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Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon

Text Datum Benutzer
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Lexicon in English wo finde ich ein FM Lexikon
Guten Tag, als Ergänzung mein English Lexicon TGA, FM, LC.
MfG Braun
Teil 4

Microcomputer
he typical desktop or laptop computer.
Microeconomic
Small-scale economic activity involving individuals, a business firm, or similar levels of activity.
Milliliter (ml)
A unit of capacity in the metric system equal to 1/1000 of a liter and equivalent to 0.033815 fluid ounces.
Millscale
Debris or contaminants that are found in water pipes after they are manufactured.
Millwork
Custom designed and built furniture, usually built-in.
Millwork plans
Construction drawings that show special architectural construction items. The elevation sheet keys in all millwork sections and details.
Mineral granules
Natural or synthetic mineral or rock fragments ranging in size from 500 microns to 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) diameter, used to cover the top surface of cap sheets, slate sheets, and shingles.
Mineral-surfaced sheet
An asphalt-saturated felt, coated on one or both sides and then covered on the top surface (weather-exposed side) with mineral granules.
Minicomputer
A scaled-down version of a mainframe computer; larger and more powerful than a desktop computer.
Minimization programs
Loss control methods that take effect either before the loss or while it is actually occurring in order to lessen loss severity.
Minimum or minimum earned premium
The premium that the insurance company will be entitled to receive no matter what portion of the policy period has passed. A 25 percent minimum earned premium is common.
MIS
Management information system. A general term for all automated hardware and software used to provide and maintain information.
Miscellaneous materials
A category of asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) comprised mostly of nonfriable asbestos products and materials, such as ceiling tiles, floor tiles, roofing felt, transit pipes and panels, exterior siding, fabrics, and sheetrock systems.
Misdemeanor
Crimes that are less serious than felonies. In some states, misdemeanors include crimes punishable by not more than one year of confinement (whether it be in a state prison or a local jail).
Mislaid property
Property that the owner has intentionally and voluntarily put in a certain place and then forgotten about.
Misrepresentation
(1) A deceitful or fraudulent statement knowingly made to a person and resulting in monetary loss. (2) An incorrect statement.
Mission
A statement of an organization's purpose and reason for existence. See also Goal and Objective.
Mission-related
Pertaining to activities and tasks that directly support a company's reasons for being in business.
Mistake
Refers to a belief of the contracting parties that is not in accord with existing facts. It is also a legal defense used in certain circumstances when a defendant may negate the required element of criminal intent. For example, a person who mistakenly takes another person's coat, believing it to be his or her own, will not be guilty of theft.
Mixing box section
A component of the air filter section of an air handling unit in which air drawn from the building and air drawn from outdoors are mixed to create a uniform airstream prior to reaching the heating and cooling coils.
Mobile equipment
Bulldozers, farm machinery, forklifts, and other vehicles designed for use principally off public roads; vehicles maintained for use solely on or next to premises you own or rent; vehicles, whether self-propelled or maintained primarily to provide mobility to permanently mounted power cranes, shovels, loaders, diggers or drills, or road construction or resurfacing equipment such as graders, scrapers, or rollers.
Modeling systems
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drafting systems that store and retrieve graphic data with mathematical coordinates in three dimensions.
Modem
A communication device that translates computer signals into a format capable of being transmitted over telephone lines.
Modernization
Corrective measures taken to bring a property into conformity with changes in style, whether exterior or interior.
Modular carpet
See Carpet Tile.
Modular furniture
Furniture designed as a set of dimensionally standardized components; may be either freestanding components or systems furniture. See also Systems Furniture.
Molded-case circuit breakers
The most common breakers used in residential and commercial circuits; can be operated by thermal or magnetic forces.
Molecule
A substance composed of two or more atoms of the same element or a combination of many different elements.
Monitor
The cathode ray tube (CRT) screen on which software program information is electronically projected.
Monitoring
The gathering and storage of information and data (e.g., the status of HVAC equipment, facility electrical consumption and demand, indoor and outdoor temperatures).
Monitoring well
An arrangement of hollow piping constructed to provide ongoing surveillance and monitoring of groundwater and soil conditions.
Monoline policy
A policy containing only one type of coverage.
Monopolistic state
State where coverage can only be obtained from the state workers' compensation fund.
Monthly inventory control
The monthly checking of inventory records to determine discrepancies that may indicate a release from an underground storage tank system.
Monthly leak detection
Regulatory-required monitoring of an underground storage tank system to detect leaks manually or by other means such as interstitial monitoring, groundwater monitoring wells, and soil vapor monitoring.
Mopping
The application of bitumen when hot only by means of a mop or mechanical applicator to a substrate or to felts or a built-up roofing membrane.
Mopping outfit
A unit with casters and an handle that incorporates containers for detergent solution and rinse water with a wringer.
Moral hazard
A hazard involving the questionable character or integrity of an insured, which could lead to dubious or intentionally caused claims.
Morale hazard
A hazard resulting from carelessness or indifference on the part of an insured or its employees.
Mortgage
(1) A pledge of real estate to secure a debt through a written instrument given by a borrower (mortgagor) to the lender (mortgagee). (2) A legal instrument that grants a lien on real property to secure the performance of an obligation, usually the payment of debt.
Mortgage broker
A person or company who, for a fee, arranges a mortgage loan between a lender and borrower.
Mortgage equity analysis
A method used to determine capitalization rates. It relies on accurate market data, which takes into account that property is purchased, typically, with both equity and mortgage funds. Both buyer's and seller's interests are considered.
Mortgage loan
A loan using real estate as collateral. (2) A loan that is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust.
Mortgage note
A promissory note given by a borrower to a lender and secured by a mortgage upon real estate.
Mortgage underwriting
The process of judging whether to extend a mortgage loan to a borrower. Mortgage underwriting is both an analytical and subjective process involving analysis of the project and the borrower.
Mortgagee
The lender of funds who receives a mortgage on real property as security for a loan. (2) The creditor party, or grantee, under a mortgage in whose favor the mortgage is granted.
Mortgagor
The borrower of funds who gives a mortgage on real property as security for a loan. (2) The debtor party, or grantor, under a mortgage who grants the mortgage in favor of the lender.
Motivation vs hygiene factors
A theory of job satisfaction suggesting that typical work situations consist of both intrinsic factors (motivators that apply to the work itself) and extrinsic factors such as pay, security, and working conditions.
Motor efficiency
A comparison of the electric power input and the mechanical power output of a motor expressed as a percentage of the power input.
Motor Vehicle Report (MVR)
A report of driving records to ascertain whether drivers have a history of frequent accidents or violations.
Movable-aisle files
File shelving in cabinets that glide on floor-mounted tracks; the units can be stacked together to save space.
Moving walks and ramps
Similar to escalators, but operating as flat or slightly inclined surfaces.
Mulch
Organic material spread over soil to prevent the soil surface from drying out as rapidly as when it is exposed.
Mullion
A vertical member placed between frames of windows and doors.
Multiline companies
Insurers that generally provide diverse types of insurance over a broad spectrum of coverage lines.
Multimeter
An electric meter that combines the functions of an ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter in a single unit.
Multiple chemical sensitivity
A condition in which a person is considered sensitive to a number of chemicals at very low concentrations.
Multiplexing
The transmitting of several control signals simultaneously by time-sharing a single transmission channel or circuit.
Multitasking
The ability of an operating system to decide which task is most important at any given time, when several applications may be loaded in a computer's memory simultaneously.
Multithreading
An operating system's ability to divide computer instructions into subtasks or threads so that more tasks can be performed in smaller increments. See also Multitasking.
Multizone systems
A type of air circulatory system in which hot air and cold air are mixed in localized dampers at the air handling unit to maintain a desired temperature setting and then distributed to the space through a single duct.
Muntin
A horizontal or vertical glazing strip separating panes of glass in a sash.
Mutual benefit bailment
A bailment that benefits both the bailor and the bailee.
Mutual funds
One method of spreading risk in equity investments. These funds hold relatively large ownership blocks in many companies and professionally manage the funds entrusted to them.
Mutual waiver of subrogation clause
Provision stating that neither party will make claims against the other for negligently caused damage and that each party will collect from its own insurance company.



NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards. An EPA-promulgated air quality standard that defines the levels of a pollutant in weight per volume that should not be exceeded under ambient conditions.
Named insured
The person or business entity listed on the policy as being covered and with whom the insurance contract is made.
Nameplate data
A readily available source of pertinent motor operating data. No standard for nameplates exists, but most NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)-rated motors have a nameplate with basic information.
Narrative appraisal
An appraisal form that evaluates in detail the subject property and the sold comparable, as well as the city, state, and region where the property is located. These factors combine to support the appraiser's opinion of the subject property's value.
National adjusting firms
Independent nationwide adjusting companies who offer claims-handling services for a fee.
National Association Of Industrial And Office Properties (NAIOP)
An organization founded in 1967 that is involved in the development of industrial, office, and retail properties throughout the United States and Canada. Its main focus is on providing a resource for analyzing development projects, offering a variety of educational programs and dealing with government policies at the local, state, and national levels.
National council on compensation insurance
The authority that issues suggested workers' compensation rules rates based on compilations of losses from many insurance companies.
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
EPA Regulation 40 CFR 61 Subpart M.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
The organization that sets standards and codes for fire protection.
National priorities list
Composed of properties that have received the highest hazard ranking under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for cleanup and possible financing under Superfund.
National safety council
A group of private industries, municipalities, insurers, and others whose general purpose is to make available all types of safety-related information on a very wide scale.
Navigable waterways
U.S. waters subject to tidal action shoreward to the mean high-water mark that are presently used or may be used for interstate or foreign transport.
NC
Noise criterion curve.
Near-term
A time horizon of one to two years. Also referred to as mid-range.
NEC
National Electrical Code. In the United States, strict electrical codes and standards written to safeguard the health and safety of people from the hazards inherent in using electricity; published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), with direct references to the standards of various trade and professional groups.
Necessity
A legal defense that is similar to self-defense and duress because it excuses an otherwise criminal act when committed to avoid a greater harm.
Negative easement
An easement that restricts the grantor of the easement from using the grantor's land for a specific purpose, or in a manner that the owner would otherwise be entitled to.
Negligence
(1) Breach of a duty of care owed to a person and causing damages to such person. (2) Failing to act as a reasonable person should have acted under the same circumstances. A type of tort that is unintentional.
Negligent (unintentional) torts
Civil wrongs caused by acting in an unreasonable, careless, or imprudent fashion, or failing to act when action is reasonably indicated.
Neoprene
A synthetic rubber (polychlorophrene) used in fluid or sheet-applied elastomeric roofing membranes or flashing. See also Hypalon.
Net assignable area
The sum of the floor areas available for assignment to a program occupant. By definition this excludes custodial, circulation, mechanical, and construction areas.
Net benefit (NB)
A tool that identifies the difference between the lifetime dollar savings and lifetime dollars costs of a facility investment.
Net effective rent
A calculation of various adjustment factors applied to the face rate offer of a lease to determine the true rental rate of a lease.
Net lease
A lease that requires the lessee to pay all operating expenses of a property. Under a net lease, the landlord retains all of the rental income received from the property.
Net of commission
Issuance of insurance policies without any commission payable.
Net Operating Income (NOI)
Income that remains after deducting all fixed and operating expenses. NOI computation excludes debt service and all noncash items such as depreciation, amortization, etc.
Net Present Value (NPV)
The difference between the present value of capital outlays and the present value of all future cash flow benefits. If positive, it reflects a return on capital; if negative, not all capital has been returned. It is expressed as a dollar amount.
Net worth
The difference between the amounts of a company's assets and its liabilities.
Network
A system of transmitting data signals over cabling or electromagnetic waves that enables two or more computers to share data, retrieve and store files, and share operating programs and software applications.
Network operating system
A series of line protocols that link Local Area Network (LAN) adapters and computers and determine how data is transmitted between them.
Network services
Telecommunications services provided by local exchange carriers and long-distance carriers on their own lines and equipment.
Neutral or grounded conductor
The white conductor that carries the current back to the power source and has a ground potential.
Neutron
A component of an atom similar in size and mass to protons but electrically neutral.
Newton-meter
The meter equivalent of foot-pound (ft-lb); abbreviated N-m.
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association.
NIBS
National Institute of Building Sciences. A nongovernmental, nonprofit organization authorized by the U.S. Congress to encourage a more rational building regulatory environment and to accelerate the introduction of existing and new technology into the building process.
Night setback
The lowering of building temperatures during unoccupied periods, most often at nighttime.
NIOSH
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. NIOSH-established criteria are used for training, sample analysis, and the performance of research and studies relating to OSHA regulations.
NIST
National Institute for Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards). Accredits laboratories for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and bulk sample Polarized Light Misroscopy (PLM) analyses via the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP).
NMC
Nonmetallic Sheated Cable. Wiring system limited to residential and small commercial applications.
No loss/no gain
A health insurance provision stating that, when an employer decides to change insurance companies, the new insurer must provide benefits similar to those of the previous insurer for existing conditions. This protects employees from suddenly losing coverage for benefits that would have been provided by the prior insurer.
No-fault automobile insurance
A type of coverage mandated in certain states that requires drivers to collect from their own insurance companies for certain losses, without regard to fault.
No-filing rating method
Not really a rate-filing method at all, this is an attempt to let the free market function in a laissez-faire manner. The no-filing method means that competition between the various insurance companies will determine what rates they are able to get.
NOI
Net Operating Income. Income remaining after subtracting all qualified operating expenses from gross income. NOI is a standard measure of business performance.
Noise
In acoustics, unwanted sound; in telecommunications, electromagnetic interference (such as static) from an outside source.
Nominal damages
A small or trifling sum awarded to a plaintiff when a tort or breach of contract has been shown, but no actual damage or loss has been proven.
Nonasbestos
According to the EPA, materials that contain 1 percent or less asbestos; these materials are not regulated under the National Emission Stadards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).
Nonassessable
Free of further financial obligation beyond the original price.
Nonattributable costs
Costs that a facilities department must bear and cannot attribute to any other department.
Nonbureau insurers
Insurance companies that do not start with the bureau rates in order to determine their own premium levels. They may refer to the bureau rates as a general guide, but will usually develop their own rates.
Noncash expense
Depreciation; the systematic allocation, as an expense, of the original cost of a revenue-generating asset over an estimated useful life.
Noncombustible construction
Buildings constructed of metal or other nonburning materials.
Noncompetition covenant
An agreement between an employer and an employee stating that after the employment relationship has ended, the employee will not compete with the employer's business.
Nondiscretionary account
An account where the portfolio manager must seek approval from the plan sponsor before making acquisitions or dispositions, or granting approval of property operations, plans, or budgets.
Nondisturbance clause
Protects tenants from the foreclosing of their leases in the event of a foreclosure on the property; typically, tenants cannot be in default.
Nonelectrolyte
A solution that cannot conduct electricity.
Nonfreehold estates
These estates normally involve a duty on the part of the holder of the estate (tenant) to make periodic payment for the use of the land (rent). Nonfreehold estates are generally recognized as an estate for years, periodic tenancy, tenancy at will, or tenancy at sufferance.
Nonfriable asbestos
Asbestos-containing material that cannot be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.
Nonloadbearing wall
A wall that does not provide vertical support to other building elements, particularly roof or floor loads. See also Curtain Wall.
Nonowned auto liability insurance
Excess liability coverage to protect you against claims caused by others operating their vehicles on your behalf.
Nonowned disposal site coverage
Covers off-site bodily injury, property damage, or cleanup costs beyond a nonowned location, resulting from pollution originating from the nonowned location, as well as costs to clean up such pollution on, within, or under the nonowned location.
Nonowned watercraft liability coverage
Liability coverage for the operation of watercraft you do not own, usually when such craft are less than 50 feet in length and when they are not being operated for a fee.
Nonparticipating insurers
Insurance companies that do not allow the policyholders to participate in the overall experience of that company.
Nonperforming asset
Another name for Return on Equity (REO) property. Used by lenders when the REO property appears on the asset side of a lender's balance sheet. Typically, it produces little or no income for the lender and therefore is considered nonperforming.
Nonrecirculating hot water system
A type of service water heating distribution system using piping that moves water from the heater to building fixtures but not back again to the heater.
Nonrecourse loan
A loan for which the borrower is not personally liable.
Nonreversible heat pump
A heat pump that passes heat in only one direction.
Nonstandard companies
Insurance companies that provide coverage for risks that the standard companies cannot or will not write. Nonstandard risks are generally out of the ordinary or deemed overly hazardous for the standard companies.
Nonuniform lighting system
A system in which the placement of light fixtures is determined by the actual location of workstations and machinery, and the nature of the task to be accomplished.
Nosing
The portion of a stair tread projecting beyond the face of the riser immediately below it.
Notice of completion
A statement provided to a tenant stating the date of completed improvements.
Notice-type statute
A type of recording statute under which a subsequent grantee will prevail over a previous grantee as long as the subsequent grantee gives value for the conveyance and receives the deed without actual or constructive notice of the prior grant.
Novation
A three-party agreement whereby the original party is discharged from his or her obligations and a new party acquires the obligations. The result is that the old contract is terminated and the new contract, with the same content but with at least one different party, is created.
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Affects programs usually operated and enforced by state water pollution control agencies.
NPRM
Notice of Proposed Rule Making. An advisory published in the Federal Register to all affected industries of OSHA's intent to formulate a safety or health standard.
NRC
Noise reduction coefficient. A measure of the acoustic absorption qualities of a material.
NSPS
New Source Performance Standard. Regulates industrial sources of air pollution.
Nuisance
A type of damage involving conduct that unreasonably interferes with public or private rights.
NVLAP
National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory proficiency program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST).



O&M
Operation and maintenance of building systems.
O&M program
Operations and maintenance program. A formulated plan of training, cleaning, work practices, and surveillance to successfully manage a hazardous substance or situation.
Objective
A statement of how a corporate goal will be accomplished. An objective has a definable and measurable end result.
Oblique drawing
A method of portraying an object at true scale in two dimensions but at reduced scale in the third dimension, with no distortion of parallel lines and surfaces.
Occupancy date
The date on which the tenant takes occupancy of the space to conduct business.
Occupant representative
A person who represents the needs and interests of a department or other group of facilities customers to the facilities management department, typically while developing a project.
Occupational exposure
An OSHA-defined term meaning a reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties.
Occupational illness
Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.
Occupational injury
Any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that results from a work accident or from a single instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA)
A U.S. federal agency created by federal law in 1970 that affects the majority of U.S. employees by setting safety and health standards in the workplace and enforcing compliance.
Occupied replacement
The process of using special tools to jack-up in-place systems furniture panels to replace carpet, without dismantling furniture components.
Occurrence
An accident, which may involve a single exposure or continuous or repeated exposures to substantially the same general harmful conditions.
Occurrence trigger
An event that causes a claim even after a policy term ends, allowing the insured to report claims at any time during or after the policy term, provided that the event occurred during the policy term.
Odor threshold value
The minimum quantity of a gaseous material that can be detected by the olfactory organs.
Off-budget financing
Unplanned expenditures not requested during the normal budgeting process.
Offer
A communication of a promise that defines the terms of a proposed contract.
Offer and acceptance
A legal term describing how a bona fide offer to lease and acceptance of the offer can be binding in certain locales.
Offgassing
The evaporation of volatile solvents from building construction materials and furniture into the building air.
Offset
Two 45 degree conduit bends; used when conduit must bypass an obstacle or when making a connection into an enclosure.
Off-the-shelf
The standard, noncustomized version of a manufactured product. See also Customization.
Ohm
A unit of resistance to the flow of electrical current.
Ohmmeter
An electric meter that directly measures the resistance of an electrical component.
Ohm's law
A law expressing a definite quantifiable relationship among electromotive force (voltage), resistance (ohms), and current (amperes). Simply stated, a current of one ampere will flow when an emf of one volt is applied to a resistance of one ohm.
Oil absorbents
Granular materials of porous clays or minerals, able to absorb twice their weight in oil.
Oil Pollution Act Of 1990 (OPA)
U.S. federal environmental law relating to the safe handling of oil and prevention and cleanup of oil spills.
Oil/water separator
A concrete or steel structure located below ground level in areas with the potential for petroleum product leakage during a storm.
OLE
Object linking and embedding. A programming routine that permits documents generated in one program to be integrated into another document generated in another program. See also DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange).
Once-through system
A water system in which water is passed through the system only once, without any recirculation.
One-time cost
A cost incurred only once in the economic life of an asset. Also called nonrecurring cost.
On-line
Live access to data, as is the case when data is held in RAM.
On-the-job training
Training in which workers are shown how to perform their work on location and are required to demonstrate to the supervisor what they have learned.
Open circuit
The opposite of a short in a circuit; a circuit with an infinite resistance, resulting in no current flow.
Open market operations
Federal Reserve security transactions that have the effect of expanding and contracting the United States money supply and adjusting market interest rates.
Open plan
An approach to designing office workspace involving the use of very few full-height partitions and freestanding conventional or modular furniture.
Open plan offices
Spaces divided by movable partitions.
Open protocol
A nonproprietary (not owned by one vendor) means of exchanging and converting data from one format to another.
Open recirculating system
A water system in which water is continuously reused, and heat is removed through evaporation.
Open reflectors
Lamp fixtures that are typically industrial fixtures; can be used in utility and storage areas of commercial buildings.
Open-loop geothermal heat pump
A heat pump that uses the earth's groundwater as a heat source or heat sink.
Open-web steel joists
A system of trusses built up and welded together with bars or round rods. Ends are strengthened with vertical and horizontal plates and T-sections to act as bearing and gusset plates. Also called trussed joists or bar joists.
Operating agreement
An agreement that determines how a limited liability company will be managed and identifies the rights and responsibilities of the members, including any limitations on the transfer of ownership interests.
Operating budget
Financial plans for the expenditure of funds for anticipated needs during a fiscal year, such as for personnel, parts and materials, and most contracted services. Operating funds are supported by corporate income. Operating budgets are usually prepared for a period of one year or less. See also Capital Budget.
Operating expenses
Costs and expenses incurred by a landlord in operating and maintaining its building.
Operating funds
Corporate funding allocated from the annual operating budget for items that will have no residual asset value after the year in which they are purchased. In accounting terms, these items are expendable.
Operating lease
A term that refers to the normal landlord/tenant lease for space.
Operating system
Software written to control a computer's basic operations involved in accessing and processing data, especially to hard disks, memory, video display, and peripheral devices such as printers. See also Interface.
Operation
The series of acts that engage the systems in a building, turning the building "on."
Operations
In facilities management, those services that enable the facility to function on a daily basis, such as HVAC, security, housekeeping, and cleaning. See also Maintenance.
Operators
Officers, shareholders, partners, individuals, and successor corporations responsible for managing, operating, or leasing a property where hazardous materials were released, treated, or disposed.
Opportunity cost
The return or yield from alternative uses of capital that has been invested in a project.
Optical disk (CD-ROM)
A device used for very high-density storage of alphanumeric and graphic data.
Optimal start
Scheduling the start-up of HVAC equipment so that building temperatures reach desired levels just as occupancy occurs.
Option rights
Gives the lessee the right to extend his or her lease at a specified rate for an additional lease term.
Ordinance and law coverage
Coverage for a loss that results from the enforcement of any law governing the use, construction, repair, or demolition of buildings or other structures, including the removal of debris.
Ordinances
Laws generally passed by municipal legislative bodies and enacted into law by an approving executive body, depending on the municipality's charter.
Organic matter
Also called compost. Composed of decaying remains of plants and animals.
Orientation training
Introduces new workers to the job and provides an opportunity to instill basic work attitudes and procedures.
Origination fee
A fee charged by a lender for expenses incurred in the evaluation and documentation of a loan.
OS/2
An operating system developed by IBM that permits true multitasking with a minimal risk of total system failure.
OSHA
See Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
OSHA NO. 101
(Supplementary Record). The recordkeeping form (or its equivalent) on which additional information, such as how an accident or illness exposure occurred, is recorded for each injury and illness entered on the OSHA No. 200 log.
OSHA NO. 200
(Log and Summary). The recordkeeping form used to list and classify injuries and illnesses and to note the extent of each case; also serves as an annual summary.
Other-than-serious violation
An OSHA infraction that carries the lowest penalties and indicates a violation that was less than life threatening—such as the lack of a written program—and that the employer did not have previous knowledge of the health/safety standard violation.
Outbound service
Telecommunications services for calls from a company to other points outside the company. See also Inbound Service.
Outdoor parking facility
A parking lot that is open, single-level, and paved.
Out-of-pocket expense
The maximum dollar amount payable each year by the insured. Generally there is a maximum limit specified per person, with a higher maximum total specified for the whole family.
Output device
A monitor, printer, plotter, or audio speaker used to display or reproduce data or to copy it to hard copy.
Outside air contaminants
Include vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions, microbiologicals, and pollen.
Outsourcing
The provision of a bundle or full range of services by a third-party single contractor or a group of contractors. The term also implies that day-to-day management is provided by the vendor so that the facilities staff is responsible only for managing the vendor relationship and monitoring its performance.
Outtasking
The provision of individual services by a small service provider. These tend to be the kinds of recurring services offered by a full-scale facilities management department, such as housekeeping, security, and food service.
Out-tasking
A word coined to further define the area to be tasked to an outsource provider.
OVA
Organic vapor analyzer. A field screening instrument used to detect the presence of organic vapors, possibly indicating contamination before laboratory analysis begins.
Overall Capitalization Rate (OAR)
The measurement used when appraising income-producing real estate that looks at the marketplace and converts prices paid for properties into overall rates of capitalization.
Overall coefficient of heat transfer
The resistance to heat flow of all the materials in a building's envelope.
Overhead
Costs necessary to operate an organization that are not directly billable to a specific project.
Owner-Controlled Insurance Program (OCIP)
Plan used by property owners to control the insurance of their hired consultants and contractors, to ensure that adequate limits are available for their project.
Owners' spill liability coverage
Protects the property owner against liability claims arising out of spills that occur in the course of transit when a third-party vendor transports waste off the project site.
Ownership
The full array of rights that can attach to property.
Ownership objectives
The owner's goals which may be tied to real estate or non-real estate issues and may change according to market conditions. Asset managers must determine owner's objectives and formulate management plans to meet them.
Oxidizing filters
A type of filter that will oxidize iron and then filter it out, such as a manganese zeolite iron filter.
Oxygen-deficient atmosphere
An atmospheric concentration of less than 19.5 percent oxygen.
Oxygen-enriched atmosphere
An atmospheric concentration of more than 23.5 percent oxygen.
Ozalid
A method of reproducing drawings that results in a blue or black line against a white background. See also Blueprints.



Package loan
A mortgage loan that combines loans which would normally be separate, e.g., a construction loan packaged with the long-term financing for a project.
Package policy
A policy containing at least two different coverages, typically both property and liability coverages.
Packet-based technology
A method of signal transmission used for Ethernet, Token-Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) networks. A packet, or frame, is a message that contains the addresses of the sending station and the receiving station.
Paid loss amount
The amount that the insurance company has already paid with respect to a claim.
Paint
Various materials, usually liquids, that are applied to surfaces in thin layers and that change to a solid thin film over time.
Pane
A sheet of glass designed for use in a window. See Light and Glazing.
Panel
A component of modular furniture that may be either freestanding or one of several interlocking components, such as those used in systems furniture; frequently supports other components such as shelving, work surfaces, and drawer pedestals. See also Systems Furniture.
Panel wall
An external nonloadbearing wall with individual panels attached to the framing of the building.
Panels
Modular furniture sections used to define the limits of a workstations. Panels do not extend from floor to ceiling.
PAPR
Powered air purifying respirator. A respirator that mechanically filters air through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and distributes it through a face piece to the wearer's breathing zone.
Par value
A stated value or basis. One hundred percent of a price without premium or discount.
Parabolic lenses
Light lenses whose sidewalls resemble a parabola, a shape similar to the graph produced by an algebraic equation that plots the ideal light-dispersion pattern.
Parallax
The apparent convergence of parallel lines.
Parallel circuit
A circuit in which voltage is applied equally to all elements.
Parapet
A low wall around a roof; usually an upward extension of a building's exterior wall.
Parol evidence
Oral or verbal evidence.
Parol evidence rule
Specifies that parties to a written contract who intend the written contract to be the final statement of their agreement cannot introduce evidence of earlier agreements or others entered into at the same time to change the terms of the final contract.
Parquet flooring
A floor consisting of blocks of hardwoods of various sizes which can be laid in a number of patterns.
Part performance
A doctrine that allows the enforcement of an oral contract that ordinarily would be subject to the statute of frauds.
Partial release of mortgage
A mortgage covenant that provides for release of a portion of the pledged asset upon payment of a specified sum of money.
Participating insurers
Insurance companies that allow the policyholders to participate in the overall experience of that company. The participating companies may pay dividends to the policyholders if the experience of the company has been good.
Participation loan
An arrangement wherein two or more lenders share in providing funding for a loan and hold a joint interest in any collateral pledged to secure the loan.
Partition
A full-height wall that joins the suspended ceiling; typically constructed from wood or metal studs and gypsum board or other sheet material such as plywood. See also Screen and Panel.
Partitions
Inside floor-to-ceiling structures not otherwise meeting the criteria of walls. Partitions are movable or removable.
Partnering
An outsourcing technique in which a company establishes long-term relationships with a relatively small group of higher performance vendors.
Partnership
An association of two or more persons who are co-owners of a business for profit. (2) A business entity involving two or more individuals or business entities which jointly own or operate the business.
Parts Per Million (ppm)
A common basis of reporting water analysis in the United States and Canada. One ppm indicates 1 pound of material per million pounds of water.
Passenger elevators
Elevators used by people occupying, visiting, or working at a building.
Passive activities
An arbitrary classification for activity that includes most real estate investments. Income and losses from passive activities are classified as passive. Only passive income can be offset by passive losses.
Passive solar heating systems
Solar heating systems that capture and store heat from the sun's rays automatically, requiring little or no auxiliary equipment.
PAT
Proficiency Analytical Testing. A laboratory proficiency program for airborne fiber analyses by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) (and other industrial hygiene analyses) administered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and required by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) as part of its laboratory accreditation process.
Patch panels
Small panels used to connect trunk lines and lines to individual telephone instruments; usually located closer to localized telephone concentrations to minimize cable run lengths.
Path statement
The instructions that enable the computer to locate, retrieve, and store every file; typically includes the drive letter, directory name, and file name.
Payback period
The time required for the money saved and/or the income generated by a project or product to equal its initial investment cost; determined as part of a life-cycle cost analysis.
PBX
Private branch exchange. A larger and more feature-rich telephone system than either hybrid or key systems. A single PBX can be economical for as few as 50 people or as many as 20,000.
PC
Personal computer. A computer designed for use by an individual; also referred to as a desktop computer. Most often, used to describe a microcomputer based on system architecture developed by IBM.
PCBs
See Polychlorinated Biphenyl.
PCM
Phase contrast microscopy. An optical microscope method, which does not distinguish fiber types, used in conjunction with asbestos air sampling to count the number of fibers present.
PCMCIA Slots
Slots in Personal Computers (PCs) and laptops into which miniaturized peripheral devices — such as Random Access Memory (RAM) cards, modems, and font cards — can be inserted.
Peak demand
The maximum level of demand for electrical service in a building during a given interval (usually fifteen to sixty minutes).
Peak exposures
A maximum concentration of an airborne toxic substance above a ceiling concentration in the workplace that should never be exceeded. Issued for only those OSHA-regulated substances listed in Table Z-2 of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards.
Peak flow
The maximum amount of water that would result from a certain design storm. Usually based on the rainfall-duration-intensity relationship of a certain design storm and used when planning a stormwater system.
Peer-to-peer
A configuration in which any Personal Computer (PC) may act as a file server or as a client of another PC.
Pel
Permissible exposure limit. The maximum concentration of a toxic substance in the workplace that should never be exceeded during an eight-hour work shift, as determined by averaging the exposures measured throughout eight hours.
Pendant-mounted
In reference to light fixtures, suspended on a thin metal pole attached to the ceiling.
Pension fund
A trust formed for the purpose of providing retirement income for its participants. Such funds are subject to the provisions of Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).
Pentium
The fifth generation of Personal Computer (PC) processing chips developed by Intel, Inc.
People, process, and place
A three-part model developed by the Facility Management Institute to describe the basic nature of facilities management. People are the end users, space occupants, visitors, and others who occupy the space; process represents work processes that occur in the space, namely, pedestrian and vehicular movement, work, and paper flow; and place is the physical infrastructure of a building and how it supports employees' work.
Percentage lease
A lease in which the landlord is fully or partially compensated for rent by a percentage of the tenant's sales.
Percentage rent
Rent that is usually based upon a percentage of the gross sales or revenue of the tenant. The percentage rent may be paid monthly, quarterly, or annually.
Perennial
A bedding plant that, once established, reappears each year.
Perfection
The action taken by a secured party under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code to give public notice of its security interest in personal property and to prioritize such security interest over the claims of certain other parties who acquire an interest in such property.
Performance
In human performance, the efficiency and effectiveness with which people perform their jobs; in facilities or buildings, the efficiency and effectiveness of performance as a corporate asset that supports corporate strategic objectives and mission.
Performance specification
A document in which results are described precisely but methods to achieve them are left to the discretion of the contractor.
Period of restoration
The shutdown period for a business following a loss, during which time business income insurance will pay for gross income and continuing expenses losses that are incurred by the insured while business is interrupted.
Peripherals
Devices outside the Central Processing Unit (CPU) — such as printers, scanners, keyboards, and a mouse — through which data is input, stored, or output.
Perjury
A criminal offense consisting of making willful false statements under oath in a judicial proceeding.
Perlite
A material used for its insulating characteristics in lightweight insulating concrete and in preformed insulating board, or blown loose into vacant spaces between structural members. Perlite is formed by heating and expanding volcanic glass. See also Vermiculite.
Permanent closure
Decommissioning an existing underground storage tank system by completely removing the tank and associated piping from the ground or by selecting abandonment.
Permanent loan
Long-term financing for improved real estate.
Permeance
The index of a material's resistance to water-vapor transmission. (Often shortened to Perm.)
Permit-required confined space
A confined space that is known or suspected of posing an atmospheric or serious physical (safety) hazard.
Personal contract
A unique contract based on the characteristics, operations, reputation, and loss history of each particular policyholder.
Personal injury
Allegations of such offenses as false arrest, malicious prosecution, invasion of privacy, wrongful eviction, and libel and slander.
Personal jurisdiction
The authority of a court to subject a particular defendant to its decision.
Personal property
All property that is not permanently attached to real property, including cash, movable equipment, vehicles, paintings, contracts, patents, and trademarks.
Personal protective equipment
Clothing, devices, or equipment worn by an employee to protect against a hazard.
Personal samples
Samples taken to measure a worker's level of exposure to a substance such as asbestos and to verify the effectiveness of exposure controls; considers worker movement and activity over an eight-hour workday.
Perspective drawing
A method of portraying an object that most closely approximates the way our eyes see it, with parallel lines and surfaces appearing to converge at one or more distant points.
Pert chart
A chart that illustrates the interrelationships of tasks over time, how individual tasks or steps affect each other, and how a change in one task will affect several others. See also Gantt Chart and Critical Path Chart.
Peter principle
A well-known problem in personnel management — promoting someone beyond his or her level of competence.
Ph
A measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Phantom gain
Gain resulting from the forgiveness of debt.
Phase i environmental report
A report that identifies and analyzes either an existing or an alleged environmental problem at a property.
Phase i site assessment
(1) The preliminary phase of an environmental assessment that focuses on identifying possible contamination from historical and current uses of a site. (2) A study of the environmental characteristics of a property that is conducted by an environmental professional and includes a records review, site reconnaissance, interviews with facility personnel, and preparation of a report.
Phase ii site assessment
The subsurface or intrusive phase of an environmental assessment, which uses research, sampling, and analysis to determine whether the suspected sources or locations are contaminated.
Phase iii site assessment
The final phase of the environmental assessment, which focuses on defining the extent of contamination, evaluating remedial action alternatives, designing remedial action, and cleanup.
Phase rotation
The rotation of the phases in a three-phase electrical system. The direction of rotation of a three-phase motor can be changed by interchanging any two of the three supply wires, thus reversing the phase rotation.
Phased application
The practice of applying felt plies of built-up roofing membrane in two or more operations, separated by a delay normally of at least one day.
Photovoltaic cells or solar cells
Cells in which special grades of semiconductor materials such as silicon are used to convert light (electromagnetic radiation) into electricity.
Physical infrastructure
The parts of a building that include the land, individual structures, occupant or tenant spaces, and individual workstations and offices, utilities, energy, and telecommunications equipment.
PID
Photoionization detector. A field screening device used to detect possible contamination prior to laboratory analysis.
Pigment
The component that provides color in a paint and helps hide and protect the surface.
Pilasters
Rectangular supports treated architecturally as columns.
Piles
The supporting members of a foundation driven or poured into the soil to transmit the weight of the building superstructure to and any other loads to underlying strata of soil or rock. They furnish support without objectionable settlement.
Pitch pocket
A flanged, metal container placed around a pipe, conduit, or other roof-penetrating element and filled with bitumen or flashing cement to seal the joint.
Pitting
A cavity in a metal surface resulting from localized corrosion and eventually leading to leaks in the system.
Plain concrete
A field definition applicable only in some parts of the U.S. Consists of 3,000 psi (20,685 kPa) portland cement and stone or granite aggregate. Used for sidewalks, driveways, parking lots, etc., where reinforcing is not necessary.
Plan sponsor
A private or public pension fund. The portfolio manager sometimes refers to the plan sponsor as a "client."
Plank flooring
The oldest type of wood floor. Usually 25/32 in. (2.0 cm) thick, it is generally available in random widths. Oak is customarily used.
Planned replacement
An advance plan to replace major components or elements of operating systems or building construction.
Plans
Refers to architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing drawings, and other specialty trade drawings.
Plaster
A pasty mixture of lime, sand, and water, hard when dry, for coating walls, ceilings, and partitions.
Plastic cement
See Flashing Cement.
Plastic conduit
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastic conduit used in place of Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT). Because plastic is a nonconductor, a separate grounding wire must be included in the installation to ensure a continuous ground.
Plastic flow
The tendency of a material to deform under pressure, including the pressure of its own weight.
Platform
A particular combination of computer hardware and operating system software; based on the type of chip used.
Pleadings
Documents that are filed with the court in a legal proceeding.
Plenum
The space between acoustic tile in a suspended ceiling and the underside of the floor above.
PLL
See Pollution Legal Liability Insurance.
PLM
Polarized light microscopy. A light microscope method used to analyze bulk samples of suspect asbestos-containing material.
Plotter
An output device used for printing large documents such as construction drawings.
Plug load
The total electrical demand from appliances plugged into conventional wall and raceway outlets.
Ply
An individual layer of felt in a built-up roofing membrane; a four-ply membrane has at least four plies of felt at any cross section cut through the membrane.
Pneumatic
Pertains to the use of compressed air to operate valves and other devices.
Pneumatic control system
A system that uses compressed air signals to monitor and control mechanical equipment.
POE
Post-occupancy evaluation. A survey taken after project completion to assess end users' level of satisfaction with the various aspects of the new working environment, as well as to obtain their feedback on the relocation process.
Point of demarcation
The point up to which the local exchange carrier is responsible for the performance and testing of telecommunications system circuits. From this point on, the customer is responsible for identifying the cause of any problems.
Point-of-use hot water system
A type of service water heating distribution system using individual automatic storage or instantaneous type heaters at numerous locations throughout a building.
Points
Payment made to a lender at the time a loan is made, measured as a percentage of the loan, with each point equal to 1 percent of the principal amount, as an additional inducement for the lender to make the loan.
Poke-through wiring
Conduits run on the underside of a slab and poked through (core drilled) to the slab above for outlets.
Police power
The right of government to regulate the use of private property in the interest of public welfare, safety, health, and morality.
Policies
General statements of objectives that property management companies use in their standard operating procedure manuals. Designed to remain unchanged for a long period of time.
Policy expiration date
The date at which coverage terminates.
Policy inception date
The date at which coverage starts.
Policy reinstatement
Making a policy in effect again once it has been canceled.
Pollution exclusion
Provision in many standard insurance contracts that eliminates coverage for injuries or damages caused by pollutants.
Pollution Legal Liability (PLL) insurance
The first environmental insurance policy. Covers pollution emanating from a covered facility resulting in bodily injury, property damage, and cleanup costs. PLL also covers liability resulting from onsite contamination for third-party bodily injury, third-party property damage, or related cleanup costs.
Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)
A fire-resistant carcinogen, once commonly used as a coolant in electrical transformers, that can be released by leaks, spills, or fire. Also used in heat transfer, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and light ballasts. Toxic by skin contact and inhalation.
Polyurethane compound
A mixture containing any of various polymers used in flexible elastomers and resins as seals around window panes. See also Thermal Break.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
A plastic material highly resistant to corrosives, nonconductive and heat resistant, often used for piping and insulation and as insulating spacers in thermal barrier windows and curtain walls. See also Thermal Break.
Ponding
The pooling of rainwater in a roof depression; also called bird baths.
Pooled fund
A fund with many different types of investors. May be either open-ended or closed-ended. Values of the portfolios range from two million to five billion dollars.
POP
Point of presence. The point at which a local telephone system connects to a long-distance carrier's network.
Port circuit packs
Telecommunications system cards (circuit boards) installed in the system to allow telephones, trunks, announcement devices, etc., to be connected.
Portable document
A file that can be carried from one computer or platform to another without losing any of its graphics, formatting, or style.
Portfolio manager
A member of an asset management company who is in charge of handling pension-fund accounts and monitoring their investments. Works closely with the asset manager and directly interfaces with the property owner to make recommendations for property operations that will carry out the owner's goals and objectives.
Portland cement
A kind of cement that hardens under water, made by burning a mixture of limestone and clay or similar materials. So named because of the resemblance of the concrete made from it to stone quarried on the Isle of Portland, England.
Ports
In telecommunications systems, the connection points on a port circuit pack. In computers in general, the sockets on the Central Processing Unit (CPU) into which peripheral device cables are plugged.
Positioning
The strategy of aligning the rationale for a project with the strategic business needs of a company.
Positive displacement screw compressor
A compressor that uses meshing male and female helical rotors to reduce refrigerant volume.
Possession
The exercise of dominion or control over property.
Post-audit letter
Formal letter prepared by auditor after completion of the audit and exit interview, detailing particular audit points.
Posting
Placing the annual summary of occupational injuries and illnesses at each U.S. establishment from February 1 to March 1 to provide employees with the record of their establishment's injury and illness experience for the previous calendar year.
Posttensioned concrete
A type of concrete unit made by using wire or cable externally or internally. The wire or cable is tensioned to provide compressive stress to the concrete member after the concrete has hardened.
Potential
The force required to move electrons through a conducting medium; determines the quantity of electrons or current flowing through a specific conductor or device. Also known as voltage (V) or electromotive force (emf).
Potential energy
The energy stored in a system by reason of the position of its parts or the attractive forces existing among its molecules and atoms.
Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI)
A measure of pressure expressed in pounds of force exerted on a square surface area measuring one inch by one inch. In SI, most pressures are expressed in kilopascals (kPa).
POWER
The rate at which work is accomplished — the rate of energy consumption, symbolized by P.
Power and communications plan
An architectural construction drawing that shows the location, height, and orientation of all new power, telephone, and communications outlets, as well as existing outlets.
Power factor
The ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (kVA) expressed as a decimal or as a percentage. If an electric appliance has a high power factor (i.e., close to 1), it requires relatively little reactive power as compared to real power. Conversely, if an electric appliance has a low power factor (i.e., close to 0), it requires a relatively large amount of reactive power as compared to real power. A low power factor appliance uses valuable utility production capacity, requiring the utility to put additional investment into generation, transmission, and distribution facilities.
Power factor correction capacitors
Devices installed in distribution systems to eliminate the problems associated with low power factors and the resulting utility-imposed penalty charges.
Power factor penalty charge
The utility company's charge to customers who operate equipment with low power factors.
Power poles
Poles suspended from a ceiling that supply electricity via cabling run through the poles.
Power, data, and telephone plan
An engineering construction drawing that shows all outlets and circuitry.
PR
Proposed regulation. A draft of a standard that is published in the Federal Register so that all affected industries can submit comments.
Preaction system
A fire-suppression system in which smoke detectors are connected to fire alarms that signal the sprinkler pipes to fill with water.
Preaudit interview
The time when an auditor meets with the entire management and accounting staff of the company to be audited. At this interview, the auditor brings up issues of concern and establishes a good working relationship with the staff.
Preaudit letter
Establishes the date, location, and subject of an audit.
Prebid or preproposal conference
A meeting held before bids or proposals are submitted to brief prospective contractors on requirements for an upcoming contract.
Precast concrete
Standardized concrete units cast and hardened in precasting yards under controlled conditions and then shipped to the construction site.
Preexisting condition
A provision in health insurance that may exclude any claim arising from a current or prior medical condition for a certain period of time, usually one year. As an alternative, a dollar limit may be placed upon future claims arising from the preexisting condition.
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)
Health plans in which certain doctors and hospitals have agreed to participate. They are marketed to employer groups, and fees charged are usually reduced in anticipation of receiving additional patients.
Preferred stock
Stock that may have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of assets.
Pregnancy covered as any other illness
A provision in federal regulation that requires employers of fifteen or more employees to provide coverage for pregnancy-related expenses as they would for any other covered health claim. Such coverage for firms smaller than fifteen employees is optional for those employers.
Preliminary motions
Motions that are usually filed before the defendant's answer to a complaint and may raise defenses such as lack of jurisdiction over the person, improper venue, or insufficiency of service of process.
Preliminary pricing plan
Shows the detail required to develop realistic estimates, determines the general construction and installation costs associated with the build-out, and is based on the final space plan and notes that describe the level of build-out.
Preliminary project budget
Developed on the basis of preliminary drawings; based on either similar past project costs per square foot or industry-standard pricing adjusted for the type of construction, location, season, and other factors that impact the average numbers.
Preliminary Report (PR)
A report generated by a title company that shows liens and other encumbrances against a property. A PR is the first examination of a title that a company provides. A more comprehensive examination is completed prior to the title company providing a title commitment.
Premises liability
Tort liability of owners and possessors of land (such as tenants) to other persons who suffer losses or injuries on or off the land that are caused by some act on the land or some condition there.
Premises medical payments coverage
No-fault coverage for an injured person's medical expenses arising out of an accident. This accident must occur on the insured's premises or next to it, or be due to the operations conducted by the insured.
Premium
An amount over and above the face value or stated price.
Premium discount
A discount on workers' compensation policies based on the size of the premium.
Premium finance company
A company that finances the payment of an insurance premium over an extended period of time.
Prepayment
Payment of the principal amount of a loan prior to maturity of the loan.
Prepayment penalty
A fee charged by a lender to a borrower for the privilege of paying a loan prior to its scheduled maturity.
Prescriptive specification
A document that specifies exact results and the methods used to achieve them. See also Performance Specification.
Present covenants
Covenants of title that are representations as to the status of title at the time of the conveyance.
Present Value (PV)
The discounted value of a stream of future cash flows, computed at a specified rate of return.
Prestige cleaning
Regula
14 Dec 2009
16:05:29
Braun

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