harm to plaintiff.
Latent hea
Heat that when added to or removed from a particular substance changes the state of the substance (e.g., solid to liquid, liquid to gas) without changing its temperature.
Lateral communication
Communication between groups in related departments, all reporting in a single division or business line.
Latex-type paint
A paint in which the binder is dispersed or suspended in the solvent, which is usually water.
Law of large numbers
A mathematical premise in which numerous similar units simultaneously exposed to similar hazards greatly increase the ability to predict likely outcomes accurately.
Law of the shop
A uniform and well-established custom between employers and employees, which becomes a part of the employment relationship.
Acts passed by legislative bodies and enacted through appropriate executive bodies, or regulations promulgated through administrative rule making.
plan created by a space planner, interior designer or architect showing locations of tenant improvements and the utilization of the space by the tenant.
Life Cycle Analysis. Estimating the total cost of an item over its entire life cycle, including initial cost, operation and maintenance costs, and projected replacements, minus any salvage value at the end of its life cycle.
Local education authority.
A chemical element (symbol Pb) that is a soft, dense, bluish-gray metal. Very durable, resistant to corrosion, and malleable. Can combine chemically with other atoms or molecules to make new compounds.
Lead based
Surface coatings that contain a dangerous level of lead.
Lead-acid cell
A secondary cell battery that consists of a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid and water (the electrolyte) contained in an acid-resistant enclosure with lead plates creating an Electromotive Force (emf) or potential of approximately 2.2 V.
Lead-based paint hazard
Any exposure that could result in adverse effects on human health from lead-contaminated dust, lead-contaminated soil, or lead-contaminated paint that has deteriorated or is present on accessible, friction, or impact surfaces.
Includes setting long-range goals, defining an organization's direction, recognizing potential, and inspiring others. See also Management.
Learning curve
The length of time required to master how to use a computer program and all its features effectively. Applies to any learning experience.
A written document in which the rights to use and occupancy of land or structures are transferred by the owner to another for a specified period of time in return for a specified rent. (2) An agreement between a landlord and tenant governing the terms of their relationship.
Lease buyout
A process usually initiated by a tenant that wants to vacate leased space before the lease term ends.
Lease management system
Often connected to property systems in off-the-shelf software. Two types are available: those for developer/landlords who manage many buildings and lease space to tenants, and those for tenants who occupy many buildings.
Leasehold interest insurance
Coverage for the tenant's or the landlord's insurable interest in protection from a financial exposure to loss that is related to the terms of their lease.
Leasehold loan
A type of loan that benefits a tenant who has unique, specialized, and expensive tenant improvement costs. This loan is usually only in place where there is a long-term lease that would allow the lender of a leasehold loan sufficient time to take possession of the lease and remarket it in an effort to recoup damages.
Local exchange carrier. The local telephone company that provides dial-tone service.
A horizontal framework member that carries joists and is supported by upright posts or by hangers.
The transfer of money by will.
Legal benefit
Anything that is beneficial to the promisee.
Legal contract
A legally enforceable agreement that involves legal purpose, offer and acceptance, valid consideration, and legally competent parties.
Legal defense costs
The cost of legal expenses to defend against claims made under policies.
Legal description
A specific identification of a parcel of land, given by reference to public maps, plats, or other recorded information, by which one can specifically and exactly define the boundaries and limits of the property.
Legal description of property
description of land that sufficiently identifies the land to meet state law requirements for a deed.
Legal detriment
Either something the promisor does or agrees to do, or something the promisor refrains from doing or agrees not to do.
Legal title
Title to property that is enforceable in court regarding apparent rights to ownership and possession.
Groups of federal and state representatives elected by U.S. citizens to create statutory law by passing bills that are signed into law by the president or governor.
Lender liability
A term that describes lender responsibilities. If a lender acts in bad faith, is negligent, misrepresents, or is guilty of fraud, the lender may be subject to significant liability.
Lenders due diligence
The process whereby a lender prepares all necessary documentation in preparation for a loan. It is also called underwriting.
One who leases rights to use real property.
The tactic of obtaining a large benefit from small improvements in the major cost centers; also, the use of other people's money (stocks or borrowed funds) to obtain returns on an investment. It derives from the concept that a loan on the property allows the borrower to invest less of his own money. Therefore the loan acts as a lever on the cash investment. Leveraging can have a positive or negative effect.
Lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit. With a chemical liquid, the lowest concentration or percentage of vapor in the air that will produce a flash or fire when a flame, spark, or heat is introduced.
The dollar value of everything a company or individual owes including loans, bonds, future lease payments, and other debt.
Liability loss
Loss alleging that persons have suffered some form of injury, such as bodily or financial injury, or have sustained damage to their property.
(1) A written or recorded remark concerning another, which that party considers to be injurious to his or her reputation, good name, or character. (2) A defamatory statement that is recorded in writing or some other permanent form.
An acronym that stands for London International Bank Offered Rates. It is accepted worldwide as a measure of interest rates.
Like an easement, a license permits acts on the land of another that would otherwise be impermissible.
A person who enters the land of another for personal purposes, or as a social guest of the owner, and not for the benefit of the owner.
Those persons who may be permitted or tolerated on the premises and who may be on the premises for their own purposes or convenience.
The holding of property given as security or pledged until the debt it secures is paid. The security interest created by a mortgage.
The radiant energy that the eye perceives. From a scientific standpoint, light is composed of electromagnetic wages of varying intensities lying between the ultraviolet and infrared radiation spectrums.
Light (also lite)
The glass (or plastic) pane in a window assembly.
Lightweight aggregate
A mixture consisting of one or more of the following types of inert material: expanded shale or clay (also called haydite or herculite), vermiculite, perlite, cinders, and blast furnace slag.
Limited boiler and machinery form
A type of insurance coverage limited almost exclusively to explosion losses.
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
A statutorily authorized, unincorporated entity that provides corporate-like limited liability for its owners but is managed, in many respects, like a partnership.
Limited Liability Limited Partnership (LLLP)
A limited partnership that registers with the state in which it is formed and thereby shields its general partners, under state law, from personal liability for certain liabilities of the limited partnership.
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
A general partnership that registers with the state in which it is formed and thereby shields its partners, under state law, from personal liability for certain liabilities of the partnership.
Limited partner
A partner in a limited partnership whose personal liability for partnership legal obligations is limited to his or her capital contribution.
Limited partnership
A partnership that, under state law, is permitted to have partners that are not liable for the partnership's torts and contractual obligations.
Limited worldwide liability coverage
Extends coverage to those insured persons who are temporarily outside designated boundaries on business and extends products liability coverage to products that were sold in the restricted area but caused injury outside of those boundaries.
Line authority
The relationship between an employee and any supervisor or manager who has authority to issue direct orders that the employee must follow. See also Staff Function.
Line item
An individual cost or revenue item listed in a budget.
Line notching
A dip in the supply voltage to a converter due to a momentary short-circuit in the Alternating Current (AC) lines during a transfer of unidirectional current. Or, a momentary dip in supply voltage caused by the reactive drops in a supply circuit during the high rates of change in currents that occur in AC lines during the transfer of unidirectional current.
Linear work process
A way of working in which tasks are performed one at a time in sequence rather than concurrently. See also Concurrent Work Process.
The oldest form of resilient floor covering. A decorative mix of oxidized drying oils, natural or synthetic resins, organic fillers, mineral fillers, curing agents, and pigments are thermoset to a suitable carrier (burlap, organic fiber felts saturated with synthetic resins or asphaltic compounds, duck, or mineral fiber sheets).
Liquid chiller
A refrigeration machine that uses mechanical energy to generate chilled water.
Liquidated damages
(1) An amount of money that parties to a contract agree will compensate one party to the contract in the event of breach of the contract by the other party. (2) Damages that are anticipated by the parties to a contract and are specified in the contract as an agreed upon amount to be paid to compensate one party in the event of a material breach of the contract by the other party.
An entity's cash position, based upon assets that can be readily converted into cash.
Liquidtight conduit
A variation of flex conduit covered with a synthetic rubber; used in wet or hazardous locations.
A condition that results in soil becoming liquified, often caused by water main breaks, earthquakes, or extensive flooding.
Lis pendens
Public notices that a property is subject to a lawsuit, even though no such determination has been made.
Term indicating National Elecrical Code/Canadian Electrical Code (NEC/CEC) classified equipment or products have been evaluated and the methods used to produce them reviewed by an organization acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The testing organization publishes a list of equipment or products that meet the appropriate design standards.
Listed waste
Any EPA waste listed in 40 CFR Part 261 Subpart D; known as F-, K-, P-, and U-list wastes.
Listing agent
The agent who works for the broker with whom the property is listed.
Unit of capacity equal to the volume of one kilogram of water. Equal to 1.0567 liquid quarts.
Little kicker
A hand tool that produces an offset in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT). See also Kick.
Live load
The weight of occupants, furniture, and movable partitions. When applied to a roof surface, it may include an allowance for snow or water.
Lloyd's of london
One of the world's largest insurance organizations, composed of thousands of individual underwriters.
Load factor
Refers to the percentage add-on factor, which is used to convert usable square footage to rentable square footage.
The characteristic describing the ability of soil or of a wall to bear the load of a building, or of a structural member to bear the compressive load of the building (for example, a loadbearing wall).
Loam soil
A mixture of clay, silt, and sand. The ideal soil, the composition of loam falls between the extremes of clay and sand.
The renting of money by a lender to a borrower to be repaid at a future time. A loan may be with or without interest.
Loan amortization
The systematic payment of the principal balance of a loan over a prescribed term.
Loan commitment
(1) A binding obligation to perform an act or loan money within a specified period of time in accordance with specific terms and conditions. (2) A contract, usually in writing, under which a lender and borrower agree to enter into a loan transaction.
Loan constant
A mathematical factor used to determine debt service for an amortizing loan.
Loan coverage
A relationship between net income before noncash deductions and debt service required on a loan. The higher the loan coverage, the more secure the loan. The coverage ratio is determined by dividing net income by debt service.
Loan processing
The preparation by a lender of a loan file so that a loan can be closed and disbursed. This processing may include ordering appraisals, credit reports, title insurance, and gathering other documentation for the loan.
Loan servicing
The administration of loans after their closing. Servicing includes collecting mortgage payments, maintaining escrows, dealing with borrowers that are in default, and making periodic property inspections.
Loan-commitment letter
A letter from a permanent or long-term lender stating that upon completion of construction of the property, the lender commits to making a loan.
Loan-To-Value (LTV) Ratio
The percentage of the current outstanding amount of a loan as a ratio of the value of the property secured by the loan. Example: A $100,000 property with an outstanding loan amount of $79,500 would have an LTV of 79.5 percent.
Loan-to-value ratio
The ratio of the loan amount to the value of the collateral.
Local emphasis programs
Programs instituted by OSHA regional offices, as determined by the area director, in which specific industries ranging from academia to food service are inspected.
Localized corrosion
Corrosion at a single location on a metal surface, progressing deep into the metal rather than spreading across the surface.
Localized energy management control system
An EMCS that uses multiple independent local sensors and actuators that operate building equipment without acting in conjunction with surrounding sensors, actuators, or equipment.
Location rent
That portion of rent that is attributable to the economic advantage provided by one location over another because of a particular location's ability to provide lower costs and greater convenience.
Lock-in clause
A mortgage provision that prohibits prepayment of the loan during a portion or the entire term of a loan. The purpose of such mortgage agreements, also known as prepayment prohibitions,is to ensure that the lender receives its anticipated yield during the lock-in period.
A required procedure to ensure that once a circuit has been deenergized, it cannot be reenergized without the knowledge and permission of the person who established the lockout/tagout.
A record of building system performance data. Three basic types used in building operation are the daily operating log, the equipment operating log, and a utilities log.
Log on
To activate an electronic connection between a computer and a Local Area Network (LAN).
Long-arm statutes
State statutes that permit the state's courts to look to the contacts that the defendant has with the state to determine whether the court has personal jurisdiction over the defendant.
Long-distance carrier
A telecommunications company that actually owns and installs long-distance transmission facilities and equipment linked to Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) networks.
Long-range or long-term
A time horizon of more than two years; in North America generally not longer than five years.
Long-term capital gains
Refers to the appreciation of a property over time.
Long-Term Disability Insurance (LTD)
Disability insurance to cover the loss of income suffered by an employee due to serious and lasting disability, usually up to age 65.
Look-up data
Records of equipment lists, property inventories, and other data related to what an organization has as opposed to data related to transactions (what an organization does).
Loss and expense constants
Workers' compensation policy charges that compensate for the additional expenses associated with smaller insurance policies.
Loss control
A process of dealing with loss exposure that involves both loss prevention and loss reduction.
Loss exposure
Possibility of damage to property or bodily injury.
Loss payees
Entities to whom proceeds of a claim are payable based on their financial interest in insured property.
Loss prevention programs
Programs designed to prevent a loss from occurring or to at least reduce the chance of it occurring.
Loss reduction programs
Programs that attempt to minimize the frequency and severity of loss.
Loss reserving
Process by which the insurer's representative estimates the losses that will ultimately be paid and then holds back or reserves money to cover these future expenditures.
Loss runs
Documented records of past and present losses suffered by a business during a policy period.
Loss-of-income insurance
Business insurance to replace lost income following damage to property.
Lost property
Property that has been carelessly and inadvertently parted with. The owner generally has no recollection of where the property was left.
Lost workday cases
Injury or illness cases that involve employee days away from work or days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays
The number of workdays (consecutive or not), after the day of injury or the onset of illness, that an employee is away from work or is limited to restricted work activity because of an occupational injury or illness.
Low voltage
Lighting and electrical systems that operate on voltage much lower than the 110/220-V service commonly found in North America.
Lowest first cost
A method of selecting goods or services on the basis of the lowest cost at the time of purchase.
Locked-Rotor Amperage. When power is first applied, a motor draws a very high current or amperage due to low counter Electromotive Force (emf).
See Long-term Disability Insurance.
The wood building material that is milled from trees.
Lumen (lm)
The unit of light quantity or output. One lumen is the amount of light striking a surface 1 sq ft (9.3 dm) in area, with a light density of 1 footcandle. Thus, 1 lumen equals 1 footcandle per square foot (9.3 dm).
A complete lighting unit consisting of one or more lamps, housing, optical components, and electrical components (ballast, starters, etc.).
Luminous efficiency or lumens per watt
A quantity that indicates the efficiency of a lamp or lighting system by its raw output of light compared to the energy used. [BOMI Institute source]
Lump-sum contract
A contract method usually arrived at through a competitive bidding approach submitted by a contractor, based on a fixed set of contract documents. The contractor assumes total risk for losses due to bid oversight and retains any additional profit where savings are achieved.
Lung cancer
The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung.
The metric equivalent of footcandle; 1 footcandle (fc) = 10.764 lux.

Maximum achievable control technology. Applied to major sources of air pollution emitting listed air toxics.
A proprietary brand name from Apple Computer for a family of microcomputers using a graphically based operating system and system architecture different from that of IBM-compatible Personal Computers (PCs).
Macro commands
Instructions activated by one or two keystrokes that simplify tasks normally requiring numerous keystrokes.
Large scale, economy-wide economic activity.
Magnesite composition flooring
A flooring material made from fillers bound together by calcined magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride. Depending on the filler, the floor can vary in density and appearance.
One of the elements making up the earth's crust, the compounds of which, when dissolved in water, make the water hard. The presence of magnesium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds, which are means of clearly identifying hard water.
Magnetic flux
Lines of force traveling between the north pole and south pole of a magnet.
Magnetic motor starter
A motor starter that combines the functions of a simple relay or contactor with other advantages such as overload protection.
Magnetic overload relay
A device that converts electric energy to magnetic force to open the circuit when an overload condition occurs.
Main panel
The first point in the building power distribution system; normally contains some method for disconnecting the electrical system from the source.
A large, powerful central computer, also called a host computer, that accomplishes all data processing instructions it receives from a large number of remote, dumb terminals.
Services that provide the physical upkeep of a facility and its systems, including repairs designed to keep a facility in good condition and preserve its asset value.
Maintenance Worthy Items (MWI)
Equipment and components that should be included in a preventive maintenance program.
Major medical insurance
Health insurance that provides coverage for medical expenses resulting from accident or sickness. It is typically provided through employer, union, or association groups.
Makeup air
Air that is brought into a building from outdoors through the ventilation system and has not been previously circulated through the system.
Malpractice insurance
See Errors And Omissions Insurance.
Managed care plans
Health plans in which the individual must first consult a primary-care physician selected in advance from a list of approved physicians.
Includes executing plans, coordinating activities and resources, fostering cooperation among organizational units, and supervising day-to-day operations. See also Leadership.
Manual cleaning tools
Brushes, brooms, mops, etc., often specialized by design and use.
Manual rates
Rates printed in a rating manual.
Manuscript endorsement
Individualized, nonstandard agreement attached to a policy that is written more or less from scratch to tailor coverage specifically for that account.
EPA Model Accreditation Plan for asbestos abatement established in the AHERA regulation (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E, Appendix C).
Market comparison approach
One of the three basic approaches to value. Calculated by comparing similar sold properties.
Market dominance
Occurs when an investor buys a large share of a particular market, thereby creating a dominance in that marketplace.
Market price
The actual sale amount. It does not necessarily mean that the parties acted prudently or with knowledge.
Market value
The most probable price as of a specific date, in cash, terms equivalent to cash, or in other precisely revealed terms for which the specified property rights should sell after reasonable exposure in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to fair sale. It assumes that the buyer and seller each are acting prudently, knowledgeably, and for self-interest without duress.
Marketable title
Title to real estate that is free of reasonable doubt as to its validity and that a reasonably intelligent person would be willing to accept in exercising normal business prudence.
A denominator that indicates that property is adjusted to the current market value.
Masonry noncombustible construction
A type of construction similar to noncombustible construction, except that the walls are of masonry rather than of metal construction.
A person who employs another to perform a service and who has the right to control the conduct of that person in the performance of the service.
Master Limited Partnership (MLP)
(1) A blending of a general partnership/limited partnership, and a way to securitize properties. (2) A limited partnership in which the limited partnership interests are publicly traded on securities exchanges or in the over-the-counter market.
Master policy
he health insurance policy issued to the insured employer.
Master-servant relationship
A legally recognized relationship based on the right of the master to control the physical actions of the servant.
Material breach
A breach of a contract that gives the injured party the right to cancel the remainder of the contract and to sue for damages resulting from the breach.
Material misrepresentation
A misstatement which, if the truth were known, might cause the insurance company to decline to offer coverage or to offer it on very different terms.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
A chemical information form explaining a product's possible hazards, which the manufacturer must provide when the product is purchased in the U.S.
Math coprocessor
A computer chip designed especially to process numeric-intensive instructions faster than ordinary chips; used in conjunction with standard chips.
Matrix management
An organizational design in which an employee reports to one person for technical guidance (usually a lateral or staff relationship with peers) and to another for management line functions (usually a vertical relationship with one's superiors).
Any substance that has weight or mass and occupies space. All matter is made up of individual atoms or groups of atoms known as molecules. Individual atoms are classified as elements, the building blocks of matter.
The date upon which payment of an obligation is due.
Megabits per second.
Motor Control Center. A relatively complex device that makes it possible to remotely control and provide circuit protection for motors installed in a building.
Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT)
The average temperature of all the surfaces to which a person is exposed, exchanging infrared radiation.
Mechanic liens
A type of lien that offers preference to tradesmen. In some states, these liens are granted a prior position to the mortgagee.
Mechanical area
That portion of the gross area of a building designated to house mechanical equipment, utility services, and nonprivate toilet facilities.
Mechanical compression refrigerator
A refrigeration machine that uses mechanical energy to generate chilled water or cool air.
Mechanical cover sheet
n engineering construction drawing that indicates all mechanical notes, legends, and details, including a partial plumbing plan and plumbing riser diagram for the portion of the facility involved.
Mechanical energy
The sum of kinetic and potential energy.
Mechanical plan
An engineering construction drawing that shows all modifications to the existing mechanical system, diffuser locations, thermostat locations, and the specification of any other equipment, such as supplemental cooling systems.
In computer terminology, the form in which output is generated (e.g., on screen, on paper, as sound).
Medical treatment
Treatment of injuries administered by physicians, registered professional personnel, or nonmedical personnel; does not include first aid treatment.
Megohmmeter or megger
An electric meter used to test the resistance of highly resistive materials such as cable insulation or the insulation on motor and generator windings.
Member Appraisal Institute (MAI)
An institute whose members understand how capital improvement or leasing decisions affect short- or long-term value.
Any thin, pliable or flexible roof covering; a pliable or flexible weather-resistant component of a roofing system.
The capacity of a computer to hold data in RAM so it can be edited, supplemented, or deleted. See also Conventional Memory and Upper Memory.
Under the Uniform Commercial Code, one who commonly deals in goods of a particular type.
Mercury vapor lamp
The earliest form of High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp; can be used either indoors or outdoors.
Legal doctrine under which all covenants as to title in the sale contract are extinguished by the deed, unless expressly provided for in the deed.
Merger clause
A statement in a contract declaring that the contract contains the entire agreement between the contracting parties and that all prior negotiations and agreements are merged into the contract.
A rare form of cancer, associated with asbestos exposure, that develops in the lining of the chest or abdominal cavity.
Metal passivation
A chemical treatment process that places a protective coating on a metal surface to minimize or prevent corrosion.
Metal-halide lamp
A High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp similar to a mercury vapor lamp with improved color rendition.
A condition in which two objects match under one light source, but not under another.
Metes and bounds legal description
A legal description that describes land by a sequence of courses and distances corresponding to the property's boundaries.
Microbiological growth
A problem in cooling water systems involving tiny organisms like bacteria, algae, and fungi. These organisms can grow into large colonies and destroy metal and wood surfaces and reduce heat transfer.
he typical desktop or laptop computer.
Small-scale economic activity i
14 Dec 2009

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